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Climate Change and Tourism

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Title: Climate Change and Tourism


1
Climate Change and Tourism
  • David Harrison
  • School of Tourism and Hospitality Management
  • 14th May 2009

2
Overview
  • Why should we worry?
  • Tourism Issues
  • supply side
  • demand side
  • 3. Adaptation?

3
September 22, 2006 Mass tourism and climate
change could lead to destruction of world's
wonders By Martin Hickman
  • SE Spain to harbour malaria
  • Everglades, Florida increased frequency of
    hurricanes
  • Maldives most of it to be submerged
  • Cologne Cathedral, Germany ruined by vehicle
    pollution
  • Great Barrier Reef at risk because of cruise
    ships
  • Goa, India increased numbers of cyclones
  • Athens, Greece rise in summer temperatures to 40
    degrees centigrade
  • Crete, Greece desertification
  • Tuscany, Italy unbearable heat and more deaths
  • UK and Germany by 2080, climate better than in
    Mediterranean

4
Why should we worry?
  • In some cases, a significant rise in sea level
    will mean the disappearance of islands, e.g.
    Tuvalu.
  • There are general costs to the entire population
  • There are specific problems concerning tourism

5
Costs of climate change to Pacific Islands
1950-2004
No. Reported fatalities Population affected Reported losses US m
Windstorms 157 1.380 2,496,808 5,903.9
Droughts 10 0 629,580 137.0
Floods 8 40 246,644 94.8
Earthquakes 17 53 22,254 330.6
Others 15 274 21,520 60.0

Melanesia 110 1,130 2,115,332 1,654
Polynesia 71 494 1,041,012 1,797.4
Micronesia 26 123 260,662 3,074.0
6,526.3
Total Pacific 207 1,747 3,417,006

Source Becken, 2007
6
TOURISM ISSUES
  • Pacific islands are highly dependent on the sea
    and marine resources, including tourism.
  • tourism is a key driver of development throughout
    the region. By 2010 could be contributing US 2
    billion to the region.
  • especially important in Fiji 40 of regions
    tourists 37 of all exports 30 of GDP 45,000
    jobs.
  • important for other island states (Cook Islands,
    Samoa) and great potential for others
  • At same time, because of their limited resources,
    island states can be dependent on tourism. If it
    is threatened.

7
SUPPLY SIDE
  • air travel contributes to CO2 emissions
    especially long-haul journeys (over 3000 km) -
    and many tourists to Fiji are long-haul!
  • Within the destination, too, more CO2 emissions
    occur

Source Becken, 2007
8
  • IMPACT ON NATURAL RESOURCES
  • Increases in number and intensity of tropical
    cyclones lead to coastal erosion from storm
    surges, waves, etc. This affects the tourist
    product by threatening investment and damaging
    natural attractions

Inter-Continental at Natadola, Fiji 240 million
plus investment
9
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10
Impact on coral reefs
Increased temperature increased stress on
reef coral bleaching possible disease and/or
death of corals Loss of attraction
11
Demand side
  • tourism is safety-sensitive
  • publicity and subsequent decline in demand
  • e.g. Nadi floods of January 2009.
  • insurance claims increase costs of holidays for
    supplier and tourist.

12
  • Competition is wide not just islands!
  • Currently, other islands Mauritius, Seychelles,
    SE Asia.. What will happen to them with global
    warming?
  • Later? newly-warmed Northern hemisphere
    destinations, e.g. UK? New sun, sea and sand
    destinations?

13
Answers? adaptation greater focus on
sustainability stakeholder co-operation
14
carbon-neutral buildings.
Source Becken 2007
but seriously
15
In-house initiatives
International Hotel Environment
Initiative Environmentally-friendly disposal of
waste water, solid waste and garbage Water
conservation, storage and flood controls Is
there any recycling? Use of solar
power? Assistance to villages and other
residents? How much of this is a society-wide
problem?
16
Sea walls an example from Fiji Coral Coast
17
Protecting coral reefs
  • Marine Protected Areas and National Coral Reef
    Action Strategy
  • Control of pollution
  • No anchoring of boats
  • Dive instructor education
  • Tourist education and supervision
  • Coral replanting
  • reef walking ????
  • shark and fish-feeding?

18
  • Stakeholder co-operation
  • increased awareness for locals and tourists
    (bring interpretation into the product)
  • institutional co-operation (not just SPREP,
    UNEP, SOPAC, SPC etc) to include hotels and other
    services.
  • What is the tourism industry doing now?

19
To conclude
  • Islands are especially vulnerable to climate
    change
  • Travel and tourism are both a cause of effect of
    climate change
  • Climate change has implications for both the
    demand and supply side
  • Small islands can perhaps do little about
    prevention (?) but can do something (thus
    improving their product) and can adapt.
  • Tourism could lead the way but cannot do it on
    its own!

20
REFERENCES
  • Becken, S. and Hay, J.E. (2007) Tourism and
    Climate Change Risks and Opportunities.
    Clevedon Channel View.
  • Hall, C.M. and Higham, J. (eds. (2005 Tourism,
    Recreation and Climate Change. Clevedon Channel
    View.
  • UNWTO (2007) Climate Change and Tourism
    Responding to Global Challenges. Advanced
    Summary, October 2007. Madrid UNWTO
  • Viner, D. ed. (2006) Special Issue Tourism and
    Climate Change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.
    14 (4)
  • Wall, G. and Badke, C. (1994) Tourism and
    Climate Change an international perspective.
    Journal of Sustainable Tourism 2 (4) 193-203.

21
vinaka vakalevu
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