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Critical Incidents Cross Cultural Eductaion


Critical Incidents Cross Cultural Eductaion John Yasenchak, ED.D . References Kenneth, T. (2002). A critical analysis of the multicultural competencies: Implications ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Critical Incidents Cross Cultural Eductaion

Critical Incidents Cross Cultural Eductaion
  • John Yasenchak, ED.D .

(No Transcript)
Key Concepts
The Danger of a Single StoryTed Talks
A Definition of Culture
  • A broad definition of cultural identity implies
    the sum total of ways of living developed by a
    group of people to meet needs (physical, mental,
    emotional, and spiritual).
  • Culture includes values, beliefs, norms,
    attitudes, folkways, and behaviors that are
    linked together as an integrated whole for the
    preservation of the community.

Culture Provides Context
  • Goal setting, decisions, problem solving
  • Explanation and definition of social roles
  • View about nature, human nature, truth, time
    orientation, space and property
  • Meaning of the individual and community
  • Definitions about health and illness

  • Culture defines reality for each of us, most of
    the time without our awareness
  • We interpret each others behavior through
    culturally learned assumptions
  • Behaviors have meaning only within a cultural

Other Concepts
  • Racial identity a persons sense of self based
    on physical characteristics and genetic origins
  • Ethnic identity - a persons sense of identity
    based on a groups social and cultural heritage
  • Worldview assumptions, beliefs, and attitudes
    that individuals and groups hold about the world
  • These terms act as mediating variables between
    cultural systems and behaviors.

Euro-American Values and Implicit Assumptions in
  • Fixed definition of normal
  • Importance of the individual
  • Primacy of linear thinking
  • Encapsulated profesional boundaries
  • Importance of abstract jargon
  • Pathology of dependence
  • Irrelevance of historical tradition
  • Absence of racism in ourselves
  • Pederson, 1994

The Culturally Encapsulated Counselor Revisited!
  • Our assumptions become more important than the
    experience of reality
  • Minimizes cultural differences assuming ours is
    the real one
  • Dependence upon techniques and quick solutions to
    complex problems
  • Does not attend to counselors own cultural
  • Wren, C.G. 1985

New interest is due to
  • Demographic shifts
  • Increased visibility of minority groups
  • Affirmative Action Programs
  • Bilingual education
  • Incentives
  • Heightened group consciousness

Cultural Competency
  • .a process that involves engaging in an honest
    exploration of ones experience of racial and
    cultural reality. Such a process may not
    necessarily arrive at an end point rather, it
    requires a daily choice to engage issues of race
    and culture externally and internally. Choosing
    to participate in this approach necessarily
    involves openness to personal growth and change.
    (Collins Pieterse, 2007)

Active Cultural Awareness
  • active racial/cultural awareness (is) an
    ongoing choice to engage in a process of
    grappling honestly and openly with the
    racial/cultural realities of daily life
    experiences intentionally bringing to
    consciousness thoughts and feelings that were
    previously denied, ignored, or unseen (Collins
    Pieterse, 2007)

How Do We Practice in a Multicultural Environment?
  • Focus on retention counselor credibility
    (ascribed and achieved) and gifting as
    predictors of success
  • Focus on Cultural Knowledge
  • Focus on Cultural and Technique
  • Focus on Cultural Competencies and Cultural

Multicultural Competencies
  • The Association for Multiculturalism in
    Counseling and Development established guideless
    focused on
  • Multicultural Knowledge
  • Multicultural Skills
  • Multicultural Awareness

Critical Incidents
  • Empirical research in counselor education and
    supervision has often focused on cognitive
    changes and skill development.
  • Change, however, also occurs on a personal and
    interpersonal level

  • observable human activity that is
    sufficiently complete in itself to permit
    inferences to be made about the person performing
    the act (Flanagan, 1954)

Two Main Components

Definitions of Critical Incidents
  • A positive or negative experience recognized by
    (counseling) students because of its meaningful
  • A meaningful emotional or behavioral experience
    that impacts the supervisee.
  • Focus is on the events that serve as a catalyst
  • Occurs in a naturalistic setting
  • May impact perceptions of effectiveness and

  • A reflective analysis of cross-cultural critical
    incidents in counselor education and training can
    help to create both a conceptual and felt
    framework that recognizes the diversity of our
    society while at the same time search for
    bridges of shared concern

Elements of CIABT Critical Incident Analysis
Based Training(Collins Pieterse, 2007)
  • Acknowledgement involves risk something
    happened here
  • Confrontation agreement to look at the
    incident disclosure of experience in safety
  • Reflection movement toward understanding that
    results in exploration of alternative reactions
    and choice
  • Commitment acknowledging the process,
    appreciation of the learning moment, and more
    freedom of choice.

  • Universal versus Particular variables
  • Restriction to only a few groups
  • Critical examination of racism, sexism,
    homophobia, economic oppression, etc.
  • Models for understanding client-therapist
  • Models for integrating clinically useful
    information for understanding distress

  • Models that focus on universal factors risk
    missing the unique variables associated with a
    particular culture.
  • However, models focused solely on diversity
    runs the risk of ignoring the similar
    predicaments of racism, subordination, economic
    exploitation and injustice shared by various

A holding environment for Dialogue About
Critical Incidents
  • Inclusion of variables such as gender, economics,
    racism, homophobia, religion, spirituality,
    geographics, political identities
  • Examination and inclusion of culturally-based
    healing practices
  • Inclusion of so-called whites into the
    multicultural model.

MCT Propositions
  • Each Western or non-Western theory represents a
    particular world view
  • The complexity of the client-counselor
    relationship and the changing context must be a
  • The counselors cultural/racial background will
    influence how problems are defined, how histories
    are written, and how goals are established.

  • The ultimate goal of culture-centered approach is
    to expand available resources
  • Conventional roles of counseling are only some of
    the available ways of helping within a cultural
  • MCT emphasizes expansion of personal, family,
    group, and organizational consciousness in
  • Sue, D.W.,
    Ivey, Pedersen, (1996)


What is a Theory?
  • A theory is defined as a principle or body of
    interrelated principles that purports to explain
    or predict a number of interrelated phenomena
  • The APA Dictionary of Psychology

Historical Waves
  • Psychodynamic ( eg., analysis, Adlerian, etc)
  • Learning (eg., behavioral, cognitive-behavioral,
  • Humanistic ( person-centered, gestalt,
    existential, etc)
  • Feminist and Multicultural Theories
  • Postmodern and Constructivist Theories
  • Jordan

Relational-Cultural Theory
  • RCT therapy depends more an on attitude of
    mutual engagement than on specific techniques or
    interventions. RCT therapy offers clients radical
    respect and a deep appreciation of their
    suffering as well as the ways thy have learned to
    survive when important relationships have been
    hurtful. RCT therapy views isolation and chronic
    disconnection as the cause of much suffering that
    brings clients into treatment (Jordan, 2010)

  • A connection is a relationship between two or
    more people that is
  • Mutually empathic
  • Mutually empowering

  • Mainstream Western theories describe development
    as moving from dependence toward independence
  • Many developmental models are hierarchical,
    moving from lower stages toward higher stages
  • The development of the separate self is

Core belief in a Separate Self
  • Autonomy, individuation, self-boundaries,
    separation, and increasing logical and abstract
    thought are markers of maturity
  • Self (as a construct) is seen as occupying a
    particular space and having a center with a
    protective wall (self-protection and
  • Self is encouraged to be mobile and not
    restrained by community
  • Self-sufficient, maturity is marked by an
    underlying competitive edge that is seen as a
    route to safety and identity

  • .achieving the cultural goal of independence
    requires construction of oneself as an individual
    whose behavior is organized and made meaningful
    by reference to ones own internal repertoire of
    thoughts, feelings and actions.
  • Markus and Kitayama (1991)

Mental Disorder
  • .a clinically significant behavioral or
    psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in
    an individual and that is associated with present
    distress (e.g., painful symptoms) or disability
    (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas
    of functioning) or with a significantly increased
    risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an
    important loss of freedom. In addition, this
    syndrome or pattern must not be merely an
    expectable and culturally sanctioned response to
    a particular event, for example the death of a
    loved one. Whatever its original cause, it must
    currently be considered a manifestation of a
    behavioral, psychological, or biological
    dysfunction in the individual. Neither deviant
    behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual)
    not conflicts that are primarily between the
    individual and society are mental disorders
    unless the deviance or conflict is a symptom of a
    dysfunction in the individual.

RCT Assumptions
  • Development occurs both through and toward
    connection, and is based on inevitable
    interdependence throughout the lifespan.
  • Isolation is the major source of suffering for
    people both individually and culturally
  • The sociopolitical forces of disconnection that
    create pain for people must be considered.
  • Development is a function of increasing levels of
    relational complexity and an increasing capacity
    for mutual empathy (rather than fixed
    hierarchical stages)
  • People are neurologically hardwired for
    connection (mirror neurons, neuroplasticity, etc)

  • Jordan (2010)

Central Relational Paradox
  • Even in the face of repeated disconnections,
    people will desire more connection
  • But the fear of connection keeps aspects of self
    out of connection
  • Individuals will adopt strategies of survival
    to adapt to expectations, losing authenticity
    in relationship.

  • Acute the other is not there or may be in a
    harmful way. One person misunderstands,
    humiliates, invalidates, excludes, or injures the
    other. Occur frequently but can be addressed
  • Chronic less powerful person is prevented from
    representing the hurt and reacts shame feeling
    not-seen and disempowered, twists in order to
    fit in. If repeated, becomes a chronic pattern.

  • Condemned Isolation feeling of isolation and
    aloneness that leaves one shut out of human
    community. (Jean Baker Miller)
  • Traumatic Disconnection person cannot come back
    due to heightened sense of danger danger may
    follow closeness

Condemned Isolation
  • Feelings of unworthiness, aloneness
  • Feeling that I am to blame for my unworthiness
    and powerlessness
  • There is something intrinsically wrong with me
  • I will not risk vulnerability even though I want
    to be close because I am terrified of getting
    hurt again
  • I may develop strategies of disconnection,
    keeping parts of myself safe.

  • .when an injured person, particularly one who
    has less power, can represent her or his
    experience of disconnection or pain to the more
    powerful person and be responded to, with
    interest or concern, the less powerful person has
    a sense of mattering, of having an effect on the
    other (Jordan, 2010)

  • . Shame is a powerful way to silence and
    isolate individuals, but it also plays a large
    role in silencing and disempowering marginalized
    groups whose members are strategically, if oven
    invisibly, shamed in order to reinforce their
    isolation and this their subordination Isolation
    is the glue that holds oppression in place
    (laing, 1998 presentation in Jordan, 2010)

  • When this dynamic creates isolation and
    disempowerment at the personal level, it also
    preserves the politics of dominance. In this way
    the personal is political, the political is
    personal, and the rewriting of a psychological
    paradigm becomes an act of social justice.

  • Jordau (2010).

  • Complex cognitive-affective skill that helps us
  • to know another persons experience
  • Anticipartory Empathy
  • Mutual Empathy
  • Mutual Impact
  • Mutual Empowerment

Relational Images
  • Develop early in life
  • Hold expectations of how relationships will go
  • Chronic disconnections lead to negative
    relational images
  • When flexible, images can be modified
  • When rigid and overgeneralized, they block us in

  • Dominant Relational Images
  • Discrepant Relational Images
  • Controlling Relational Images

The Healing Process
  • Assessment of relationtional resilience
  • Assessment of capacity for constructive conflict
    (real limitations or limiting relational images)
  • Assessment of stratagies of disconnection
  • Assessment.focuses on relational dynamics and
    patterns of chronic disconnections, taking into
    account the way the larger social context shapes
    a persons development

  • Jordan (2010_

Healing Relationships
  • Development of relational confidence
  • involves seeing that one has the capacity to
    move another person, effect a change in a
    relationship, or affect the well-being of all
    participants in the relationship

  • Empathic understanding of the central relational
  • Complexity replaces all or nothing functioning
  • Pathological certainty shifts
  • With a decrease in shame, there is more vital
    energy for vital and life-ful relationships and
    constructive community

  • RCT does not simply aim to help people adjust
    to disempowering social circumstances...such
    approach would support the notion that the
    problem is in the individualRather, by naming
    destructive social practices, empathizing with
    the impossibility of making changes alone,
    reinforcing the importance of finding allies and
    examining ways to resist shaming practices at
    both a collective and personal level, RCT
    supports skills that both create personal
    well-being and social justice
  • Jordan (2010), p41

The Therapist
  • Must be open to self-awareness and self-empathy
  • Skillfully uses mutual empathy to decontruct
    limiting relational images and looks for
    discrepant relational images
  • Must have the ability to work with disconnections
    both in and outside of the therapeutic
  • Must not abandon people to repetitive
    expectations of non-responsiveness but must also
    not push people to connection where connection
    has been unsafe in the past (honoring stratagies
    of disconnection that served an important purpose

Therapist Relational Awareness
  • When a client takes the risk of voicing a
    criticism or doubt about the therapist, the
    therapist who needs to be right or in control
    may well resort to a distancing or demeaning
    understanding of this honesty such as.

Social Context
  • Our profession sometimes personalizes wounds or
    problems that are rooted in sociocultural
    experience and history.
  • Impact of racism might be treated as a symptom
  • The tendency to blame the victim can be rampant
    in a system that does not adaquately take into
    account the suffereing caused by systemic
    marginalization and oppression

  • By valuing and striving for mutual
    relationship and by substituting a relational
    psychology for one that makes systems of
    dominance mormative, RCT becomes a force for
    social justice

  • Jordan (2010), p. 58

  • Mystery
  • And
  • Uncertainty
  • In a Culture that Values
  • Mastery

Indigenous Health Disparities
  • Higher rates of chronic illness
  • Early death and higher mortality rates
  • More cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.
  • Higher rates of environmental disease.

  • Western Models of Wellness emphasize absence of
  • Traditional Models of Wellness emphasize
  • Relationship and Place

Points for Reflection
  • The Whole vision versus compartmental
  • Value of intuitive knowledge
  • Spatial orientation space is all around us
  • Relationships matter
  • Knowledge is earned when the time is right
  • Beliefs about how the world works are related to
    how people see the cause of suffering

  • Western medicine treats the symptoms and not
    necessarily the causes
  • Traditional health practices keep people well
  • How do we hold ourselves in the world and on what
    is that based?

Historical Trauma
  • A set of events imposed upon a collective group
    or environment, who share a particular identity
  • There is genocidal or ethnocidal intent
  • Each particular event is traumatic, but overtime
    it is sustained disruption of relationships and
    original instruction
  • Not just interpersonal trauma
  • Colonization creates dependency

Six Phases of Historical Unresolved Grief
  • 1st Contact life shock, genocide, no time for
    grief. Colonization Period introduction of
    disease and alcohol, traumatic events such as
    Wounded Knee Massacre.
  • 2. Economic competition sustenance loss
  • 3. Invasion/War Period extermination, refugee

  • 4. Subjugation/Reservation Period
    confined/translocated, forced dependency on
    oppressor, lack of security.
  • 5. Boarding School Period destroyed family
    system, beatings, rape, prohibition of Native
    language and religion Lasting Effect
    ill-prepared for parenting, identity confusion.
  • 6. Forced Relocation and Termination Period
    transfer to urban areas, prohibition of religious
    freedom, racism and being viewed as second class
    loss of governmental system and community.
  • Marie Brave Heart, Ph.D. University of New

A Definition of Healing
  • unfolding process of self-transformation
    characterized by an acknowledgement of past
    personal pain, dealing with ones problems
    through disclosure and catharsis, looking at
    oneself through constant introspection, working
    on oneself toward improved self-understanding,
    and finding ones purpose as an Aboriginal person
    that reorients and motivates vulnerable and
    wounded elves toward renewed and meaningful
    engagement in the world
  • Gone

  • Collins, N.M, Pieterse, A.L. (2007) Critical
    incident analysis based training An approach for
    developing active/racial cultural awareness.
    Journal of Counseling and Development, 85, 14-23
  • Ellis, M.V. (1991) Critical incidents in clinical
    supervision and in supervisor supervision
    Assessing supervisory issues. Journal of
    Counseling Psychology, 38, 342-349.
  • Furr, S.R., Carroll, J.J. (2003). Critical
    incidents in student counselor development.
    Journal of Counseling and Development, 81,
  • Fukuyama, M. (1994) Critical incidents in
    multicultural supervision A phenomenological
    approach to supervision research. Counselor
    Education and Supervision, 34, 142-141.

  • Gone, J.P. (2009). A community-based treatement
    for Native American historical traumaProspects
    for evidence-based practice. Journal of
    Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77 (4),
  • Jordan, Judith. (2010) Relational-cultural
    therapy. Washington, D.C., American Psychological
  • Jordan. J, Walker. M, Hartling, L. M (2004).
    The complexity of connection Writings from the
    Stone Centers Jean Baker Miller Training
    Institute.New York The Guilford Press.
  • Heppner, M., Multon, KJ., Gybers, N., Ellis, C.
    Zook, C. (1998). The relationship of trainee
    self-efficacy to the process and outcome of
    career counseling. Journal of Counseling
    Psychology, 31. 79-90.

  • Kenneth, T. (2002). A critical analysis of the
    multicultural competencies Implications for the
    practice of mental health counseling. Journal of
    Mental Health Counseling. ISSN 1040-2861
  • Moodley, R (2007). (Re)placing multiculturalism
    in counseling and psychotherapy. British Journal
    of Guidance and Counseling, 35 (1), 1-22.
  • Pederson, P. (1994). A handbook for developing
    multicultural awareness (2nd ed). Alexandria, VA.
    American Counseling Association.
  • Sue, D.W., Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the
    culturally different Theory and practice
    (2nd.ed). New York Wiley.
  • Walker, M, Rosen, W.B. (2004). How connections
    heal Stories from relational-cultural therapy.
    New York The Guilford Press.

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