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School / Class Rules

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Present Perfect Tense + already/yet Already and yet are 2 adverbs that are commonly used with the present perfect. Present Perfect is used to talk about actions that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: School / Class Rules


1
(No Transcript)
2
School / Class Rules
  • Respect each others space, property and ideas.
  • Be ready to work, improve, learn and share ideas.
  • Do not talk while anyone (teacher/student) is
    speaking to the class.
  • Be prepared for class (GO TO LOCKERS ONLY BEFORE
    PERIOD 1, AT BREAK/LUNCH TIME, AFTER SCHOOL.)
    and arrive on time (3 minutes after the scheduled
    class time). When you arrive, take out homework,
    notebook, pen and text books.
  • Leave the desks and room the same as when you
    entered. You are responsible for your own desk.
  • No food, drinks, electronics are allowed in
    class.

3
Grades
  • Youve seen the official Excel breakdown of
    grades. This is an easier way to think about
    them
  • Midterm Exam (July)
    20
  • Final Exam (October)
    20
  • Class notes/Class work/Homework
    10
  • Writing
    10
  • Listening Speaking/Behavior/Participation
    10
  • Project
    10
  • Quizzes/Tests
    10
  • !!!!
    10

4
  • PREFIXES
  • Add a prefix to the beginning of a word to change
    the meaning of the word.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
  • un- and in- mean not.
  • happy ? unhappy effective ? ineffective kind
    ? unkind active -gt inactive
  • dis- means the opposite of.
  • appear ? disappear organized -gt disorganized
    trust -gt distrust
  • re- means again. write -gt rewrite
    do -gt redo heat -gt reheat
  • over- means too much. cook -gt overcook
    dramatic -gt overdramatic
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --
  • Add a prefix to the following words and write
    them in your notebook
  • educated ? _______ forgettable ? ______
    accurate ? ________ due
    ? ________ charge ? ________ visible
    ?__________
  • complete ? ________ certain ? _________ priced ?
    ___________
  • obey ? ________ try ? __________ unite?
    ____________
  • unite ? __________ comfort ? _____________
  • order? ________ qualify ? __________ build?
    ____________

5
  • Prefixes
  • Add a prefix to the beginning of a word to change
    the meaning of the word.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
  • un- means not.
  • happy ? unhappy organized ? unorganized
    kind ? unkind
  • dis- means the opposite of.
  • appear ? disappear organized -gt disorganized
    trust -gt distrust
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --
  • Add a prefix to the following words and write
    them in your notebook
  • educated ? _______ forgettable ? ___________
    well ? ________ usual ? _________ natural
    ? ________ aware ?______
  • real ? ________ certain ? _________ expected ?
    ___________
  • obey ? ________ allow ? __________ loyal?
    ____________
  • advantage ? __________ comfort ? _____________
  • order? ________ qualify ? __________ respect?
    ____________-
  • able ? _______ used -gt ____________

6
Suffix -ness / -tion / -ation
  • Add a suffix to the end of a word to change the
    Part of Speech (P.O.S.)
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -
  • -ness means full of and changes an adjective to
    a noun.
  • happy ? happiness good ? goodness kind ?
    kindness sad ? sad_____
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -----
  • -tion and -ation mean state of being or
    condition of
    and change a verb to a noun.
  • observe ? observation conserve ? conservation
    prepare ?prepar______
  • -------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ---
  • Other words with these suffixes are
  • educate ? _______ create ? _______ demonstrate
    ? ___________
  • forgive ? ________ lazy ? _________ great ?
    ________ aware ?______
  • invent ? ________ populate ? _________ expire ?
    ___________
  • fierce ? ________ admire ? __________ consider ?
    ____________
  • imagine ? __________ transport ? _____________
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ---

7
Root Words and Suffixes
  • Root Word is a word without a prefix or suffix
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------------
  • -Choose 3 root word adjectives and 3 root word
    verbs from the last slide.
  • -Write 2 sentences for each root word.
  • -The 1st sentence must be the original root
    word. The 2nd sentence must have the suffix added
    to the root word to make a noun.
  • Use the words in the correct P.O.S.
  • EXAMPLE frustrate (v) ? frustration (n)
  • AC Milan frustrated (v) Ronaldo with their great
    defense.
  • Ronaldo felt frustration (n) because he could not
    score for 90 minutes.

8
Root Words and Suffixes
  • Apple created (v) the iPad. Apples
    new creation (n) is the iPad.
  • Teachers help, but students must educate (v)
    themselves.
  • The best education (n) is to be a self-teacher.
  • 15 million people populate (v) Bangkok. Bangkoks
    population (n) is 15 million.
  • I will ____ going with you, but Im not sure. He
    has ___ for his mom on her birthday.
  • We ___ experiments in science class. Our ___ is
    that too much salinity kills plankton.
  • The fruit will _____ and go bad soon. The
    _____ date is tomorrow.
  • The BTS ____ many people each day. The BTS is a
    type of ________.

9
Root Words and Suffixes
  • I smile when Im happy (adj). Happiness (n)
    makes me smile.
  • The student is bored because he is lazy (adj).
    His laziness (n) makes him bored.
  • Top students are aware (adj) in the classroom.
    Their
    awareness (n) lets them absorb information.
  • A tigers _________is scary. Tigers are
    ________animals.
  • The ____ movie made me cry. There was too much
    ______ to enjoy it.
  • The ____ of the boy made him help the old woman.
    He is such a ___ boy.
  • ____ had nothing to
    do with it.

10
Introduce Yourself
  • 10 marks - Wednesday, May 22nd
  • Talk about your past present and future. What
    are your habits and hobbies? What are your
    strengths and weaknesses? What makes you
    interesting and unique?
  • You must speak for 2 3 minutes.
  • You must speak in an audible voice so that the
    whole class can hear.
  • For full marks, because you are only speaking for
    a few minutes, you must speak naturally and with
    a good pace without pausing.

11
  • Action verbs actions / doings
  • She sings for the school chorus. You play for the
    school team.
  • Linking verbs links/connects the subject to a
    noun or adjective
  • John is a student. She was happy after school.
    They are tall.
  • Helping verbs There must be at least 2 verbs
    for 1 subject.
  • --used in the Continuous and Perfect tenses
    He is
    going to the store. He has been to Mars.
  • --used in questions and negative statements in
    simple tenses -
  • Do you like spicy food? Steve does not drink
    coffee.
  • Modal verbs changes the mode of a verb
  • You must study for every test. They should be
    more careful.
  • I will do my best. Can you swim? He could not
    finish dinner.

12
Create your own examples.
  • Action verbs Write 2 sentences that use action
    verbs in a simple tense.
  • Linking verbs Write 2 sentences using linking
    verbs in a simple tense.
  • Helping verbs Write 4 sentences using helping
    verbs. Do 1 sentence in a continuous tense, 1 in
    a perfect tense, 1 simple negative statement and
    1 simple tense question.
  • Modal verbs Write 2 sentences using 2 different
    modal verbs.

13
To Conjugate a verb
  • We conjugate verbs so that the subject and verb
    agree with each other.
  • To conjugate a verb is to change it from the
    infinitive to the proper
  • 1) tense present, past, continuous, perfect
  • 2) person 1st person (I/we) 2nd person
    (you)
    3rd person
    (he/she/it/they)
  • 3) number singular (I/you/he/she/it) or
    - plural (we/you/they)

14
Conjugations of to be
  • Conjugations of to be are most often used as a
    linking verb. She
    is cute. I was asleep. You will be fine.
  • TO BE is also used as a helping verb in the
    Continuous Tenses.
  • I am going to the movies.
    You were floating on air.
    He will be collecting
    your notebooks soon.

15
TO BE Conjugated in the Present Simple Tense
  • subject TO BE object.
  • I am
    glad to meet you.
  • She is a
    teacher at BCC.
  • We are
    happy during English class.
  • - subject TO BE not
    object.
  • The tiger is not
    orange.
  • The books are not
    under the chair.
  • I am
    not bored.
  • ? TO BE subject
    object?
  • Are you
    serious?
  • Why are they
    absent from class?
  • Am I
    late?

16
  • Simple Present Tense (Action Verbs)
  • Subject Verb
    (object).
  • A good student finisheS the work
  • Mike trieS his
    best every time.
  • ADD -s to the verb for he/she/it nouns.
  • Batman and Robin save the day
    once again.
  • - Subject do/does not (Verb1)
    object.
  • My teacher does not
    give too much homework
  • We do not
    like grammar lessons.
  • ? question word do/does subject
    (Verb1) object?
  • What do
    you like to do
    on the weekend?
  • Does
    she miss
    school often?
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------
  • Complete 2 positive, 2 negative and 2 question
    sentences.

17
TO BE Present/Past Simple
  • subject TO BE object.
  • I am
    glad to meet you.
  • She is a
    teacher at BCC.
  • We were
    sad during the end of the film.
  • - subject TO BE not
    object.
  • The tiger was not
    orange.
  • The book is not
    under the chair.
  • ? TO BE subject
    object?
  • Are you
    serious?
  • Why were they
    absent from class?

18
  • Simple Present Action Verbs vs. To Be
  • ACTION VERBS
  • Subject Verb (object).
  • Mike trieS his best
    every time. ltltltlt Add -s to the verb for
    They save the day
    once again. he/she/it subjects.
  • - Subject do/does not (Verb1)
    object.
  • My teacher does not
    give too much homework.
  • ? question word do/does subject
    (Verb1) object?
  • What do
    you like
    to do on the weekend?
  • TO BE (no helping verb)
  • subject TO BE not
    object.
  • The movie is not
    very good.
  • ? TO BE subject
    object?
  • Why are they
    absent from class?

19
TO BE Modal Tense
  • subject modal be
    object.
  • I should be
    better in class.
  • She will be a
    doctor after 2 more years.
  • We can be
    anything if we try hard.
  • - subject modal not be
    object.
  • The elephant could not be
    bigger.
  • The computer can not be
    broken already.
  • ? modal subject
    be object?
  • Where must I
    be at 400?
  • May we
    be excused from dinner?
  • Will you
    be in class tomorrow?
  • Why wont you
    be there?

20
Simple Present Tense
  • Use the present simple to talk about facts.
  • -Water freezes at zero degrees Celsius. This
    class has 25 people.
  • -Lions are larger than tigers. I am 13
    years old.
  • -Plants require sunlight. The moon doesnt
    revolve around the sun.
  • Use the present simple to talk about
    habits/hobbies and things that happen often.
  • -Sometimes I play basketball after school.
  • She travels to Hong Kong every month.
  • She does not travel to Beijing. He goes to
    school on the BTS.

21
Present Simple TensePOSITIVE STATEMENTS
  • Positive (I/you/we/they) verb1 object.
  • We
    play football.
  • My brothers like
    to read books.
  • (He/she/it) (verb1 s)
    object.
  • She goes
    home on the train.
  • This class ends
    40 minutes from now.

22
NEGATIVE STATEMENTS
  • (I/you/we/they) (do not/dont) verb1
    object.
  • We do not
    sing karaoke well.
  • They dont
    have the books.
  • (He/she/it) (does not / doesnt) verb1
    object.
  • He doesnt
    eat spicy food.
  • She does not
    have enough money.

23
QUESTIONS
  • ? Do (I/you/we/they) (verb1)
    object?
  • Do you
    have fun at school?
  • Do your parents like
    Japanese food?
  • Does (he/she/it) verb1
    object?
  • Does the show start
    at 800?
  • Does your sister go
    there often?

24
Spelling
  • -Add -s when the subject is 3rd person singular
    (A bird flies The student studies Mike plays)
  • -Add -s when the subject is he/she/it.
  • With a 3rd person singular subject and when a
    verb ends in a consonant y change -y to
    -ies
  • fly ? It flies study ? Mike studies
    try ? He tries
  • With a 3rd person singular subject and when a
    verb ends in a -ch, -o, -sh, -ss, add -es to
    the verb.

25
Prefix
  • Prefix goes at the beginning of a word to
    change the meaning.
  • 2 common prefixes in English are un- and
    dis-. They can mean not or the opposite of.
  • uncertain not certain unexplained not
    explained
  • disapprove reject / opposite of approve
  • disappear vanish / opposite of appear
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------
  • Use 5 of these words in your own sentence
    disagree (v), uncertain (adj), unidentified
    (adj), unexplained (adj), disapprove (v),
    disappear (v), unfair (adj), unkind (adj),
    unknown (adj)

26
  • USE 1 - Repeated Actions (habits, hobbies, jobs,
    )
  • an action is repeated or usual. The action can be
    a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled
    event or something that often happens.
  • USE 2 - Facts or Generalizations / Physical or
    Character Traits
  • a fact was true before, is true now, and will be
    true in the future.
  • USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future
  • to talk about scheduled events in the near
    future.

27
Present Continuous Tense
  • subject to be
    verbING object.
  • I am
    teaching English class.
  • You/We/They are
    writing class notes.
  • He/She/It is
    flying above the
    clouds.
  • - subject to be not
    verbING object.
  • I am
    not eating lunch
    today.
  • You/We/They are not
    having the test this period.
  • He/She/It is not
    going.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------
  • Create 3 of your own Present Continuous Tense
    positive statements. Use each of
    is/am/are in at least 1 sentence.
  • Create 3 of your own Present Continuous Tense
    negative statements. Use each of
    is/am/are in at least 1 sentence.

28
Present Continuous Tense - Questions
  • ? to be subject
    verbING object?
  • Am I
    wearing the correct uniform?
  • Where are you/we/they playing
    football after class?
  • Is he/she/it
    doing the homework correctly?
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------
  • Create your own questions. Use is, am and are
    in at least one question.

29
  • Present Simple vs. Present Continuous
  • Present Simple is used to talk about facts /
    something that is true at anytime. ?
    She usually works on Silom Rd.
  • Present Continuous - is used to talk about
    something happening right now or around now. ?
    Today she is working in the office on Sathorn
    Rd.
  • Present Simple is used to talk about events that
    last for a long time / actions that are often
    repeated.
  • He often plays
    football after school.
  • ?-------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------?
  • past
    present
    future
  • Present Continuous is used to talk about events
    that last for a short/limited time.
  • ( They are practicing
    for cheering for a few weeks. )
  • ?-----------------(-----------------------------
    ---------------------)-------------------?
  • long past ( short past
    present 90 sure in future ) long
    future

30
  • Structure of Present Continuous
  • subject to be
    verbING object.
  • I am
    teaching English class.
  • You/We/They are
    writing class notes.
  • He/She/It is
    flying above the
    clouds.
  • - subject to be not
    verbING object.
  • I am
    not eating lunch
    today.
  • You/We/They are not
    having the test this period.
  • He/She/It is not
    going.
  • ? to be subject
    verbING object?
  • Am I
    wearing the correct uniform?
  • Where are you/we/they playing
    football after class?
  • Is he/she/it
    doing the homework correctly?

31
Usage of Present Continuous
  • We use the present continuous tense to talk about
    something that is happening right now.
  • Right now I am speaking, and you are
    listening.
  • We use the present continuous tense to talk about
    something happening around now or for sure to
    happen in the future
  • Tomorrow Im going by bus. This weekend my
    family is going to the beach.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    -------------
  • You are also responsible for irregular spelling
    rules in Table C on p. 95 of Grammar
    Spectrum. For example
  • win ? winning come ? coming die ? dying
    get ? getting

32
Usage of the Present Continuous Tense
  • We use the present continuous tense to talk about
    something that is happening right now.
  • Right now I am speaking, and you are
    listening.
  • We use the present continuous tense to talk about
    something happening around now or for sure to
    happen in the future
  • Tomorrow Im going by bus. This weekend my
    family is going to the beach.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    -------------
  • You are also responsible for irregular spelling
    rules in Table C on p. 95 of Grammar
    Spectrum. For example
  • win ? winning come ? coming die ? dying
    get ? getting

33
Present Continuous Tense to talk about the future
  • is/am/are subject verbING?
    Subject is/am/are verbING
  • Where are you
    going ? I am
    going to Brazil.
  • Use the Present Continuous to talk about future
    plans that are set already. The plans are 90
    definite and should not change.
  • Im playing football after school with some
    teachers.
  • M.1 is starting the fairy tale project this
    week.
  • You are taking finals in September.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ----------------
  • Use be going to VERB1 if it is something you
    hope to do but are not sure.
  • The P.1 student says that he is going to be a
    doctor when he is older.
  • The medical student is starting work in a
    hospital when he graduates.
  • If I have enough money one day, I am going to buy
    a Ferrari.
  • I won the lottery, so I am buying a Ferrari.

34
(is/am/are) going to verb
  • This is also a type of Present Continuous Tense
    (be verbING), but it is when the future
    action is 50/50.
  • I am going to be a football star sometime in the
    future.
  • You are going to see a film if you have time
    after you study.
  • He is going to travel to Antarctica if Punyapat
    lets him borrow the red jacket.

35
Simple Past Tense
  • Conjugate regular verbs into the simple past
    tense by adding -ed
  • walk?walked open?opened apply?applied
    stop?stopped
  • See Table D on p. 95 for other spelling
    rules.
  • There are also irregular verbs. See Table E on
    p.96 for more irregular verbs.
  • do ? did have ? had be?was/were
    say ? said go ? went

36
Simple Past Tense
  • Subject verbED/irregular
    object.
  • I/She/He/It
    was good.
  • You/We/They were
    happy to be at school.
  • We stopped
    the car at a rest stop.
  • She
    bought a coffee from the street
    stall.

  • helping verb
  • - action Subject did not
    verb1 object.
  • We
    did not start class
    yet.
  • They
    didnt come
    to the party.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -------------
  • - to be Subject was/were not
    object.
  • My friend was
    not at the market.
  • The taxis
    werent yellow when I was in Bangkok.
  • helping verb
  • ? action Did subject
    verb1 object?
  • Did
    someone ring the
    doorbell?
  • How did
    they plan their
    project?

37
  • - to be Subject was/were not
    object.
  • My friend was
    not at the market.
  • The taxis
    werent yellow when I was in Bangkok.
  • helping verb
  • ? action Did subject
    verb1 object?
  • Did
    someone ring the
    doorbell?
  • How did
    they plan their
    project?
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------
  • ? to be Were/Was subject
    object?
  • Were
    you tired after school?
  • Where was the
    conference?

38
  • Use 1 For a completed past action / series of
    past actions
  • I did my homework last night.     I finished work
    and then walked to the beach.
  •  
  • Use 2 for an action that lasted for a time, but
    stopped in the past
  • I lived in Brazil for two years.     Shauna
    studied Japanese for five years.
  •  Use 3 Past habits / Past facts facts that
    are not true now, but were true
  • I studied French when I was a child. She was shy
    as a child, but now she isnt.

39
Past Continuous Tense
  • subject to be
    verbING object.
  • I was
    teaching English class.
  • You/We/They were
    writing class notes.
  • He/She/It was
    flying above the clouds.
  • - subject to be not
    verbING object.
  • I was not
    eating lunch
    today.
  • You/We/They were not
    having the test this period.
  • He/She/It was not
    going.
  • ? to be subject verbING
    object?
  • Was I
    wearing the correct uniform?
  • Where were you/we/they playing
    football after class?
  • Was he/she/it
    doing the homework correctly?

40
Past Simple vs. Past Continuous Tense
  • Use the past simple tense to talk about a
    completed event, an event that started and
    finished, in the past. ? I studied the past
    simple tense last night.
  • Use the past simple for/fromuntil to talk
    about an event that continued and ended in the
    past.
  • ? I studied English from 700 until midnight. I
    lived in Baltimore for 4 years.
  • Use the past continuous tense to talk about an
    action in progress in the past.
  • What was M doing when you saw him last night? He
    was waiting for the bus.
  • ?-------(----------------------------X------------
    ----------------------)---------------?
  • M started waiting. You saw M.
    M stopped
    waiting for the bus.
  • The past continuous is often used with the
    conjunction, while, to talk about 2 events in
    the past that were happening at the same time.
  • I was studying math while my brother was playing
    games.
  • While you were sleeping, I was searching for the
    answer

41
Past Simple Past Continuous
  • The past simple and past continuous tenses are
    often used together with the conjunction, when,
    to show that a 2nd action interrupts/stops a 1st
    action.
  • The 1st action was happening for some time and
    the 2nd quickly interrupted.
  • Usually the 2nd action is more interesting/importa
    nt than the 1st.
  • The past simple follows when.
  • I was brushing my teeth when an alien appeared
    outside the window.
  • P.C.
    P.S.
  • She was walking down Silom when a truck swerved
    onto the sidewalk.
  • P.C.
    P.S.
  • When Mary woke up this morning, it already was
    raining outside.
  • P.S.
    P.C.

42
Present Perfect Tense
  • helping verb
  • subject to have verb3
    object.
  • I have
    been
    to Mars.
  • You/We/They have
    flown a helicopter.
  • He/She/It has
    played a game with Messi.
  • - helping verb
  • subject to have not
    verb3 object.
  • I/You/We/They have not
    eaten dog meat.
    He/She/It has
    not climbed Mt. Everest.

43
Present Perfect Tense
  • - helping verb
  • subject to have not
    verb3 object.
  • I/You/We/They have not
    eaten dog meat.
    He/She/It has
    not climbed Mt.
    Everest.
  • ? helping verb
  • to have subject verb3
    object?
  • Have I
    done the homework correctly?
  • Where have (you/we/they) gone
    in Europe?
  • Has ( he/she/it )
    had the soup yet?

44
Present Perfect Tense
  • ? helping verb
  • to have subject
    verb3 object?
  • Have I
    done the homework
    correctly?
  • Where have (you/we/they)
    gone in
    Europe?
  • Has ( he/she/it )
    had the soup
    yet?
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------
  • The subject (owns/has/possesses) an
    (experience/action/event/verb).
  • Have you had that experience? Yes, I
    have had that experience.
  • The Present Perfect tense is use to talk about an
    (event/action/experience/verb ) that the subject
    owns because it has done the action at least
    once.
  • Present Perfect is used to talk about the past,
    but not the exact time in the past. (Past simple
    is used to tell exact time) ?
  • P.P.
  • A Have you been to England before?
  • B Yes, I have been there before. I went
    last April.
  • P.P
    P.S.

45
  • The subject (owns/has/possesses) an
    (experience/action/event/verb).
  • Have you had that experience? Yes, I
    have had that experience.
  • The Present Perfect tense is use to talk about an
    (event/action/experience/verb ) that the subject
    owns because it has done the action at least
    once.
  • Present Perfect is used to talk about the past,
    but not the exact time in the past. (Past simple
    is used to tell exact time) ?
  • A Have you been to England before?
    When did you go?
  • B Yes, I have been there before.
    I went last April.
  • P.P

    P.S.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------
  • Use Present Perfect to talk about an event from
    the past that has a cause / effect relationship
    on the present time.
  • Ive seen this movie already, so I dont
    want to see it again now.
  • Todays class is review because they have
    studied the present perfect tense already.
  • Use Present Perfect with for and since to
    talk about an action/event that started in the
    past and is still true today.? I have taught at
    BCC for a little over 1 year.
  • ?-2008-----------2009
    -----------------------X 2010---------------------
    -2011--?


  • He has been in M.2 since this
    past May.
  • ?--March--------April---------- X
    May--------------June--?

46
Present Perfect Tense already/yet
  • Already and yet are 2 adverbs that are commonly
    used with the present perfect.
  • Present Perfect is used to talk about actions
    that happened in a general past time. You are not
    sure exactly when it happened, but you are sure
    that it happened already.
  • Simple Past Tense It happened ( last
    year/week).
  • past -------------------//------------------------
    ------------//-----------present
  • last year
    last week
  • Present Perfect Tense It has happened
    already.
  • past--(---------action finished anytime in the
    past----------)--//present
  • Irregular Past Participles / Verb3 are
    listed in Table E on p.96
    of Grammar Spectrum.

47
Present Perfect vs. Simple Past
  • Simple Past Tense is used to talk about an event
    that happened at a specific time in the past. The
    event started and finished in the past.?
    When did Jane return from India?
    He played football from 5 until 630.
  • I met most of your parents on parent-teacher day.
  • ?past--3 years ago---(---He studied in Japan for
    2 years---)----now----future?
  • He studied in Japan for the last 2 years,
    but he just came back to Thailand.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ----
  • -Present Perfect Tense is used to talk about
    events from the past without a specific time. The
    subject owns that experience. The subject has
    that event.?
  • Has Jane returned from India yet? He has played
    football sometime in the past. I have
    met most of your parents.
  • -Use Present Perfect Tense to talk about an event
    that started in the past, but that is still true
    now. ? Thailand has been a democracy since the
    1970s.
  • - Use Present Perfect if an event from the past
    (with no specific time) has a cause/effect
    relationship on the present or future. ?
    I have
    studied for the test, so I will get a good grade.

48
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
  • Use the Present Perfect Continuous when an action
    began in the past and continues until now in the
    present.
  • past---- ( X action began in the past and
    continues to the ? present)
  • I have been waiting from
    700 until now.
  • The Present Perfect is different because the
    action began and finished in the past.
  • It has happened
    already.
  • past--(---------action finished anytime in the
    past----------)--//present
  • for and since are prepositions of time often
    used with both the PPC and PP.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -----
  • The PPC is used for actions that happen many
    times in the past and continues until now in the
    present.
  • past- ( X action repeated in the past and
    continues to repeat in the ? present)
  • You have been learning in E.I.P. since grade
    1.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ----------
  • How long? is often used for questions in the
    PPC.

49
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
  • Subject to have been-verb3
    verbING.
  • He has
    been learning his lines for
    the play.
    They have
    been taking
    piano lessons for years.
  • Subject to have not to be verb3
    verbING.
  • She has not
    been reading the book
    lately. The cat hasnt
    been sleeping
    in the house.
  • The announcements havent been
    making sense recently.
  • My dogs have not
    been behaving since Tuesday.
  • ? to have subject to be
    verb3 verbING?
  • Have you
    been playing football since
    lunch?
  • How long has your father
    been working in China?
  • Where has he
    been going after school?
  • What have we
    been studying for the last week?

50
Present Perfect Tense - Structure
  • Subject to have (past
    participle/verb 3).
  • subject present tense
    verb -ed/-en .
  • He already has
    washed the dishes.
    They
    have taken
    the photo already.
  • - Subject to have not (past
    participle/verb 3).
  • subject present tense
    verb -ed/-en .
  • She has not
    started her homework yet.
    The exam hasnt
    begun
    already.
  • The announcements havent
    made it clear.
  • My dogs have not
    run away from home.
  • ? to have subject
    past participle ?
  • present tense subject
    verb ed/en ?
  • Have you
    washed the dishes yet?
  • Has your father
    brought the computer?
  • Where has he
    been?

51
  • Coordinating conjunctions  join
     words, phrases, or clauses.
  • They are words such as and, but, for, nor, or, so
    , and yet.
  • Conjunctions join words to create compound nouns.
  • EXAMPLE Five and five is ten.
  •  
  • Conjunctions join phrases
  • EXAMPLEThe fisherman is walking along the
    beach and carrying a bucket of fish. 
  • Conjunctions join clauses
  • EXAMPLEHe walked to his car. He got into it. ?
    He walked to his car and got into it.
  • ____________________________ ? She is
    tired but she cannot sleep.
  •  
  • Write the sentences. Label if the conjunctions
    joins words, phrases or clauses.
  • I missed the ending part and I'm guessing who the
    murderer is. ___________
  • I'd like to go but I'm too busy. ___________
  • The audience wasn't very impressed by his
    performance nor his jokes. _____________
  • He doesn't have a sister or a wife.
    ________________The rain got heavier, so the
    match had to be abandoned. ______________He's
    only a little boy, and yet he is able to carry
    such a heavy load. _____________

52
  • Relative clauses give more information about a
    noun. There are subject and object relative
    clauses. They can split or follow an independent
    clause.
  • 3 relative clause pronouns are who(m), that and
    which.
  • In a subject relative clause, the relative clause
    pronoun is the subject of the dependent relative
    clause.
  • Jane who is the president works long hours.
    (splits clause)
  • We went to the restaurant that won many awards.
    (follows clause)
  • The car which was missing was found near the
    railroad tracks.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------
  • An object relative clause gives more info about
    the subject or an object of an independent
    clause. The relative clause pronoun is the object
    of the verb.
  • The teacher whom you had last year is leaving
    for Korea.
  • I ate the main course which the waiter served
    before the appetizer.

53
  • Punctuation for
    Conjunctions
  • -When joining 2 words or phrases, a comma is not
    needed.
  • Cats and dogs are common pets. He is reading or
    studying.
  • -When joining 3 or more words or phrases, a comma
    is needed.
  • Cats, dogs, and birds are common pets
  • -When joining 2 clauses, a comma is needed.
  • Bob likes coffee, but he doesnt like tea.
  • UNLESS
  • because is between 2 clauses
  • Your fairy tales must be complete soon because I
    need them for Academic Day.

54
  • Correlative conjunctions come in the form
    of pairs of words either ... orneither ...
    nor both ... and not only ... but also,
    and whether ... or.
  • EXAMPLESYou can have either this one or that
    one.They are neither our friend nor our
    ally.Pepe can both juggle and perform magic
    tricks.He has not only been reprimanded but
    also faces possible expulsion.I couldn't
    decide whether to marry her or her sister.

55
Verb Gerund(verbing)
  • A Gerund is an action that is used as a noun. To
    box is an action. Boxing is the sport
  • To make a GERUND verb ing
  • Gerunds commonly follow these verbs avoid, cant
    stand, enjoy, like, finish, hate, keep, miss,
    stop
  • (verb)
    (verbing / gerund)
  • Past / present / future always the
    same
  • Indirect Objects
  • The action / verb happens to the Direct Object
  • The Indirect Object replaces a prepositional
    phrase and goes before the direct object.
  • I gave a present
    to Mom.
  • Subject verb direct object
    prepositional phrase
  • I gave mom
    a present.
  • Subject verb indirect object
    direct object
  • Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us,
    them

56
Indirect Objects
  • Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, them
  • The action/verb happens to the Direct Object. The
    D.O. receives the action.
  • The Indirect Object is for whom or to whom
    the action is done. The I.O. replaces a
    prepositional phrase and goes before the direct
    object.
  • Subject verb direct object
    prepositional phrase
  • I gave a present
    to Mom.
  • We bought a bag of
    food for the dog.
  • Subject verb indirect
    object direct object
  • She gave mom
    a present.
  • I have brought
    her the homework.
  • They are giving the
    class a presentation.

57
Comparative Adjectives
  • For short adjectives (usually 1 syllable) add
    -er to the adjective.
  • long longer big bigger hot
    hotter new newer
  • For adjectives ending in -y, change y to i
    and add -er
  • happy happier hungry
    hungrier easy - easier
  • For long adjectives (usually 2 syllables or more)
    add more before the ADJ.
  • expensive more expensive difficult more
    difficult excited more excited
  • Irregular Adjectives good better
    bad - worse
  • These adjectives are used in sentences with
    than to compare 2 or more things.
  • Subject to be
    Comparative ADJ than object .
  • BCC is
    bigger than many
    schools.
  • The midterm was
    easier than the final.
  • Bangkok is
    more crowded than Chiang
    Mai.
  • Shrek was
    better/worse than Shrek
    2.

58
Comparative ADJ and comparing with asas
  • These adjectives are used in sentences with
    than to compare 2 or more things.
  • Subject to be
    Comparative ADJ than object .
  • BCC is
    bigger than many
    schools.
  • The midterm was
    easier than the final.
  • Bangkok is
    more crowded than Chiang
    Mai.
  • Shrek was
    better/worse than Shrek
    2.
  • To compare 2 things that are equal use, as ADJ
    as
  • They are as happy as a clam. The new book is
    as interesting as the old one.
  • To compare 2 things that are not equal use, not
    as ADJ as
  • The old hotel is not as expensive as the new
    hotel. Turtles are not as fast as rabbits.

59
Comparative Adverbs
  • The same form as adjectives can be used for
    adverbs, but for long form adjectives, use more
    adverb form (-LY)
  • Subject verb Comparative ADJ
    than object .
  • BCC plays
    better than many schools.
  • The students scored higher on the
    midterm than the final.
  • Clowns act more
    playfully than mimes.
  • -------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    --
  • To compare 2 things that happen equally use, as
    ADVERB as
  • They play guitar as loudly as annoying
    M.4 students in the corridor.
  • The new car drives as quickly as a
    cheetah.
  • To compare 2 things that dont happen equally
    use

  • to do not verb asADV as
  • Chale doesnt play as skillfully as
    Messi.
  • Some students didnt study as well as
    they should have studied.

60
Superlative Adjectives
  • For short adjectives use the ADJ
    -est
  • long the longest big the biggest hot
    the hottest new the newest
  • For adjectives ending in -y, use the
    ADJ -iest
  • happy the happiest hungry the
    hungriest easy - the easiest
  • For long adjectives add the most before the
    ADJ.
  • the most expensive the most
    difficult the most excited
  • Irregular Adjectives good better the
    best bad worse the worst
  • Subject to be Superlative
    ADJ object / what you compare. Elephants
    are the biggest
    animals on land.
  • The midterm was the
    easiest of our 4 major tests.
  • Bangkok is the most
    crowded city in Thailand.
  • Shrek was the best
    / the worst of all the Shrek movies.

61
make/do/have/get
  • make to create/produce something ?
    They made a campfire. My mom
    often makes me lunch. T. Patrick is making
    himself a cup of coffee.
  • make something adjective - Dont
    make me annoyed.
  • Students can make you crazy. Make your
    mother happy tomorrow.
  • do to work/act. Do is like the pronoun of
    verbs because it can replace most actions, and
    therefore it is the helping verb for the simple
    tenses. ?
  • I am doing my homework. Has he done it yet? Did
    you do the project yet?
  • have noun is used to describe activities.?
    They often have lunch together.
  • They had a game yesterday. We are having a test
    next period.
  • get a situation/condition/state changes. ?
    Im getting tired. It gets cold during winter
    and gets hot in the summer. They got soaked
    by the monsoon.

62
  • something/somebody/someone/somewhere are
    usually used in positive sentences and questions
    --. Someone is absent. Something happened
    on the BTS. I live somewhere in Bangkok.
  • anything/anybody/anyone/anywhere are usually
    used in negative statements and questions. -- Is
    anyone there? I didnt answer anything on the
    test. Have you been anywhere in South America?
    I didnt see anybody on the bus this morning.
  • nothing/nobody/nowhere/no one - usually are used
    before or after positive verbs
  • Nothing can save you now. No one went to the
    extra class. Ill go nowhere without you.
  • There was nobody who could do the math problem.
  • ELSE is often used after something, anybody,
    nowhere, etc
  • I told you and no one else. Anywhere else would
    be a better place than here.
  • Can someone else try to answer?
  • These words can also be used before adjectives.
  • Did I do anything wrong? Have you been
    anywhere nice?
    We did something exciting. They
    met no one more boring than Chaichontat.

63
all/some/most/none
  • ADJ (all/most/some noun) ? All
    students Most times
    Some friends
  • NOUN (all/most/some/none) of
    the/my/his noun/pronoun
  • All of his grades
    Some of the best times
    None
    of your pets Most of our classes
  • ALL 1. can be used without of ---
    I do it all the time.
  • 2. is often used to talk about time ---

  • All morning, evening, night, day,
    week, month, year, decade...
  • It means, the whole.

64
too / enough
  • TOO is an adverb ENOUGH is an
    adjective, adverb or NOUN
  • too adjective ? It is too hot to go
    outside. Im too tired to play.
  • too many plural noun ? Some schools have
    too many students.
  • Too many cars are on the roads of Bangkok.
  • too much uncountable noun ? Dont eat too
    much food before dinner.
  • too adjective to verb ? Theyre too
    young to drive.

  • ADJ enough Is it warm enough for you? Yes,
    its warm enough.
  • enough noun Do you have enough time for the
    project?
  • (enough / not enough) ADJ to verb -

    Youre
    old enough to learn on your own.

65
ADVERBS Regular/Comparative/Superlative
  • Adverbs describe how an action happens ?
    happiLY comfortabLY excitedLY
  • How does he run? He runs quickLY (ADV).
    He is quick (ADJ).
  • How does he play? He plays well (ADV).
    He is a good (ADJ) player.
  • Irregular Adverbs
  • good well better the best ? This time he
    did better. He did the best in 1/9.
  • fast fast faster the fastest ? He eats
    very fast. He eats faster than her.
  • hard hard harder the hardest ? He played
    hard. He played the hardest of all.
  • For regular comparative adverbs use
    more adverb.
  • He writes more neatly than a typewriter.
  • She measured the liquid more accurately with a
    beaker.
  • For regular superlative adverbs use
    the most adverb
  • She acts the most politely around her parents.
  • Students walk the most slowly when going to the
    chapel.

66
-ed / -ing Adjectives
  • -ed Adjectives describe the nouns feelings. The
    noun feels/gets the adjective.
  • He was excited by the movie. He felt excitement.
  • The students were interested in class. They felt
    interest.
  • The fans were disappointed when their team lost.
    They felt disappointment.
  • ----------------- --------------------
    -----------------------
    --------
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