drug facilitated sexual assault - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – drug facilitated sexual assault PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 478e8f-N2EyZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

drug facilitated sexual assault

Description:

drug facilitated sexual assault Michele McMurray RN SANE A/P * AFIP Suggests urine * (c) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:268
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 135
Provided by: Mich437
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: drug facilitated sexual assault


1
drug facilitated sexual assault
  • Michele McMurray RN SANE A/P

2
What is Drug facilitated sexual assault?
  • Involves the administration of an
    anesthesia-type drug to render a victim
    physically incapable of giving or withholding
    consent

National Drug Intelligence Center, 2008
3
(No Transcript)
4
(No Transcript)
5
Slipping a Mickey
6
Scenario
  • Admit to one or two drinks
  • Drink is left unattended
  • Remembering being in bar
  • Losing track of events
  • Waking up in unfamiliar environment

7
Scenario
  • Inappropriately clothed
  • Sensation of having sexual intercourse
  • Confused and sleepy for hours
  • Usually a friend reports event

8
Date Rape Drugs
9
Drugs Detected in Victims or Suspected in
Drug-Facilitated Rapes
  • Ethanol
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) 
  • Ketamine
  • Ecstasy
  • Opiods
  • Miscellaneous
  • Antihistamines Chloral Hydrate
  • Zolpidem Nitrous Oxide
  • Muscle Relaxants Visine
  • Antidepressants  
  •     

10
Suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault is a
common problem. Sexual assault services should
be tailored to meet the needs of those
experiencing this type of victimization.
11
Since the mid-1990s, there has been a growing
number of unconfirmed reports of assailants
using prescription and nonprescription drugs to
induce
12
disinhibition, sedation and amnesia to facilitate
rape. This type of victimization is most commonly
referred to as drug-facilitated sexual assault.
13
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), in particular, has been
maligned as a date rape drug, many other easily
accessible substances have reportedly been
used to facilitate sexual assault,
14
alcohol and alprazolam, chloral hydrate,
gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, lorazepam,
ziploclone and zolpidem.1,3
15
There are few studies surrounding this topic. The
studies that have been concluded demonstrate
that
16
compared with other victims, those who suspected
that they had been drugged waited longer before
presenting to a hospital for sexual assault
services
17
18 hours vs. 10 hours
18
This group had a lower occurrence of genital
and extra genital injuries. Women aged 1519
years had the highest risk of experiencing this
type of sexual assault.
19
They found that rapes involving incapacitation
were less likely than other types of rape to
result in injury and were also less likely to
involve a perpetrator with whom the victim
had had previous sexual intercourse.
20
Rapes involving incapacitation were more likely
to have occurred following time spent in a bar or
at a party and were more likely to involve
higher levels of drinking and self-reported
intoxication.
21

Club drugs are a pharmacologically heterogeneous
group of psychoactive compounds that tend to be
abused by teens and young adults at a nightclub,
bar, rave, or trance scene. Gamma hydroxybutyrate
(GHB), Rohypnol, and ketamine are some of the
drugs in this group so are MDMA (ecstasy) and
methamphetamine
22
Ethanol
  • Alcohol and sexual assault often happen together
    (30- 50)
  • Makes it more difficult for victim to ward off
    attack
  • Commonly viewed as an aphrodisiac that increases
    sexual desire
  • Increases personality characteristics i.e.
    impulsivity and aggression

23
Statistics
  • In a national study of college students, 75 of
    males and 55 of females involved in date rape
    had been drinking or using drugs prior to the
    assault.
  • As many as 70 of college students admit to
    having engaged in sexual activity primarily as a
    result of being under the influence of alcohol,
    or to having sex they wouldn't have had if they
    had been sober.
  • One in twelve college males admit to having
    committed acts that met the legal definition of
    rape.

24
Perpetrator of ETOH Sexual Assaults Zawacki, T et
al ., Wayne State University, 2003
  • 356 males college students
  • Ages 19- 48 (M24)
  • Questionnaire
  • History of sexual assault perpetration
  • Antisocial behaviors
  • Dating and sex related behaviors
  • ETOH related behaviors

25
Results
  • 42 had never sexually assaulted a women
  • 58 indicated they had committed some form of
    sexual assault since the age of 14yr
  • (coercion forced sexual contact)
  • 96 of cases men consumed ETOH
  • 84 of cases men and women consumed ETOH
  • 4 of cases only women consumed ETOH
  • 4-5 drinks

26
Stereotypes of Rapist are not
  • Strangers to their victims
  • Without access to consensual sex
  • Uneducated and unemployed
  • From any particular racial or ethnic group
  • Mentally ill
  • Violent in the sense of using weapons and
    physically maiming their victims

27
Results
  • ETOH involved perpetrators
  • Stronger histories of delinquency and
    impulsiveness
  • More aggressive and dominant personality traits
  • Stronger attitudes supporting violence against
    women
  • Stronger motivation to have sex to feel dominant
  • Higher levels of ETOH

28
  • Alcohol does not cause sexual assault


29
Makes it easier and faster
30
CNS Depression with Alcohol
31
CNS Depression of Alcohol
  • Impairs judgment
  • Depresses learned social and cultural inhibitions
  • Impairs self-evaluation
  • Euphoria
  • Memory loss
  • Shortened attention span
  • Sedation
  • Blurred vision
  • Nystagmus
  • Altered distance perception
  • Impaired hearing
  • Reduced muscle coordination
  • Increased reaction time
  • Light fixation

J. C. Garriott. (1996) Medicolegal Aspects of
Alcohol. Tucson, AZ Lawyers and Judges
Publishing Company, Inc.
32
Legal Limits
  • 0 tolerance- Russia, Brazil, Hungary, Brazil,
    Czech Republic
  • 0.02- China, Norway, Sweden, Puerto Rico,
    Estonia
  • 0.03- India, Japan, Serbia, Uruguay
  • 0.04- Lithuania, Canada- Saskatchewan
  • 0.05- Australia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Peru,
    South Africa, Thailand, Israel, Canada(other
    province)
  • 0.08 - Malaysia, Mexico, US, Puerto Rico (21yr),
    New Zealand, Malta
  • 0.15 - Norway (legal limit for sea vessels)

33
Alcohol Caffeine Drinks
34
Alcohol Caffeine Drinks
  • Ranked 4th in sales of alcoholic beverages at 7
    -11
  • 2.50- 3.00/can
  • Several fruity flavors

35
Four Loco
  • 2005 created in Netherlands and distributed by
    Phusion Products
  • 4 ingredients
  • Caffeine
  • Taurine
  • Guarana
  • alcohol
  • ETOH Content varies
  • 6 (IN) 12.5 (OH)
  • Decreases sensations delayed feelings of drunk
    increase number of cans

36
Benzodiazepines
  • Alprazolam     Clonazepam     Chlordiazepoxide    
     Diazepam     Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)
  •    Lorazepam     Triazolam 

37
Pharmacodynamics of Benzodiazepines
  • CNS Depressant
  • Symptoms
  • Slurred speech
  • Irritability
  • Agitation
  • Loss of inhibition
  • Sedation
  • Sedation
  • Sleepiness
  • Anterorgrade amnesia

38
Pharmacokinetics of Benzodiazepines
  • The duration of action of benzodiazepines is
    based largely on their pharmacokinetic half
    lives.
  • Relatively short acting benzodiazepines with a
    terminal elimination half life (under 24 h) are
    used predominantly as hypnotics and as
    supplements to anesthesia
  • Longer acting benzodiazepines are used as
    sedatives and minor tranquilizers

39
Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) started appearing in the
United States in the early 1990s. It is a
benzodiazepine (chemically similar to Valium or
Xanax), but it is not approved for medical use in
this country, and its importation is banned
40
Rohypnol is usually taken orally, although there
are reports that it can be ground up and snorted.

41
ROHYPNOL
  • Trade name flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepam 10X
    more potent than Valium
  • CNS depressant
  • Manufactured outside the US by Hoffman-LaRoche,
    Inc.
  • Short-term Tx of severe sleep disorders
  • Widely available in Europe, Mexico, Columbia
  • Neither manufactured nor approved for use in the
    US

42
Rohypnol
  • Ruffies LA Rocha
  • Rophy Mind Erasers
  • Ruff Whiteys
  • Rib Mexican Vallium
  • Roach Forget-me-pill
  • R2 Circles
  • Ropies
  • Rope

43
Rohypnol Flunitrazepam
  • A Benzodiazepine
  • Available in pill form only
  • Smuggled in from Mexico
  • Not approved for medical use in United States
  • Dissolves quickly in liquids
  • Odorless, tasteless,

44
Rohypnol
  • 2- 5 /pill

45
Onset 30 minutes and lasts 8-12 hours
  • Can last up to 36 hours and can be found in urine
    samples 24-48 hours
  • Muscle relaxation
  • Speech slurred, trouble standing
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Nausea, confusion, low BP, death

46
Rohypnol New tablets
  • Hoffman- Roche
  • Color releasing formulation .
  • Approved for use in 4 countries
  • Oval shaped
  • Olive-green in color
  • When dissolved, produces a bluish-green dye

47
Less than 1 Gram
  • Relaxant
  • Loss of muscle tone
  • Reduced inhibitions

1-2 Grams
  • Strong feeling of relaxation
  • Slows heart rate and respiration
  • Interferes with blood circulation, motor
    coordination and balance

48
2-4 Grams
  • Pronounced interference with motor and speech
  • Coma-like sleep may be induced requiring
    intubation to wake the user
  • Enhanced depressant effects if combined with
    alcohol
  • Combining with alcohol may lead to
    unconsciousness, coma and overdose

49
GHB
50
GHB-gamma-hydroxybutyrate
  • Rapidly acting CNS depressant
  • First synthesized in the 1920s
  • Under development as an anesthetic agent in the
    1960s
  • Is produced naturally by the body in small
    amounts but its physiologic function is unclear

51
GHB
  • Used as a steroid alternative by body builders
  • Occurs naturally in small quantities
  • Has not been approved by FDA since 1990
  • Used in Europe as an anesthetic
  • A colorless, odorless, liquid that has a salty or
    plastic taste

52
Gamma hydroxy butyrate GHB
  • Easy Lay EZ Lay
  • Liquid Ecstasy Ellie
  • Clear X Liquid X
  • X-Rater XTC
  • Chemical X Liquid Dream
  • Scoop Scoop Her
  • Get-her-to-bed

53
GHB
  • Delivered by postal service, at Gyms, bars/raves
  • Manufactured illegally
  • Home labs
  • Internet recipe
  • Works as a sedative
  • Lower dosages can decrease inhibitions
  • Higher dosages can cause nausea, coma, death

54
GHB
  • Onset 15 minutes and lasts 3-6 hours
  • Can last 36-72 hours when mixed w/ETOH
  • Very potent- A small amount can have a big effect
  • Drowsiness, confusion, vomiting
  • Tremors, sweating, drowsiness,
  • Slow heart rate, coma, death

55
GHB
  • 5-25 per cap
  • Water bottles, film containers, energy bottles,
    Gatorade bottles

56
GHB Why it is an effective DFSA drug
  • Easy to obtain
  • Fast acting
  • Mimics ETOH
  • Many labs do not have specific assays for GHB
  • Naturally occurring

57
Repeated use of GHB may lead to withdrawal
effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors,
and sweating. Severe withdrawal reactions have
been reported among patients presenting from an
overdose of GHB or related compounds, especially
if other drugs or alcohol are involved. Symptoms
may occur within 1-6 hours of last dose. Symptoms
may last for months.
58
Ketamine
  • Special K Super K
  • K OK
  • Vitamin K Kid rock
  • Ket Kat Make-her-mine

59
Ketamine
  • Schedule III controlled substance
  • Used in radiation and burn therapy

60
Ketamine
  • General anesthetic
  • Used by Vets (90)
  • Used in surgery (10)
  • Colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid or white
    powder
  • Orally ,intranasally, injected, intramuscularly,
    rectally
  • Victims feel detached

61
Ketamine
  • Mexico, Veterinarian and medical offices
  • Price
  • 20-25/ unit dose
  • Unit dose 1/5th of a gram

62
Ketamine
  • Onset is very fast acting (5- 10 minutes)
  • Lasts less than 1-3 hrs
  • Loss of memory, out of body or near death
  • Unable to move
  • Lost sense of time and identity
  • Aggressive or violent behavior

63
ECSTASY
  • Ecstasy is a derivative of amphetamine Its
    chemical name is 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine
    (MDMA) and it has a similar structure to
    methamphetamine

64
Ecstasy
  • A hallucinogenic and stimulant that has
    psychedelic effects
  • Illegal to sell or produce in US
  • Originally developed as an appetite suppressant
  • No current medical use

65
Ecstasy
  • Methylenedioxmethamphetamine (MDMA)
  • X
  • E
  • Beans
  • E-Bombs
  • Disco Biscuit
  • Adam
  • Hug Drug
  • Scooby Snacks

66
Ecstasy Raves
67
XTC
  • popular drug of abuse
  • "party drug" among adolescents
  • Those who frequent "rave" or "techno" parties
  • Recent reports estimate that over 2 million
    tablets are smuggled into the U.S. each week.
  • Emergency Room mentions increased 58, from 2,850
    to 4,511 between 1999 and 2000

68
Ecstasy
  • Comes from European pharmacies (illegally run)
  • Labs in USA
  • Sent in mail and smuggling (candy containers)
  • Can be snorted, orally, rectally

69
Ecstasy
  • Amsterdam- 6.00
  • United States- 10-15
  • CA- 20-25
  • HI- 9-30

70
Ecstasy
Can cause teeth grinding Drawn to light
Suppresses the need to eat/drink
71
Ecstasy
  • Onset is 20 30 minutes
  • Lasts 4-6 hrs
  • Can cause
  • Confusion, Depression
  • Sweating, chills
  • Blurred vision
  • Suppresses need to eat/drink
  • Heightened sensesmore enjoyable touch sexual
    (assault)

72
  • Because ecstasy is synthesized in laboratories,
    its purity can vary substantially from lab to
    lab, and other compounds are easily combined into
    the same tablet (contaminants often include
    caffeine, ephedrine, ketaminea mild
    hallucinogen, and methamphetamine).

73
ecstasy has short-term and long-term effects on
the brain. The short-term effects of ecstasy
include changes in brain chemistry and behavior.
The long-term effects include changes in brain
structure (based mainly on animal studies) and
behavior.
74
Opioids
  • Buprenorphine Oxycodone
  • Codiene Tramadol
  • Heroin Meperidine
  • Fentanyl Hydrocodone
  • Methadone Morphine

75
Opioids
  • Central Nervous System Effects
  • Euphoria
  • Sedation
  • Analgesia
  • Tolerance/dependence
  • Mood changes

76
Miscellaneous Drugs
  • Antihistamines
  • Zolpidem
  • Anti depressants
  • Chloral Hydrate
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Visine

77
Antihistamines Diphenhydramine- Benadryl
  • OTC Antihistamine
  • Some hallucinogenic properties at high dose
  • Cause sedation
  • Increased sedation with ETOH
  • Easily obtained, legal
  • Oral administration
  • Difficult to dissolve

78
Zolipidem (Ambien)
  • Sleep Aid- Not a benzodiazepine but acts on same
    receptor in the brain
  • Low dose medication- 5-10 mg pill
  • Needs a Prescription
  • Most labs can not detect
  • Dissolves fairly well in liquids
  • Bitter tasting

79
Antidepressants
  • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
  • Causes heavy sedation
  • May be prescribed for anxiety
  • Increase effects when ETOH added
  • Need Rx

80
Chloral Hydrate
  • One of the oldest sedative/hypnotic used
  • Need a prescription
  • Used for sedation in hospitals (children)
  • May have a paradoxical effect
  • Very rapidly metabolized- 10-20 min and rapidly
    secreted 2-4 hours
  • Liquid or liquid filled gel cap
  • Bitter tasting

81
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
  • Used as an anesthetic gas (clear)
  • Street names
  • Laughing gas
  • Nitrous
  • Pop goes the weasel
  • Whipping gas

82
Nitrous Oxide
  • Packaged as
  • Tanks
  • Whip cream chargers
  • CO2 cartridges
  • 3-5/ balloon

83
Nitrous Oxide An internal combustion enhancer
84
Tetrahydrozoline (Visine)
  • Tetrahydrozoline- beta antagonist- similar
    properties to clonadine
  • Orally taken
  • Effects
  • Drowsiness
  • Respiratory depression
  • Bradycardia
  • Hypotonia
  • Hypothermia
  • Coma
  • Spiller, HA et al., Drug facillitated . Leg Med
    (2007)

85
Visine
  • Visine contains 0.05 tetrahydrozoline
  • Dose necessary to cause coma
  • Adult- ?? But 30 ml of 0.05 solution produced
    hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension and light
    coma in adult male
  • Child- 2-5 ml of 0.05 solution
  • Lev, R et al, J Emerg Med (1995)
  • Klein-Schwartz et al ., Am J Emerg Med (1984)

86
Visine
  • Onset of action is 15- 30 minutes
  • Lasts 12 -24 hours
  • Bitter taste, after taste
  • Not on Toxicology Centers radar
  • Symptoms
  • Respiratory depression
  • Blurred vision
  • Vomiting
  • Hypothermia
  • hypotension

87
7.00/1/2 oz
88
BATH SALTS
Though the name may sound harmless, bath salts
are a dangerous synthetic stimulant that carry
the risk of easy overdose, hallucinations and
even death.9
89
A synthetic, stimulant powder product that
contains amphetamine-like chemicals, including
mephedrone, which may have a high risk for
overdose. Because the drug is new and some of the
contents unknown, using it in any way is highly
dangerous.10  Right now, bath salts are illegal
in a growing number of U.S. states, as well as
foreign countries like Canada, Australia and
Great Britain.11
90
AKA Brand names include Blizzard, Blue Silk,
Charge, Ivory Snow, Ivory Wave, Ocean Burst,
Pure Ivory, Purple Wave, Snow Leopard, Stardust,
Vanilla Sky, White Dove, White Knight and White
Lightning
91
THE RISKS Between January and February 2011,
there were over 250 calls to U.S. poison centers
related to bath salts. This is well over the 236
calls received for all of 2010.10 Bath salts are
a dangerous drug whose full risks and effects are
still unknown. What doctors at poison centers
have reported is that bath salts can cause rapid
heartbeat, high blood pressure, chest pains,
agitation, hallucinations, extreme paranoia and
delusions.1
92
LONG-TERM EFFECTS Bath salts are a relatively new
drug, so it's hard to know the full long-term
effects, but they seem to have many similarities
to methamphetamine (meth). Taking a lot of it for
a long time can lead to emotional and physical
"crash-like" feelings of depression, anxiety and
intense cravings for more of the drug.
THE BOTTOM LINE Since it contains
amphetamine-like chemicals, bath salts will
always carry the risk of stroke, heart attack and
sudden death. It may be legal in some states, but
so is rat poison, and you probably wouldn't want
to ingest that either.
93
MOLLY
94
Cost 100 Gram
95
MOLLY EFFECTS ON THE BRAIN Molly affects users
in many different ways. Most significantly, it
targets the brain. Medical professionals often
reference the reptilian brain to explain
instinctual and ritual behaviors.( the reptilian
brain is responsible for functions like
breathing, circulation, and movement)
96
Resources
  • Club Drugs . Org, National Institute on Drug
    Abuse
  • www.clubdrugs.org
  • National Drug Intelligence Center
  • www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs/1621/1621p.pdf
  • American Prosecutors Research Institute
  • www.ndaa-apri.org/publications/apri/violence_again
    st_women.htmlhttp//
  • abovetheinfluence.com/http//
  • mollydrug.net/

97
Testing
  • If ingestion was within 48 hours, collect blood
    and urine
  • If ingestion was within 48 and 96 hours, collect
    urine only
  • If ingestion was over 96 hours, no collection

98
Packaging of blood and urine
  • 10cc EDTA blood tube, label, and put in blood
    tube envelope with other specimen
  • 30cc midstream urine in sterile container, seal,
    label, in biohazard bag, then in paper bag
    outside kit labeled appropriately
  • Urine should be refrigerated if delay in pick-up,
    and frozen if not delivered to the crime lab
    within 24 hours of collection

99
Points to Remember
  • We cannot collect and wait for drug testing in
    order to move forward with the evidence kit.
  • We can collect a drug screen at the hospital, but
    it may not be as sensitive as the NMS
    laboratories

100
  • Mixing cough syrup and soft drinks or power
    drinks has become a popular to get high in some
    parts of the U.S., the Drug Enforcement
    Administration (DEA) says.
  • USA Today reported Oct. 19 that users mix
    prescription cough suppressants containing
    promethazine and codeine with soda or sports
    drinks, sometimes adding a Jolly Rancher candy
    and ice. The mix causes euphoria and impairs
    motor skills.
  • The trend got national attention when Terrance
    Kiel, a defensive back for the San Diego
    Chargers, was arrested last month for allegedly
    having cases of cough syrup shipped to his home
    in East Texas. The cough-medicine cocktails,
    known as "Lean," "Sizzurp," "Purple Drank," or
    other nicknames, are especially popular in the
    region.

101
  • A 2004 survey found that 8.3 percent of Texas
    secondary-school students reported using
    codeine-based cough syrups to get high. Officials
    from Texas to Florida report misuse of the
    prescription medication. The syrup often is
    obtained from online pharmacies.
  • The syrup sells for about 12 a pint wholesale,
    but is sold for 300 a pint to dealers who then
    sell it for 40-85 per ounce to consumers
    (640-1,360 per pint).
  • Cough-syrup use has been popularized in rap
    songs, including mixes by Houston disc-jockey DJ
    Screw (who died of a cocaine overdose in 2000)
    and songs by Three 6 Mafia ("Sippin' on the
    Syrup").

102
ANHEUSER BUSCHS NEW PRODUCT CALLED SPYKES
  • These are small (2.5 - 3 oz) malt beverage at 12
    alcohol in very slick bottles.
  • They are put out by Anheuser Busch, and they are
    only available in a handful of states thus far.
    They are
  • being marketed as something to add to beer to
    improve the flavor, or to pour over ice.
  • They come in four flavors
  • Spicy Mango
  • Hot Melons
  • Hot Chocolate
  • Spicy Lime
  • They are retailing in Michigan for 0.75 up to
    1.00 each.

103
  • These new products appear to be marketed for
    young people. Also, as they begin to appear,
    officers
  • may not realize that these bottles contain
    alcoholic beverages. They are the size and shape
    of many
  • small perfume or mouth wash bottles. With the
    different colors of liquid they could/will be
    easily overlooked
  • by patrol officers, especially in a womans purse.

104
Recommendations for Medical Providers
  • Common presentation
  • memory loss, dizziness, confusion,
  • drowsiness, slurred speech, impaired motor
    skills, impaired judgment, reduced inhibition
  • variety of other symptoms. The victim may also
    appear intoxicated or "hung-over".

105
Victim Presentations
  • Victim may remember little or nothing.
  • There may be many holes in the story
  • Their uncertainty may cause extreme anxiety

106
Typical Victim statements
  • Complete loss of consciousness
  • I passed outI was gone. He could have taken me
    to Vegas and I would never know it
  • Fragmented memory brief, intermittent periods
    of visual and/or auditory memories
  • I was awake some of the time but I couldnt move.
    I couldnt talk

107
Victim Statements
  • I only had two beers
  • I remember being in the bathroom
  • I couldnt walk
  • I went home and slept but didnt wake up with
    hangover

108
Include in documentation
  • Did victim
  • Vomit?
  • Urinate?
  • Defecate?
  • Could victim
  • Walk?
  • Talk?
  • Did victim have to be helped with physical tasks?
  • Did defendant
  • Carry victim?
  • Follow victim?
  • Victims coordination
  • Who undressed who?
  • Victims appearance / clothing
  • Dirty?
  • Disheveled?
  • Bloodshot eyes?
  • Location of assault
  • Was victim conscious?

109
Include in Documentation
  • Number and type of drink ingested?
  • Prescription, non prescription, recreational
    drugs used?
  • What drugs does the victim think were given to
    her/him?
  • Pictures/video taken?
  • Witnesses?

110
Witness Statements
  • Although the victim statement is crucial to the
    investigation, persons who saw the victim, or
    spoke to the victim, before, during and after the
    assault are critical witnesses.
  • Often, it is such witnesses who establish time
    frames, notice unusual behavior, provide critical
    facts and can identify potential sources of
    information.

111
Sexual Assault Forensic Exam
  • May have an increase in bruising to the body
  • Decrease vaginal injuries

112
Victim Challenges
  • Delayed reporting
  • Side effects drugs given
  • embarrassment
  • Lack of physical evidence
  • Inconsistent statements

113
Misc Facts
  • Time frame for reporting assault
  • 18 hours with alcohol vs 10 hours without
  • 1/5-1/4 of college women are sexually assaulted
    while attending college
  • Girls age 16-24 experience rape at rates higher
    than any other age
  • 90 are aquantance rapes.

114
Federal Drug Classification Schedules
115
schedule 1
116
(a) The drug or other substance has a high
potential for abuse
117
(b) The drug or other substance has no currently
accepted medical use in treatment in the United
States.
118
(c) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of
the drug or other substance under medical
supervision.
119
Schedule II
120
(a) The drug or other substance has a high
potential for abuse
121
(b) The drug or other substance has a currently
accepted medical use in treatment in the United
States or a currently accepted medical use with
severe restrictions.
122
(c) Abuse of the drug or other substances may
lead to severe psychological or physical
dependence.
123
Schedule III
124
a) The drug or other substance has a potential
for abuse less than the drugs or other substances
in schedules I and II
125
b) The drug or other substance has a currently
accepted medical use in treatment in the United
States.
126
(c) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead
to moderate or low physical dependence or high
psychological dependence.
127
Schedule IV
128
(a) The drug or other substance has a low
potential for abuse relative to the drugs or
other substances in schedule III.
129
(b) The drug or other substance has a currently
accepted medical use in treatment in the United
States.
130
(c) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead
to limited physical dependence or psychological
dependence relative to the drugs or other
substances in schedule III.
131
Schedule V
132
(A) The drug or other substance has a low
potential for abuse relative to the drugs or
other substances in schedule IV.
133
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently
accepted medical use in treatment in the United
States.
134
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead
to limited physical dependence or psychological
dependence relative to the drugs or other
substances in schedule IV.
About PowerShow.com