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Best Management Practices on the Golf Course

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Best Management Practices on the Golf Course Dr. Matt Fagerness KSU Turfgrass Extension Golf Courses are Vulnerable to: Soil erosion (especially during grow-in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Best Management Practices on the Golf Course


1
Best Management Practices on the Golf Course
  • Dr. Matt Fagerness
  • KSU Turfgrass Extension

2
Golf Courses are Vulnerable to
  • Soil erosion (especially during grow-in)
  • Surface runoff (rain, uneven irrigation)
  • Movement of fertilizer and pesticides offsite
  • Improper use of fertilizers and pesticides

3
This Seminar
  • Is not intended to criticize course management
    practices
  • Is intended to offer new perspective(s) on
    familiar concepts
  • Will hopefully increase awareness of the many
    practices which affect golf course ecosystems

4
Seminar Breakdown
  • Part I Basics of Best Management Practices
  • Part II Integrated Pest Management
  • Part III Practical Applications of IPM
  • Environmental and Pest Monitoring
  • Pesticide Selection Criteria
  • Applicable Strategies for Reducing Pesticide Input

5
Part I What are BMPs?
  • Practices implemented before and during
    management to protect natural resources both on
    and off the golf course.

6
Four Primary Goals of BMPs
  • 1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate
    offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and
    pesticides.
  • 2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil
    and water conservation practices
  • 3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs
    used
  • 4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM
    approach

7
Goals of BMPs
  • 1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate
    offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and
    pesticides. (LU, SP)
  • 2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil
    and water conservation practices
  • 3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs
    used
  • 4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM
    approach

8
Environmental Planning
  • A proactive environmental approach to golf course
    construction and management can mitigate future
    problems.
  • Step I examine characteristics of the site
  • Step II identify sites position relative to
    watershed drainage basins
  • Step III identify environmentally sensitive
    areas
  • Step IV determine management practices which
    will help protect sensitive areas

9
Step I Site Description
  • Topography
  • Major surface water features
  • streams and ponds/lakes
  • Soil physical and chemical characteristics
  • Climatic history
  • Water quality assessment
  • Surveys of native plant and animal populations

10
Step II Watershed Drainage Basins
  • Mapping the routes and locations of all watershed
    drainage basins allows
  • determination of the effects of golf holes where
    surface and subsurface drainage are installed
  • determination of turfgrass acreage within each
    drainage basin

11
Step III Identifying Sensitive Areas
  • Environmentally sensitive areas those natural
    resources that are susceptible to change and
    subsequent alteration of the ecosystem
  • Surface water sources and associated habitats are
    the most noteworthy examples

12
Step IV Protection of Sensitive Areas
  • Land use BMPs to minimize pollutant input
  • Careful selection of fertilizers and pesticides
    (one place where IPM plugs into the BMP scheme)
  • Restricted use management zones
  • e.g. reduced or no-spray zones around bodies of
    water

13
Two Main Types of BMPs
  • Land Use BMPs Practices engineered and
    incorporated into course/landscape design and
    construction.
  • Source Prevention BMPs Practices implemented
    during management of a golf course.

14
Land Use BMPs
  • Two main categories
  • Vegetative practices
  • Structural BMPs

15
Land Use BMPs-Vegetative Practices
  • Vegetative filtration naturally filters surface
    water flow and reduces pollutant load
  • Examples
  • conservation areas or buffers
  • critical area plantings
  • grassed swales or berms
  • vegetated filter strips
  • grassed waterways

16
Conservation Areas or Buffers
  • Areas where it is critical to maintain/establish
    natural perennial cover to protect resources.
  • Usually directly adjacent to water sources since
    the most sensitivity is at the erodible edge
  • Suggested specifications
  • 25 in width from fairways and tees
  • 50 in width from greens
  • combinations of reduced width natural areas
    roughs

17
Buffer Benefits
  • Reduces erosion at waters edge
    and reduces sediment pollution
  • Intercept chemical pollutants in
    surface water coming from maintained turf areas
  • Moderate temperature of incoming surface water
  • Offer an area immediately adjacent to water where
    potential pollutants arent directly added

18
Golf Course BuffersColbert Hills
19
Critical Area Plantings
  • Planting of vegetation on eroding or highly
    erodible areas
  • Very important during course construction or
    earth-moving renovation projects
  • May include the use of sod
  • e.g. Colbert Hills (wall to wall sod for
    fairways, tees, and roughs) with steep slopes,
    shallow soils, and sensitive creeks running
    through the property

20
Critical Area PlantingsColbert Hills
21
Grassed Swales or Berms
  • Added topographical features of a site that serve
    to divert surface runoff
  • Can either promote movement of water away from
    wet sites or prevent water from leaving dry sites
    via surface movement
  • Can attenuate surface runoff and erosion,
    particularly on sloped golf holes

22
Vegetated Filter Strips
  • Natural or constructed flat areas which separate
    managed turfgrass areas from undisturbed areas
  • Can be composed of grasses, woody plants, or
    trees
  • To be effective as BMPs, filter strips should be
    at least 25 wide and not exceed 15 slope
  • more slope, more the need for grasses instead of
    trees

23
Grassed Waterways
  • Most useful in concentrated flow areas where
    erosion and/or surface runoff are significant
    concerns
  • Often constructed and graded to receive certain
    amounts of flow
  • Less effective at intercepting eroded sediment
    but can be a very effective transition areas
    between surface runoff sources and surface waters

24
Non-grassed Grassed Waterways
25
Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs
  • Total suspended solids in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

26
Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs
  • Total phosphorus in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

27
Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs
  • Total nitrogen in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

28
Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs
  • Chemical oxygen demand in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

29
Structural Land Use BMPs
  • Designed or conserved features that control
    and/or filter surface or subsurface drainage
    water
  • Examples
  • directed subsurface drainage
  • water quality basins
  • wet retention ponds
  • protected wetlands and riparian zones
  • constructed wetlands

30
Directed Subsurface Drainage
  • Used to reduce leaching and/or runoff
    from greens
  • Can be used to manipulate a water table
  • Directing drainage paths into vegetative areas or
    infiltration basins can control losses of
    nutrients or pesticides

31
Water Quality Basins
  • Provide a first line of defense against
    pollutants in surface runoff
  • Allow for settling of sediment and, with addition
    of certain plant materials, can also filter
    nutrients and pesticides
  • Installed drainage beneath these basins can
    either be routed away after filtration or
    allowed to vertically drain and recharge
    groundwater.

32
Wet Retention Ponds
  • More permanent collection areas for runoff allow
    high removal rates of pollutants
  • consistent plant and microbial populations
  • Larger ponds are more efficient scrubbers of
    runoff water since there is more clean volume
  • Provide recreation and habitats for wildlife
  • May buffer streams from high storm input

33
Protected Wetlands and Riparian Zones
  • Natural means of filtering runoff inputs
  • Need to be minimally disrupted by landscaping and
    kept continuous to be most effective
  • Provide habitats, attenuate flooding, stabilize
    erodible areas, and recharge groundwater
  • Constructed ponds, basins, etc. need to be
    segregated from natural areas to preserve them

34
Constructed Wetlands
  • Can support fauna and flora like natural wetlands
    but are specifically designed and positioned for
    water purification
  • Highly effective for filtering nutrients and
    sediment or other particulate matter
  • Often used downstream from equipment washpads

35
Efficacy of Land Use BMPs
  • Total suspended solids in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

36
Efficacy of Land Use BMPs
  • Total phosphorus in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

37
Efficacy of Land Use BMPs
  • Total nitrogen in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

38
Efficacy of Land Use BMPs
  • Chemical oxygen demand in sampled surface water
  • Data courtesy of US Environmental Protection
    Agency

39
Land Use BMP Effectiveness
  • How well land use BMPs remove pollutants is based
    on the following three interrelated factors
  • removal mechanism employed by the BMP, including
    physical interception, biological uptake or
    breakdown, and chemical breakdown
  • fraction of runoff treated by the BMP
  • characteristics of the pollutant being removed
  • Multiple land use BMPs offer the best chance of
    overall success

40
Summary Land Use BMPs
  • While entities like the EPA may not require all
    these measures yet, some are required in many
    sensitive watersheds and are likely on the way.
  • Implementation of land use BMPs
  • exacts a positive (or prevents a negative) impact
  • can proactively address possible future mandates
  • demonstrates to the media swayed public and to
    regulatory or funding agencies that were on track

41
Goals of BMPs
  • 1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate
    offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and
    pesticides.
  • 2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil
    and water conservation practices
  • 3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs
    used
  • 4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM
    approach

42
Source Prevention BMPs
  • Proper irrigation right time, frequency,
    amount
  • Proper fertilization and pesticide use correct
    rates, types, and timings
  • Monitoring water sources pesticide, nutrient
    levels

43
Improper IrrigationWater can carry a lot with it!
44
Strategic Water Conservation
  • Use of effluent (recycled, reclaimed,
    non-potable) irrigation water
  • Concerns
  • Effluent water quality (salts, sodium, nutrients,
    heavy metals, particulate matter, pH changes)
  • Leaching salts from effluent treated soils

45
Benefits of Using Effluent Irrigation
  • Not an absolute replacement for potable water
  • Potable water can be use to flush out unwanted
    salts
  • Cost effectiveness
  • Less water treatment before use, less
  • Future concerns
  • Demand for potable water doubles every 20 years
  • Effluent water use may be mandated, not optional

46
Biological Soil and Water Conservation
  • Turfgrass!!
  • Turf is an excellent soil stabilizer and is an
    efficient user of water, especially certain
    species
  • Mulch
  • Helps with soil water retention and stabilizes
    bare ground
  • Other plants
  • Can offer a buffer to prevent excessive surface
    movement of water, soil, etc.

47
Water Conserving Turfgrasses
Bermudagrass Tall fescue Buffalograss Zoysia
48
Turfgrasses Requiring More Water
Kentucky bluegrass Perennial
ryegrass
49
Practical Considerations Summer Turfgrass Water
Requirements
  • Most turfgrasses will perform better when
    irrigated. The distinction comes when a species
    can or can not survive without water.
  • Buffalograss can survive without any water.
  • Bermuda and zoysia can survive extended time
    periods without water with limited visual impact.
  • Tall fescue can survive reasonable amounts of
    time without water but will show signs of drought
    stress.
  • Perennial ryegrass and bluegrass will die without
    water.

50
Good and Bad Soil Conservation
Good
Not so good
51
Soil Conservation How to Tell How Youre Doing
During Grow-in
  • Visual signs (previous slide)
  • Testing water samples for sediment levels
  • Changes in stream depth, direction changes
  • Compositional changes in sediment collecting at
    the bottom of lakes, collection/irrigation ponds

52
Goals of BMPs
  • 1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate
    offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and
    pesticides.
  • 2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil
    and water conservation practices
  • 3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs
    used (SP)
  • 4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM
    approach

53
Types of Inputs
  • Fertilizer
  • Natural and synthetic, pH modifiers
  • Water
  • Natural and intentional (effluent water use)
  • Pesticides
  • Herbicides, fungicides, insecticides
  • Other
  • e.g. soil sterilants, fuel

54
Sloppy Fertilizationfeast or famine
55
Fertilizer Analysis
  • Sequence of three numbers that reflect the
    percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
    respectively.

56
Whats in the Bag? Primary Turf Nutrients
  • Nitrogen - Used for above-ground growth and good
    green color (soil mobile, nitrate contamination)
  • Phosphorus - Used for root growth and formation
    of seeds and fruit (less mobile in soil but can
    contaminate watersheds like nitrate)
  • Potassium - Used for basic plant growth and helps
    plants withstand stress (soil mobile)

57
Tips to Manage Fertilizer Input
  • Determine exact amounts for specific areas
  • Avoid the tendency to give the turf a little
    extra
  • Avoid overshooting onto cart paths or parking
    lots
  • Be as precise as possible with spreader spacing

58
Area Determination the Wrong Way
150
Total 3.62 acres
450
600
150
59
Area Determination the Right Way
120
Total 2.32 acres
250
550
120
Area(bh)/2 100x100/25000 sq. ft.
60
Tips to Manage Irrigation Input
  • Water in morning or evening to maximize turf use
  • Try to minimize irrigation water hitting paved
    surfaces (surface runoff)
  • Deep, infrequent irrigation instead of light,
    frequent irrigation, when possible!! (improves
    root system)

61
Irrigation Tips - Soil Wetting
62
Irrigation Tips - Turf Use
63
Irrigation Tips Practical Considerations
  • As shown previously, deep infrequent irrigation
    is ideal but only if root growth can match it.
  • Golf greens in summer have declining root systems
    so irrigating too deep exceeds where the roots
    are.

Spring Summer Fall
Shoot growth Root growth Irrigation amount
64
Tips to Manage Pesticide Input
  • Know your pests! Improper diagnosis of a problem
    can lead to unnecessary pesticide use.
  • Let the pesticide do its job- Be patient!
  • Avoid pesticides prone to drift
  • Follow label specifications!!!

65
Improper Diagnosis
What caused this problem? Not disease or insects
but dull mower blades. The solution should be a
trip to the backlapper, not a pesticide.
66
Other Petroleum Contaminationaka Gas Spill
67
Goals of BMPs
  • 1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate
    offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and
    pesticides.
  • 2) Use biological and mechanical soil and water
    conservation practices
  • 3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs
    used
  • 4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM
    approach

68
Seminar Breakdown
  • Part I Basics of Best Management Practices
  • Part II Integrated Pest Management
  • Part III Practical Applications of IPM
  • Environmental and Pest Monitoring
  • Pesticide Selection Criteria
  • Applicable Strategies for Reducing Pesticide Input

69
What IPM Isnt
  • Impulsive Panic Mongering
  • Contrary to what may be thought about IPM, it
    does not promote the proactive environmentalism
    that is often portrayed in the media and that has
    sometimes targeted golf courses

70
What is IPM?
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Objectives
  • Develop healthy turf that can withstand pest
    pressure
  • Use chemicals judiciously and efficiently
  • Enhance populations of natural, beneficial
    organisms
  • Tackle pest problems when pests are most
    vulnerable

71
IPM is Part of the BMP Train Approach
Non Train Approach Train Approach
Integrated Pest Management Green Drain Line 25
Rough Buffer 25 Natural Area Lake
Green Drain Line Lake
72
Six Basic Approaches to IPM
  • Genetic
  • Regulatory
  • Cultural
  • Physical
  • Biological
  • Chemical

Represent IPM approaches at the planning stage,
not active ways to manage pests
73
Planning Stage IPM
  • Genetic approach
  • Selecting improved turfgrass varieties which do
    well in the Kansas climate and show resistance to
    both environmental stress and pest problems
  • Regulatory approach
  • Using certified seed, sod, or sprigs to optimize
    genetic uniformity and prevent unwanted weed
    contamination

74
Genetic Approach Blending Tips
  • Overall quality of a blend will reflect the
    lowest common denominator
  • e.g. four good varieties with one poor one will
    appear worse than five good ones
  • Avoid the tendency to use up older or low
    quality seed if you blend yourself and watch for
    commercial blends which may do the same

75
Regulatory Approach Seed Label
Look for other crop seed, weed seed, and
germination
Good Not so Good
76
Active IPM Approaches
  • Cultural proper mowing, irrigation,
    fertilization, and aerating make pest control
    much easier.
  • Physical hand weeding, cleaning mowers and tools
    to avoid spreading disease and weed seeds
  • Biological promoting natural pest predators
    (e.g. bird houses, bird baths)

77
Active IPM Approaches
  • Chemical often necessary but to supplement
    rather than replace other approaches
  • Steps to take
  • Identify the pest properly
  • Identify and correct site conditions promoting
    the pest
  • Implement other IPM approaches to augment pest
    control
  • Select a pesticide suitable for the pest
  • Apply the pesticide as directed and when the pest
    is most vulnerable

78
Components of the IPM Approach
  • Monitoring pest populations and their habitat
  • Determining injury levels and establishing
    thresholds
  • Deciding upon and implementing one or more of the
    six basic approaches
  • Educating personnel about selected approaches
  • Timing and applying selected treatments
  • Evaluating the results of applied treatments

79
Seminar Breakdown
  • Part I Basics of Best Management Practices
  • Part II Integrated Pest Management
  • Part III Practical Applications of IPM
  • Environmental and Pest Monitoring
  • Pesticide Selection Criteria
  • Applicable Strategies for Reducing Pesticide Input

80
Four Types of Monitoring
  • 1) Reconnaissance- periodic observations
  • 2) Surveillance- in compliance with enforceable
    regulations (application record keeping)
  • 3) Subjective- spot-checking for broad or
    open-ended exploration of problems (pest
    scouting)
  • 4) Objective- to provide data for future
    decision making processes (environmental
    monitoring)

81
Pest Scouting Pros and Cons
  • Pros
  • early detection of potential pest problems
  • regular structured observation of the course
  • builds experience and observation skills in the
    scout
  • long-term assessment of pest control in problem
    areas
  • Cons
  • requires staff time and effort
  • subjective approach may lead to misdiagnoses

82
Environmental Monitoring
  • Indicates sources and extent of pollution and can
    be used as the basis for future decisions
  • Three phases, related to golf course development
  • Phase I pre-development to provide background
    levels of pollutants to compare later results to
  • Phase II construction and immediate
    post-development (most sensitive time for golf
    courses)
  • Phase III normal operations testing (decision
    basis)

83
Environmental MonitoringPlaces to Measure
  • Surface water
  • Lake/pond sediments
  • Ground water
  • Each source should be sampled during dry and wet
    periods to avoid misleading results

84
Environmental MonitoringWater Quality
Measurements
  • pH- range from 6-8 OK for most aquatic organisms
  • temperature- can vary vertically so sample
    carefully
  • dissolved oxygen- necessary for aquatic organisms
  • specific conductance- water salinity
  • nutrients- N and P excesses promote algae,
    bacteria
  • total dissolved solids- gives an idea of
    habitability
  • turbidity- measure of suspended solids in water
  • pesticides- choose most risky from your list

85
Nitrogen and Water Quality
86
Phosphorus and Water Quality
87
Phase I Environmental MonitoringBackground
Information
  • Prior to any course construction
  • Minimum of two surface water sampling sites
  • e.g. Point of entry and exit of golf course for a
    stream
  • More sampling sites are desirable with surface
    water branches or unique drainage patterns
  • Mark sampling sites for sampling in Phases IIIII
  • Spring, summer, and fall (dry and wet conditions)

88
Phase II Environmental MonitoringConstruction
and Development
  • Direct assessment of construction and immediate
    post-construction activities on water and
    sediment quality
  • Same sites and timings as for Phase I
  • Like for Phase I, fertilizer or pesticide
    analysis not relevant for this stage of
    monitoring
  • Terminate when turf grow-in begins

89
Phase III Environmental MonitoringPost
Development/Daily Operations
  • Starting at grow-in and continuing at regular
    seasonal intervals to determine trends
  • Same sites as for Phases I II, with relevant
    additions
  • Includes
  • Nutrient and pesticide analyses for water
  • Includes soil testing for fertility requirements
  • Sampling timings should be adjusted to coincide
    with fertilizer or pesticide applications

90
Phase III Environmental MonitoringPost
Development/Daily Operations
91
Pesticide Selection
  • Should be based upon
  • Effectiveness
  • Economics
  • Environmental Impact
  • Site Characteristics
  • Safety
  • One or more of these criteria are often ignored.

92
Pesticide Effectiveness
  • Environmental concerns are indeed important
  • However, first and foremost, IPM dictates we must
    select a pesticide that will actually work
  • When environmental considerations are placed
    before effectiveness, we end up like Seattle

93
Pesticide Economics
  • Several factors to consider
  • Actual cost of pesticide (highly variable)
  • Labor costs (training, time spent mixing,
    physically spraying, recording specs, cleaning
    up)
  • Frequency need for applications
  • Established pest thresholds (At what point does
    the cost of the pesticide become less important
    than the cost of pest infestation?)

94
Environmental Effects of Pesticides
  • Two main areas of concern
  • Surface water
  • Groundwater
  • Numerous factors affect potential for pesticides
    to reach either of these areas

95
Pesticide Movement to Surface Water
  • Usually via runoff
  • Depends on the following
  • Pesticide characteristics (solubility,
    adsorption, persistence)
  • Soil characteristics (texture, permeability,
    water holding capacity, pH, organic matter
    content)
  • Site conditions (slope, climate, proximity to
    water)
  • Management (pesticide selection, rates, timings,
    application methods, irrigation management)

96
Pesticide Movement to Ground Water
  • Usually via leaching
  • Depends on the following
  • Soil characteristics (texture, permeability,
    water holding capacity, pH, organic matter
    content)
  • Pesticide characteristics (reactivity with soil,
    persistence, rate and timing of application)
  • Site conditions (climate, depth to water table)
  • Management (irrigation management, pesticide
    application method)

97
Pesticide Safety Environment and People
  • Risk assessment
  • Its all relative, based upon our perception
  • We can approach risk in a structured fashion
  • Risk hazardexposure
  • Hazardprobability that harm will result from
    prescribed use
  • Exposureextent (amount or frequency) of use

98
Risk from Pesticides and Pesticide Selection
  • Can we conclude that reduced risk may come simply
    from using less hazardous pesticides, from
    reducing exposure to a given pesticide, or both?
  • Yes, but
  • How do we define baseline exposure levels and any
    subsequent changes?
  • How do we define how hazardous a pesticide is?

99
Three Steps in Pesticide Selection
  • Identify pest problems
  • Experience and scouting
  • Identify potential pesticides
  • Experience and labels
  • Fit pesticides to models to determine which
    ones meet effectiveness and environmental safety
    criteria (list formation)

100
Modeled Pesticide Parameters
  • Acute toxicity- toxic effects over the short-term
  • Chronic toxicity- toxicity effects over the
    long-term
  • Aquatic toxicity (LC50)- chemical concentration
    in water that kills 50 of test organisms
  • Terrestrial toxicity (LD50)- chemical
    concentration that kills 50 of test organisms in
    an oral dose
  • Adsorption potential (KOC)- how well pesticide
    binds to soil particles

101
Modeled Pesticide Parameters
  • Field half-life (T1/2)- time required for 50
    breakdown
  • Health advisory level (HAL)- amount of pesticide
    which does no harm over a lifetime of consumption
    (70 yrs.)
  • Leaching potential- ease with which pesticide
    moves through soil profile
  • Runoff potential- ease with which pesticide moves
    over land surfaces
  • Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)- highest
    surface water concentration safe for aquatic
    organisms

102
Interpretation of Pesticide Hazards
  • Toxicity type parameters are of greatest interest
    when human contact and terrestrial or aquatic
    wildlife will receive exposure
  • Toxicity and health related parameters should
    definitely be included in decision making
    processes for insecticides and fungicides

103
Interpretation of Pesticide Hazards
  • For less toxic materials like herbicides, use of
    a quadrant model gives a good hazard
    indication.

Short half-life
Low hazard potential Moderate hazard potential
Moderate hazard potential High hazard potential
Long half-life
Low mobility
High mobility
104
Recommended Pesticide Lists
  • List all pesticides for certain pest categories
    (e.g. diseases) and their corresponding hazard
    potential
  • Facilitate decisions as to whether or not a
    certain pesticide (even if it is registered by
    EPA) should be used on the golf course or perhaps
    in a specific area on the course

105
Pesticide Lists
  • Should be developed based on the following four
    factors
  • Pesticide characteristics (solubility,
    adsorption, persistence)
  • Soil characteristics (texture, permeability,
    water holding capacity, pH, organic matter
    content, depth to water table)
  • Site conditions (slope, climate, proximity to
    water)
  • Management (pesticide selection, rates, timings,
    application methods, irrigation management)

106
Ways to Reduce Pesticide Input
  • Know your pests!
  • Improper diagnosis of a problem unnecessary
    pesticide use.
  • Knowing pest characteristics allows for
    application timing to be optimized
  • Use pest life cycles to your advantage hitting
    them when theyre most vulnerable increases
    overall effectiveness

107
Ways to Reduce Pesticide Input
  • Follow label specifications!!!
  • Proper rates and specifications for application
  • Proper timing of application
  • Proper intervals between applications
  • Proper conditions in which to apply pesticides
  • Pitfalls which may diminish effectiveness
  • These things may together help reduce inputs.

108
Summary
  • The point of BMPs and IPM is not to foster
    criticism of how things are currently done but
    rather to promote better or safer ways to
    manage golf course inputs.
  • Education is just as important a goal of BMPs as
    are all the specific steps previously covered.
    Awareness is the first step towards progress.

109
----------------The End---------------
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