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Title: Understanding

Understanding Public Policy
Thomas Dye, 10th edition
1 Policy Analysis Chap. 2 Models of
Politics Chap. 3 Policymaking Process Chap. 4
Criminal Justice Chap. 5 Health and
Welfare Chap. 6 Education Chap. 7 Economic
Policy Chap. 8 Tax Policy Chap. 9
International Trade and Immigration Chap. 10
Environmental Policy Chap. 11 Civil Rights
Elite and Mass Interaction Chap. 12 American
Federalism Chap. 13 Defense Policy Chap. 14
Policy Evaluation
Chap 1 Policy Analysis   Policy-public policy
is whatever government chooses to do or not to
do/ a projected program of goals, values and
practices. -today people expect government to
do many things for them -understanding the
causes and consequences of policy decisions
improves our knowledge of society -policy
studies helps us learn about the linkage between
social and economic conditions in society
-policy studies incorporate the ideas and methods
of economics, sociology, anthropology, psycology,
history, law and public administration -public
policy can be studied for political purposes to
ensure that the nation adopts the "right"
policies to achieve the "right" goals -policy
analysis is finding out what governments do, why
they do it and what difference, if anything it
makes -learning about the consequences of
public policy is often referred to as policy
Policy analysis involves 1. A concern with
explanation rather than presumption 2. A
rigorous search of the causes and consequences of
public policy 3. An effort to develop test
general propositions about the causes and
consequences of public policy and to accumulate
reliable findings of general relevance.
-questionable that policy analysis can ever
"solve" nation's problems -policy analysis
cannot offer solutions to problems when there is
no general agreement on what the problems are
-it cannot solve value conflicts -policy
analysis is one activity for which there can be
no fixed programs
Chap 2 Models of Politics   1. Models of
Politics - used to simplify, identify certain
aspects, understand and explain policies   A.
Institutional Model Describe specific
institutions and certain aspects of those
institutions - structures, organization, duties,
and functions. Also analyze the effect these
aspects have on policy outputs
B. Process Model Process model follows these
steps - identify problem, set agenda, formulate
policy, implementation, and evaluation - Shows
how decisions are made, and how they should be
made - Helps to understand activities involved
in policy-making
C. Group Theory Interaction among groups is the
central aspect of politics - People come
together through common interests - Public
policy is the equilibrium reached in a group
struggle, which is political activity - Parties
are viewed as coalitions of groups
D. Elite Theory - People are apathetic and
ill-informed, therefore elite shapes mass opinion
- Implies that public policy does not truly
reflect the wants to the people as much as the
elites - Elitism views masses as passive and
easily manipulated
E. Rational Model - Achieves maximum social
gain" - Policy should never have costs that
exceed gains - Must know societies values, all
alternatives, and the consequences of the
F. Incrementalism - Views public policy as a
continuation of past government activities with
only small modifications - Conservative because
it considers existing policy as a base, and new
programs are ignored - Believe that policies
that are in effect has been proven, why alter
what has proven effective
G. Game Theory - Study of rational decisions
where one choice depends on the outcome of
another choice - An abstract and deductive model
of policy making - More an analytic tool than a
practical guide
H. Public Choice - The economic study of
non-market decision making - Recognizes
government must perform certain functions that
market is unable to handle - Seen in elections,
candidates are more concerned with winning than
advancing principles
  • Systems Theory
  • - Political system is a group of interrelated
    structures that allocate values for a society
  • - Sees public policy as an output of the
    political system
  • - By arranging settlements, demands are
    transformed into output (policies)

2. How to Tell if the Models are Helping Do
they - Order and simplify reality - Identify
what is significant - Congruent with reality -
Provide meaningful communication - Direct
inquiry and research - Suggest explanations
Chap 3 Policymaking Process   I. How Policies
Are Made A. Identify the problem B. Agenda
Setting focus the media on the situation C.
Formulate the policy proposals D. Legitimize
policies through governmental and political
groups E. Implement policy through bureaucracies
F. Evaluate policies by governmental agencies
II. Identification Public Opinion A.
Opinion-policy linkage Never know if public
opinion shapes policy or if policy shapes
opinion. 1. PO Key established evidence that
elections, parties, and interest groups do
institutionalize channels of communication from
citizens to decision makers.
B. Policy effects Public policy shapes public
opinion more often than the reverse. 1. Public
opinion is unstable 2. Few people have opinions
on a great bulk of policy questions 3. Leaders
do not have precise view of opinion because they
hear from elites
C. Media Effects 1. News believe they are
public opinion but are often wrong because they
confuse their opinion with that of the public.
2. Shape public opinion by saying it is the mass
opinion. 3. Decision makers respond to news
because they think it is the opinion of the
D. Opinion Polls Pollsters produce opinions
because no one admits when they dont have an
opinion on a subject. E. Instability of Opinion
1. Public opinion tends to be unstable. 2.
Never real changes, just appear as such F.
Wording of Questions 1. Opinions vary according
to the wording of the question 2. Can word
things to elicit approval or disapproval
G. Communicating with Policymakers 1. Decision
makers can misinterpret opinion because of elite
bias in information. 2. Congress world of
opinion is self reinforcing 3. Those who write
or call senators are usually more informed
III. Identifying Policy Issues Elite Opinion
A. Elite preferences are more likely to be in
accord with policy than mass opinion. B. Can be
argued that decision makers are acting rationally
to their argument?
IV. Agenda Setting and Non-decisions A.
Creating an issue, dramatizing it, calling
attention to it, and pressuring government to do
something about it are important political
tactics, they are tactics of agenda setting. B.
Non-decision making It occurs when influential
individuals or groups or the political system
itself operates in society.
  • It happens when officials hide an issue because
    they fear it will not be in their best interest.
  • When political candidates and office holders
    feel elites will not favor it.
  • The political system itself is structured in
    such a way as to facilitate resolution of some
    issues and to obstruct others.

C. Mobilization of bias" A set of values which
operate systematically and consistently to the
benefit of others.
  • V. Agenda setting and mobilizing opinion The
    mass media
  • Television is where a reported 2/3 of American
    people get their information
  • B. Media power
  • Media is a player and referee in politics
  • It sets the agenda of public discussion
  • It concentrated with a small number of people
  • Not much diversity in news reporting

  • C. News-making It involves important decisions
    on what is news and what is worthy of reporting
  • Media attention can create personalities and
  • It provides cues to audience on the importance
    of an issue, personality, or event
  • "Media event" arranged primarily to attract
    coverage and thus attention

  • D. Media Effects
  • Identifying issues and setting the agenda for
  • Influencing attitudes and values toward policy
  • Changing behavior of voters and decision makers
  • Power of TV lies in setting the agenda for
    decision making

  • VI. Formulating Policy
  • Policy formulation is the development of policy
    alternatives dealing with problems on the public
  • B. The White House President and the executive
    branch are expected to be policy initiators and
    Congress the arbitrators
  • C. Interest groups Formulate their own policy or
    do so in association with Congress members
  • D. Legislative Staffs Reflect the general view
    of their bosses, the research issues, schedule
    legislative hearings, line up expert to testify
    and write and rewrite bills

  • E. Think Tanks Policy planning organizations are
    central in coordinating points in policymaking
  • they bring together corporate and financial
    institutions, mass media, government officials,
    and intellectuals to reach a consensus on what
    action should take place.
  • Brookings Institute
  • American Enterprise Institute
  • The Heritage Foundation
  • Council on Foreign Relations

VII. Policy Legitimation The proximate
policymakers A. The president, congress,
congressional committees, White House Staff, and
interest groups are main focus B. The open,
public, stage of policymaking C. Conclude it is
a process of bargaining, competition, persuasion
and compromise D. Decisions of the policymakers
center around means rather than ends of policy
VIII. Party Influence on Public Opinion A. It
makes relatively little difference in the major
direction of public policy whether Democratic or
Republic dominate the political scene B. They
are more committed to winning office than
advancing policy positions
IX. Policy Implementation The Bureaucracy A.
The implementation is the continuation of
politics by other means B. Implementation and
Policy making - All the activities designed to
carry out the policies enacted by legislative
branch. - Create new organizations, assign
responsibilities. - These organizations
translate laws, spend money, and perform tasks,
etc. - Much of the actual policymaking occurs
within these organizations.
  • C. Regulation and Policymaking develop formal
    rules and regulations
  • Publish rules in the Federal Register( see p331
    for list of requirements)
  • D. Adjudication and Policymaking Bureaucrats
    decide whether a person, firm, corp., comply with
    the laws

E. Bureaucratic Discretion and Policymaking Most
bureaucracy is performing routine tasks but they
decide how to apply these tasks. F. Policy Bias
of Bureaucrats Personal beliefs inspire
bureaucrats to expand powers, functions, and
budgets of their agencies
X. Policy Evaluation Impressionistic vs
Systematic A. Systematic (Sophisticated) model
A feedback link that identifies problems, and set
the process in motion again - systematic rarely
occurs B. Impressionistic model It comes from
interest groups complaints, legislative hearings,
media stories, and citizens complaints -
stimulate reform
  • Chap 4 Criminal Justice
  • - Crime fighting strategy is deterrence To make
    cost of committing crime greater than benefits
    committing the crime.
  • -Deterrence Strategy focuses on
  • certainty- crime costly punishment
  • swiftness- justice must be swift
  • severity- it has to be harsh

- Author argues that crime is down and that it
can be attributed to, crackdowns, community
policing and longer prison sentences. - He makes
point that juvenile crime is on the rise and
attributes it to their lax punishment. He feels
as though in the juvenile sector that there is an
absence of deterrence and this adds to criminal
behavior. - The book argues that American system
of justice is not a deterrent because it lacks
swiftness, certainty and severity.
  • -He blames crime rate on
  • Social Heterogeneity
  • Socialization and Control
  • Irrational Crime
  • Innate Aggression
  • Deterrence vs. Liberty

- Thomas Dye makes the point that crime ends up
paying off in the criminals eyes. - Public now
expects federal involvement in law enforcement we
see this through Law Enforcement Act of 1994
Federal Gun Control Act of 1968 Brady Law
  • Book says that development of policies in
    Criminal Justice is complicated by conflicting
    values. On one hand we are committed to due
    process, yet we are also determined to fight
    crime (One is a fast process, the other slow).
  • - He ends by looking at the Death Penalty. He
    believes it has no deterring effect and that it
    falls short because of racial bias and
    infrequency of use. Although he still makes the
    argument that as crime gets worse more people
    want to use it.

Chapter 5 Health and Welfare   - Poor are not
principal beneficiaries of social welfare. Only
1/6 goes to low incomes. - Entitlements
government benefits for which Congress has a set
criteria-anyone meeting them may receive benefits
- Largest amounts of entitlement spending goes
to Social Security, Medicare, and Vet. Fed.
  • - Rational approach to social welfare is
    difficult due to nature and extent of poverty
  • - SSA of 1935 helps establish a basic framework
  • - Depression produces realization that poverty is
    not always individuals fault, from this, comes
    various types of insurances
  • Social Security- most expensive program in
  • federal budget
  • Medicare- health services for the elderly
  • Medicaid- health services for the poor (largest
    welfare to the poor)
  • Food Stamps
  • Temporary assistance for Needy families

- Clash in Values over charity Individual
Responsibility vs. Social Compassion - Can
social welfare policies create poverty by
eliminating incentives to work - Health care
reform focuses on 2 major problems
Controlling costs Expending costs - Important
because everyone has a stake in the national
health care system
Chapter 6 Education   I. Goals of Education A)
Resolve racial conflicts and build an integrated
society B) Inspire patriotism and good
citizenship C) Provide Values D) Various forms
of recreation and entertainment E) Reduce
conflict F) Basically everything except
  • II. Battling Over the Basics
  • A. Citizen groups that have an interest in
  • Parents
  • Taxpayers
  • Employers
  • B. Public Strongly Support
  • The 3 "rs" Reading, Writing, Arithmetic
  • Enforcing minimum standards with testing
  • Testing teachers for mastery of basic skills

  • C. SAT scores
  • SAT scores where declining due to more students
    taking the test
  • College Board recentered scores in 1996 to boost
  • Now more than 500 students a year make a perfect

  • D. Global Comparison
  • Performance of 500,000 U.S. 13 year olds tested
    compared with 42 nations was 28 in math and 17 in
  • The top nations had a cultural value for
    education and is valued in the family

E. Nation at Risk 1983 report by National
Commission on Excellence in Education (A Nation
at Risk) recommended a back to the basic reform
a. Minimum high school curriculum of 4 years of
English, 3 yrs of math, 3 yrs of social science,
and ? year of computer science b. 4-6 yrs of
foreign language beginning in elementary school
c. Standardized testing for achievement d. More
homework, a 7 hr school day, and a 200-220 day
school year e. Reliable grades and standardized
tests for promotion and graduation f.
Performance based" salaries for teachers
F. Testing Minimum Competence Testing (MCT)
a. Test used for the need of remedial education
or requirement for promotion or graduation b.
About the states require these test and are
usually on 8th or 9th grade c. Educators fear
this will start teaching to the test education
d. Some charges of the test are racially biased
G. Teacher Testing NEA opposes all teacher
testing, but the AFT willing to accept competency
testing only for new teachers
  • III. Educational Groups
  • A. Citizens vs. Professionals
  • Citizens are often pitted against professional
    educators about education policy
  • Citizen groups believe education should be a
    local matter through elected school boards
  • Elected school boards do not have the knowledge
    to deal with todays issues
  • Superintendents are full time administrators who
    receives advice from professionals and sets the
    agenda for board meetings
  • Professional educators feel politics should be
    left out of schools but citizens want to have

  • B. Professional educators
  • School teachers largest group - about 2 million
  • School administrators - most powerful
  • Faculties of teacher colleges and dept of
    educations at universities
  • C. Teacher Unions
  • NEA National Education Association - largest
  • AFT American Federation of Teachers - small,
    affiliated with AFL-CIO

  • D. Voters and Taxpayers
  • Voters that turn out for elections or school
    referendum votes
  • The larger the voter turnout the less likely a
    school bill will be passed
  • E. School Boards
  • Selected largely from concerned parents and
    civic leaders

  • F. Racial and Religious groups
  • Groups like NAACP, National Catholic Education
    Conference, American Jewish Congress, etc
  • Have fought battles over segregation, racial
    issues, prayer and Bible reading
  • Community- based religious groups fight for
    return of traditional moral values

  • IV. Federal Government Role in Education
  • A. Traditionally education has been the
    responsibility of local community, later it
    became the responsibility of the state, federal
    government is just a spectator
  • B. State and local taxpayers have always borne
    90 of public education costs
  • C. Early Federal Aid
  • Started off as land grants and later went to
    free lunches then to financial aid

  • D. ESEA
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965
  • Single largest federal aid to education programs
  • Poverty-impacted schools were principal

  • E. Educational Block Grants
  • Reagan administration consolidated all education
    funds into the Education Consolidation and
    Improvement Act in 1981 into single block grants
    for states and communities
  • Purpose was to give state and local districts
    greater discretion over the use of federal
    educational aid

  • F. Head Start
  • Most popular federal educational aid program
    came from LBJs war on poverty
  • Provide special preschool preparation to
    disadvantaged children before entering k or 1st
  • No conclusive evidence it is effective but
    politically popular
  • G. Federal Aid and Educational Quality
  • Educational achievement is dependent on how
    money is spent, not how much

  • V. Educational Reform and Parental Choice
  • A. Goals 2000
  • Clintons policy designed to enhance national
    educational goals developed by Bush and state
  • - Every Child must start school ready to learn
  • - High school graduation rate will be increased
    to at least 90
  • - US students become 1st in world in math and
  • - Every adult American will become literate
  • - Every school in the US will be free of drugs
    and violence and will offer a disciplined
    environment cohesive to learning

  • Not clear how they were to be achieved
  • Act specifically denies government control of
    curriculum, instruction, and allocation of state
    and local education

  • B. Clinton Initiatives
  • Supported National testing and proposed
    additional federal funds for school construction,
    tax credits and deductions for college tuition
  • Issue of who will set National standards and how
    to measure achievement

  • C. What works?
  • Research shows children do better when schools
    are seen as an extension of their families
  • D. Parental Choice
  • Parental choice is supposed to encourage
    competition which in turn encourages academic
  • Allow parents to make educators give students
    what they want or they risk a large loss in

  • E. Charter schools
  • Community educational groups sign a charter with
    their school district or state authority to
    establish their own school
  • Have to show specific student achievement
  • Results unknown because of few established

  • F. Magnet Schools
  • Specialized schools in academic areas, or
    adopted by businesses, etc
  • Have reputation for quality and specialized
    instruction, recommended for inner city areas to
    attract white pupils

  • G. Privatized Public Schools
  • A private profit-making corporation makes a
    contract with the school districts
  • Lower cost to school districts
  • Opposed by public school administrators, public
    school teachers, and unions

  • H. Educational Values
  • Vouchers that would be given to parents to spend
    at any school, public or private
  • All public and private schools would compete
    equally for students and state education funds
    would flow to those schools that enrolled more

  • Strong Opposition especially by professional
    school administrators and state and educational
  • Say it interrupts educational planning and
    threatens vitality of schools
  • Some fear public education will be undermined
    and divert money from public schools to private

  • VI. Battle over school financing
  • A. Inequality among districts
  • Money in schools depends on the amount of
    economic resources
  • Most money comes from land taxes so schools with
    little land has little money
  • B. Constitutional issue
  • Supreme court says it is not a violation of 14th
  • State courts are making legislators do something
    about it

  • VII. Public Policy and Higher Education
  • A. Public Universities
  • 3/4 of college students go to public colleges or
  • B. Federal Aid
  • State government carries the major burden of
    higher education
  • Federal government directly assists many college
    students through grants and loans

  • C. Student Assistance
  • Pell Grants
  • Stafford Loans
  • Perkins Loan
  • Work Study
  • Most financial aid is given to middle class
  • D. Research money is given to large Universities
    for scientific research

VIII. Groups in higher education A. Trustees
Set broad policy directions and keep higher
education from becoming politically saturated by
governors and legislators B. Presidents Chief
spokesperson to maintain support and delegate
responsibilities C. Faculty D. Unions
AAUP-American Association of University
Professors and AFT E. Students - least
influential of all groups
IX Reading, Writing and Religion A. Separation
of church and state comes from first amendment
B. Does not prohibit adoption of programs that
help all children C. Prayer is unconstitutional
in almost all ways
Chapter 7 Economic Policy   -Economic policy is
exercised through fiscal policies decisions
about taxation, spending and deficit levels
monetary policies money supply and interest
rates -Decided by federal spending levels
-Fiscal and monetary policies have small changes
at existing levels -Goals of economic policy
growth in economic output and standards of
living, full and productive employment of the
nations work force and stable prices with low
-This type of policy making is an example of
incrementalism because it uses last years
spending to decide present years budgeting
-Theories used in this type of policy making
macroeconomics tries to explain economic cycles
and to prescribe governmental policies to counter
inflation and recession classical view market
economy as self adjusting mechanism
Keynesian Economic stability product of
fluctuations in demands, written into employment
act of 1946-promotes "maximum employment
production and purchasing power"
  • - Reagan used Supply side economics - long term
    growth is more important than short term demand-
    free market is better equipped than government to
    bring lower prices and supply and demand
  • - Clinton used Enterprise Economics- government
    is responsible to stimulate growth- and invest in
  • human capital
  • technology
  • infrastructure

- Monetarist Economics- stability can be achieved
only by holding rate of money and economic growth
at the same pace -Government spending has grown
because of "Uncontrollable benefits, for
example entitlement programs index of
benefits cost of in-kind benefits( non-cash)
interest on debt back door spending
- Social Security is the largest item in the
budget while Medicare and Medicaid are the
fastest growing -Burden of Debt government
spends more than it receives in revenues and this
drives up the debt things that cause this
burdening future slowing economic growth
limiting policy initiatives default
dealing with deficits Tax increase Deficits
Deficits and entitlements Politics of deficits
- Formal Budgetary Process Spending
Agencies   OMB in the executive office- has key
responsibility for budget preparation (president
has no formal powers over taxing and spending
  House and Senate budget committees- they
established the CBO to review presidential budget
after submission to congress   Appropriations
Act- provides money for spending, nothing can be
spent without it
Appropriations Committees- used for specific
appropriations in both houses (more in the house
than the senate) Revenue Act-House Committee on
ways and means and the senate finance committee
work mostly with taxation   Presidential Veto
Continuing Resolutions and "Shutdowns"- any
government agency that does not pass an
appropriations act may not take money from the
treasury and is obligated to shut down continuing
resolutions allows a way around this
Chapter 8 Tax Policy   Introduction  -There is
no better illustration of the influence of
interest groups in policymaking than natal tax
policy  -Tax laws treat different types of
income differently  -Unfairness, complexity,
inefficiency of tax laws can be attributed to
interest groups  -Tax Reform Act 1986, IGs
suffer defeat
  • Federal Tax System
  • -Total revenues from taxes and fees consistently
    fail to match total spending by the government
  • Individual Income Taxes
  • largest single source of revenue

  • Corporate Income Taxes
  • 12 fed government income
  • Social Security Taxes
  • - 36 fed government income
  • - Today taxpayers pay more in Social Security
    taxes than income taxes

  • Estate and Gift Taxes
  • Excise and Custom Duties
  • Luxury items account for 1-2 income
  • Taxation, Fairness, and Growth
  • - Progressive tax high income pay higher
    percentage of incomes in taxes
  • - Proportionality/flat tax all income groups pay
    same rate
  • - Universality all types of income subject to
    same rates

Economic Growth - High taxes discourage growth
- Argues that if taxes were reduced, might
increase government revenue become/ encourage
growth -Economic Recovery Tax Cut Act of 1981
Reagan tax cuts take effect and nation began
economic recovery and slowed rate of growth of
natal revenue Tax Reform and Special Interests
- Tax Reform Act of 1986--reduction in tax rates
in place of tax breaks -Many opponents--industry,
real estate, multinational corps, oil gas,
labor unions.
Compromising with Special Interest -Key to
overcoming opposition of special interests was to
offer a tax rate low enough that most people
would be willing to give up deductions and
preferences -Bipartisan effort against special
Clinton, Deficits, and Taxes - Clinton won on
promise to revive economy - Clinton proposed
raising taxes on affluent, elderly, corps,
energy - Clinton and Reps agree to middle class
tax cut in 1997
Tax Reform and the Flat Tax - Flat
tax--eliminate exemptions, exclusions,
deductions, special treatment with 19 tax on
all forms of income -National sales tax--
replace federal income tax and get rid of IRS
penalize consumption not production
-IRS--Simplifying tax laws would not only reduce
cost of paying taxes but reassure taxpayer that
system is fair..It would reduce the power of the
IRS... taxpayers bill of rights might strengthen
safeguards against arbitrary actions of IRS
Chapter 9 "International Trade and Immigration"
  Public Policy Analysis - 1/4 of the worlds
total output is sold in a country other that
where it was made - US exports 11--aircraft,
computers-- and imports 12--automobiles -
Comparative Advantage what each nation produces
best shift toward making that
- US corps want lower trade barriers around the
world--lower US tariffs - GATT--General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade--regulate
international trade - WTO--World Trade
Organization--adjudicate trade disputes among
nations - IMF--International Monetary
Fund--facilitate trade by lending - World
Bank--long term loans
- NAFTA--eventual removal of all tariffs between
US, Canada, and Mexico - Dumping--sale of
foreign goods in US markets at prices lower than
charged in home--Japanese automobiles - Foreign
trade lower US wages - US corps want immigration
for cheap labor - Immigration Act of 1921--max
immigrants accepted each year - Immigration and
Reform Act of 1986/ Simpson-Mazzoli
Act---regulate employers hiring immigrants
- Aliens have no Constitutional right to come to
US, but once here that have right to due process
and equal protection - US Supreme Court mandate
that state and local government cant exclude
immigrants from benefits - Proposition 187
  • Chapter 10 Environmental Policy
  • Public Choice and the Environment
  • Environmental Externalities
  • Externalities occur when one individual, firm,
    government undertakes an activity that imposes
    unwanted costs on others
  • -The shifting of costs onto others

Costs of Regulation Environmental policies are
costly, but all government combined pays 1/4
other 3/4 of 100 billion/year is paid by
business and consumers Benefits in Relation to
Costs Costs of policies should not outweigh
benefits to society
Risk Assessment Environmental policy is a
respondent to popularly perceived risks -Some
level of risk will always be present in
environmental policy Bureaucratic Incentives
They will face intense criticism if they do not
impose health regulations
Command and Control Traditional approach of
environment. Policy where controls are designated
by administrative or legislative rules Market
Incentives -More effective to establish private
economic incentives to curb pollution than
uniform regulations
II. Environmental Externalities Solid Waste
Disposal landfills, incineration, recycling
Hazardous Waste Water Pollution Sludge,
organic wastes, and chemical effluents Air
Pollution -Motor vehicles, electrical power
plants, and heating are all main sources
III. Interest Group Effects Interest Group
Economics Recruit members and money to dramatize
environmental threats Shaping Public Opinion
Difficult to give really effective media
coverage due to difficulty of subject, however,
activity and media coverage caused shift in
public opinion
Interest Group Politics - show selves as clean,
opposition as dirty - must prove cost to fix is
lower than results if not fixed Radical
Environmentalism Opposition to economic
development, scientific advancement, and even
IV. Political Involvement EPA NEPA Clean Air
acts of 1970,1990 Water pollution control act of
1972, Endangered Species Act of 1973, etc. EPA
is the most powerful and far-reaching bureaucracy
in government today
V. Alternative Solutions Property rights and
takings Regulatory problems Pollution taxes and
Emission Allowances Waste charges
Chapter 11 "Civil Rights Elite and Mass
Interaction"   "Civil Rights policy is a
response of a national elite to conditions
affecting a minority of Americans rather than a
response of national to majority sentiments."
  • Mass Opinion Differences
  • Most whites believe that there is little
    discrimination toward blacks
  • Blacks believe that they are not treated
    equally in employment, housing, etc.
  • White majority opinion only changed after
    civil rights policy has been implemented
  • Poor, uneducated whites posses the least
    favorable attitudes toward blacks

  • Well educated, successful whites are more
    concerned with discrimination and more eager to
    socialize with blacks
  • A majority of whites believe we have enough
    regulations against discrimination
  • Civil Rights policy reflects the views of
    Congress, the president and the Supreme Court
  • exp. 14th Amendment
  • exp. Civil Rights Act of 1875, passed
  • Congress but declared
  • unconstitutional in 1883

  • Mass Resistance to Desegregation
  • The branches of government get involved to
    enforce civil rights policy
  • exp. Civil Rights Act of 1964 -
    Congress threatens segregated school, with loss
    of federal financial assistance
  • exp. 1957 - President Eisenhower uses
    military force to integrate Little Rock's Central
    High School

  • Busing
  • Suppose to end racial isolation in public
  • Mass reaction - white children sent to
    private school, by parents
  • End result - schools end up more segregated
    than before

  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Supported equality of opportunity
  • Ability to be able to develop one's talents
    and abilities

  • Affirmative Action
  • Supports equality of results
  • Sharing of incomes, jobs and material
    rewards, regardless of someone's economic
  • Not supported by the white mass
  • Supreme Court Cases
  • States vs Paradise (1987)
  • -50 black quota system for
    promotions in the Alabama Dept. of Public

  • Safety upheld
  • Purpose to correct past discrimination
  • Richmond v.s. Crosen (1989)
  • -Questioned affirmative action
  • -Minority set aside program in Virginia
    violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th

  • Feminist
  • 1880's feminism centered on the protection
    of women in families
  • Early 20th century feminism concentrated on
    women's suffrage
  • 1970's feminism focused on the ERA to the
  • Failed - was not ratified by 38 states

  •  Civil Rights Laws
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 -
    prevents racial and sexual discrimination in
    hiring and promotions
  • Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act
    Amendment of 1974 - prohibits sex discrimination
    in credit transactions
  • Title IX of the Education Act Amendment of
    1972 - bars discrimination in admissions,
    housing, rules, financial aid, pay and staff

  • Conclusion
  • Rational civil rights policy is initiated by
    some elite
  • Mass resistance can only serve to limit the
    lengths to which the elite can go
  • Problem shift the definition of "elite"

Chapter 12 American Federalism
Chap13 Defense Policy   -Each nation must have
its own defense policy assess threats develop
strategies appropriate forces/budget
maintains nuclear peace, emphasizes 2nd strike
capability, psychological defense, fear of
retaliation -Strategic Weapons TRIAD defense
(ICBMs (Minuteman), sub-based missiles (Trident
missiles), manned bombers (B-52 bombers)
-Second strike capability"
ARMS CONTROL GAMES SALT I- (strategic arms
limitation talks), 1972 between US and USSR, 1st
effort to limit nuclear weapons and ABS
(anti-ballistic missile systems) SALT II-
(1979), "over-all limit" on nuclear launch
vehicles(bombers and missiles, but subs
START- (strategic arms reduction talks),
reductions in nuclear weapons, equality,
verification with long- and short-term notice
START I- (1991), agreement on long-range
missiles START II- eliminates 1st-strike nuclear
attack by beginning to reduce amount and only
have reactionary nuclear defenses
-minimal deterrence- dismantling of all old
weapons -non deterrable threats- terrorists,
rougue generals/unauthorized launches, accidental
launches -spread of mass terror weapons- Iran,
Iraq, Libya -Ballistic Missile Defense(aka Star
Wars)- weapons in space to be used as defense
(i.e., lasers/missiles to shoot down incoming
Atlantic treaty organization), U.S. and allies,
opposed by Warsaw Pact (USSR and other communist
allies) -collapse of eastern communism- reduced
threat on western Europe and U.S -Germany
Reunited-balances power in Europe -USSR
crumbles- Soviet Union collapses, Warsaw pact
REGIONAL THREATS -Middle East- (Iran, Iraq,
Libya, Syria) -Asia- (Taiwan, North Korea)
TERRORISM -Punish terrorists and
terrorist-sponsored nations -Dissuade other
nations from using or supporting terrorists
WHEN TO USE MILITARY FORCE -Protect interests-
(support of vital national interests with defined
objectives -Sufficient strength to fight/win war
-Have support of US people -Last resort
DETERMING FORCE FACTORS -Should be threat driven
(respond to threats) -"11/2 war readiness"-
should be able/ready to fight and win one major
war and still have enough reserves to fight a
smaller battle -Investments help defend and
Chapter 14 Policy Evaluation   -Policy
evaluation is learning about the consequences of
public policy -Policy evaluation research is the
objective, systematic, empirical examination of
the effects of policy goals
  • Impact of policy is measured through
  • target group
  • impact on group other than the target group
  • future
  • direct costs
  • indirect costs
  • -Everything pertaining to policy has to be
    measured both symbolically and tangibly
  • - Politics used to be Who gets what, when and
  • - Politics has become who feels what, when and

  • Ways government agencies review policies
  • hearings and reports
  • site visits
  • comparison with professional standards
  • evaluation of complaints

What government can do about evaluations -Must
weigh cost against benefits -Comparing what has
happened with the policy against what would have
happened with out it -Comparison between areas
with the policy to that without the policy
  • Experimental policy research
  • - Some believe that experimenting with policy
    idea is best to do before implementing, but this
    beings about some serious questions
  • Are programs predisposed to produce specific
  • People behave differently when they know they
    are being watched how effective is the
    experiment taking this into account?

3) Small group experiments may produce different
results than when introduced to a larger
participating audience. 4) Politics play a role
in what is studied and what policies are
implemented People can interpret findings
differently and often times research is
politically motivated.
  • Why evaluations fail
  • Goals are hard to define
  • Government agencies are prone to try to show
    positive impact and don't want to find evidence
    that shows otherwise
  • Studies require time, money and man power that
    is not available

  • How do they explain negative findings
  • Effects are long range and hard to measure
  • Effects are subtle and hard to measure
  • Research is bias and that causes true effects to
    be hard to find

Limits of public policy 1) some problems do not
have solutions 2) expectations set are hard to
achieve 3) to solve problems of one group may
cause problems for another 4) some problems have
more than one cause 5) some policies are more
costly than the problems 6) political system is
not structured for rational decision making
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