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Biological Psychology

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Biological Psychology 303 Fall 11 Lecture 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~gcpws/Penfield/Penfield.html http://www.bing.com ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biological Psychology


1
Biological Psychology 303 Fall 11 Lecture 1
2
Neuroscience
Biopsychology the study of the biological basis
of behavior
  • the study of
  • Neuroanatomy structure of NS
  • Neurochemistry chemical bases of neural activity
  • Neuroendocrinology interactions btw NS
    endocrine system
  • Neuropathology disorders of NS
  • Neuropharmacology drugs effects on NS neural
    activity
  • Neurophysiology function activity of the NS

3
Divisions
Biopsychology
  • Physiological Psychology neural mechanisms of
    behavior by direct
  • manipulation of the brain (Experimental)
  • Psychopharmacology neural activity and behavior
    with drugs
  • (Experimental Applied)
  • Neuropsychology psychological effects of brain
    damage in humans
  • (Applied)
  • Psychophysiology relation bwt physiological
    activity psychological
  • processes in humans non invasive
    (Experimental..also Applied)
  • Comparative Psychology compare behavior btw
    species, evolutionary level (experimental)
  • Cognitive Psychology non invasive study of
    brain, cognition, information processing
    (Applied, Experimental)

4
Psychopharmacology Comparative Psychology
Neuroscience
Behavioral Neuroscientist
The impact the Brain has on behavior thats a no
brainer

5
But what do you really know about it?
6
Is Einsteins Brain Bigger Than Your Brain?
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJNOKT-xv7Dw
7
Can listening to Mozart make you smarter?
8
What color is your brain?
9
You Get New Brain Wrinkles When You Learn
Something
10
(No Transcript)
11
Alcohol Kills Brain Cells..
12
I get no respect
Egyptians Indian Chinese Greeks
  • necessary for life
  • emotion HB

Aristotle
13
Hippocrates (460-370 B.C) Galen (130-200 A.D)
14
"The brain, the masterpiece of creation, is
almost unknown to us."  Nicolaus Steno, 1669
Will the human brain ever completely understand
its own workings?
3 major debates
  • Nature of neural communication
  • Localism vs Holism
  • Mind vs Brain (monism/dualism)

15
3 major debates
  • Mind vs Brain (monism/dualism)

16
Mind-Body Question
  • Dualist mind separate from body
  • Mechanist Body is like a machine
  • Mind controls the machine
  • Body tells mind about the environment

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
hydraulic model Pipes nerves Water fluids in
body Hidden Value Pineal
Sensations, memories and other mental functions
produced as animal spirits flowing through
pores in the brain controlled by the pineal
gland
17
Control Valve Pineal Gland Seat of the Soul
First technical model for the NS
Controls the flow of thought to consciousness
18
Innervation of the Pineal
Dependent on the Light/Dark Cycle
19
(No Transcript)
20
Debate Mind vs Brain
Mind vs Brain???
Dualism Brain is physical mind is not
Monism Mind is product of brain
Mind-Body Question..are you a monist or a dualist?
Biopsychologist the mind is just an illusion, a
sense of mind is nothing more than the awareness
of what the brain is doing
21
(No Transcript)
22
3 major debates
  • Mind vs Brain (monism/dualism)
  • Still up for debate

23
Next Debate Nature of Neural Communication
Settled
  • Electrical Stimulation of frog legs
  • Contraction of the muscles
  • Animal Electricity

Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) Italian
Physician Anatomist
"While one of those who were assisting me touched
lightly, and by chance, the point of his scalpel
to the internal crural nerves of the frog,
suddenly all the muscles of its limbs were seen
to be so contracted that they seemed to have
fallen into tonic convulsions.
24
Debate Neural Communication
  • Doctrine of specific nerve energies
  • All nerves carry electrical signals
  • Different nerves different outcomes

Johannes Muller (1801-1858) German Physiologist
25
Camillo Golgi (1843-1956) Italian
Physician Silver Staining Method continuous
mass of tissuesone cytoplasm (holism)
Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) Spanish
Histologist Labeled Cells neuron doctrine
discrete entities
Nobel Prize 1906 Research on structure of the
nervous
Debate Nature of Neural Communication
26
Debate Nature of Neural Communication
  1. Neurons are discrete and autonomous cells that
    can interact
  2. Synapses are gaps that separate neurons
  3. Information is transmitted in one direction from
    dendrites (input) to the axon (output)

27
(No Transcript)
28
3 major debates
  • Nature of Neural Communication
  • Settled

29
Next Debate Localism vs Holism
  • brought Anatomy Psychology together
  • discrete regions of brain controls specific
  • functions mental state ? localization
  • Phrenology (personology)

Franz Joseph Gall (1757-1828) German
Physician Neuroanatomist
30
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31
  • Phineas Gage (1823-1860)
  • 25 yrs. Explosion accident (1848)
  • impulsive, unreliable, profane
  • was no longer Gage.

32
  • Movement
  • Orientation
  • Recognition
  • Perception of stimuli

Forebrain telencephalon
  • Reasoning
  • Planning
  • Speech Produce
  • Movement
  • Emotions
  • Problem solving
  • Personality
  • Visual Processing

Brocas
  • Perception recognition of auditory stimuli
  • Memory
  • Speech Comprehension

Wernickes
33
  • Wilder Penfield (1891-1976)
  • American-Born Canadian Neurosurgeon
  • Greatest neurosurgeon of all times
  • mapped the brain
  • direct stimulation of the brain
  • Grandmother Cell"

34
http//www.youtube.com/watch?v52bYneF6JEk
http//www.psych.ualberta.ca/gcpws/Penfield/Penfi
eld.html
http//www.bing.com/videos/search?qwilderpenfiel
dpqwilderpendocid1068722028792midA96D978895
922811F964A96D978895922811F964FORMVIVR
35
  • Localism vs holism?

36
Most Valuable Player
The Organization of Behavior (1949) First
comprehensive theory on how psychological
phenomena might be produced by BRAIN ACTIVITY
  • perceptions
  • emotions
  • thoughts
  • memories

Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985) Canadian Psychologist
A large brain, like large government, may not be
able to do simple things in a simple way. Donald
O. Hebb
37
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38
Cell Assemblies
Synaptic transmission Material basis mental
associations
Connectionism LTP
  • Hebb based his theories
  • humans and animals
  • clinical case studies
  • logical arguments eclectic approach became a
    hallmark of biopsych

http//www.psych.ualberta.ca/GCPWS/Hebb/Hebb.html
39
3 major debates
  • Localism vs Holism
  • a little of both going on

40
Watson Crick ( 1953)
Nature 171, 737-738 (1953) Molecular structure of
Nucleic Acids WATSON, J. D. CRICK, F. H.
C. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study
of Molecular Structure of Biological Systems,
Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. A Structure
for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
discovered chemical structure of DNA
New debate
Nature vs Nurture
41
discovered chemical structure of DNA
Rosalind Franklin
New debate
Nature vs Nurture
42
New debates
Nature vs Nurture
http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SCIENCE96/
ltgt
(0.11 seconds) 
http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program.html
Francis Collins Human Genome Project (NIH)
J. Craig Venter Celera Genomic
Sequencing of the human genome the book if life
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/seq/
NCBI Genome Project
43
New debates
Nature vs Nurture
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