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Model United Nations


Model United Nations International Format Beginners Delegate Training RAJAT RAI HANDA Introduction to Model UN What is an MUN ? Objective of MUN Skills in an MUN What ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Model United Nations

Model United Nations International Format
Beginners Delegate Training
Introduction to Model UN
  • What is an MUN ?
  • Objective of MUN
  • Skills in an MUN

What is an MUN?
  • MUN (Model United Nations) is an extra curricular
    activity in many schools and universities, which
    simulates the functioning of the United Nations.
  • In a Model UN Conference students assume the
    roles of countries and organizations represented
    in the UN in various committees or councils to
    debate and discuss issues concerning the world.

Objective of MUN
  • The Aims of an MUN conference are to encourage
    debate and sharing of views between students from
    different schools and of different ethnicities.
  • The Ultimate goal of an MUN Conference is to
    promote awareness of international relations and
    issues in young people, and to inspire global
    mindedness and an understanding to the problems
    of the world and how to combat them, whilst
    providing an atmosphere where students can
    progress in their personality, communication
    skills and open mindedness.

Skills in an MUN
  • During a conference, participants employ a
    variety of communication and critical thinking
    skills in order to represent effectively. Some of
    these skills include
  • Public Speaking,
  • Group Communication,
  • Research,
  • Policy Analysis,
  • Active Listening,
  • Negotiating,
  • Conflict Resolution, And
  • Technical Writing.

Preparing for an MUN
  • Research

  • The initial step of any MUN is RESEARCH. 
  • Extensive knowledge about the country, committee,
    agenda and the UN is ESSENTIAL.
  • Preparedness makes the conference more fun and
    enjoyable along with a great learning experience.
  • The simulation can only be carried out with full
    enthusiasm if the delegates are prepared.

Optimizing your Research
  • Research is usually broken down into
  • Country Information
  • The Agenda
  • The UN System

Researching your Country or Delegation
  • The main points for research are
  • Politics and Government
  • History, Society, Culture and Geography
  • Economy and Defense
  • International and National current affairs
  • Foreign Policies and International Relations

Agenda or Issue at hand
  • The agenda of a committee is the topic for debate
    and discussion in a committee session. It
  • Background information and history
  • Aspects of the agenda covered by the committee
  • Countrys stand
  • Relation between the issue and the UN
  • Opinions of all major powers
  • Latest developments
  • Speeches, resolutions, statements and news

Understanding the United Nations System
  • It is important for delegates to be well informed
  • The United Nations Charter
  • The functioning of their respective committees
  • Recent United Nations actions on the issue at
  • Conferences that have been held on the issue
  • Statements, resolutions, speeches and press
    releases of and by the UN.
  • UN Today, UDHR

Effective Communication
  • Making Speeches
  • Variation in Speeches
  • Notepaper Communication

Making Speeches
  • Writing and delivering speeches is an important
    aspect of the Model UN simulation.
  • Speeches help delegates convey the positions of
    their countries, build consensus and create
  • Although speechmaking is integral to the
    simulation, many delegates biggest fear is
    public speaking. It is essential that delegates
    come to the conference well prepared to overcome
    this fear.

Making Speeches
  • There are no set guidelines for how to make
    speeches, delegates should decide how they feel
    most comfortable addressing the committee. Some
    delegates use their position papers as their
    opening speeches others just write out some key
    points. Many speak without any aides at all. Its
    really not that difficult.
  • Since public speaking is a skill, it is important
    to practice, practice, practice !
  • More tips for public speaking can be found online

Variation in Speeches
  1. When the session begins, make speeches focus on
    stating country positions and offering
    recommendations for action.
  2. After blocs have met, speeches should focus on
    describing bloc positions to the entire body.
  3. Move away from general ideas on the topic and
    instead focus on specific ideas or proposals for
  4. Then make statements describing their draft
    resolutions to the committee. Bring up points in
    the draft resolutions that have yet to be decided
    or discussed by the body, or points of agreement
    and disagreement between two contending draft
    resolutions in order to clearly delineate the
  5. Speck in favor or against any amendments that
    have been created. Convince others of their plan
    of action and call for input from as many
    countries as possible in order to secure their
    draft resolutions transition into a resolution.

Roll Call Each countrys name is announced by the
executive board. After a delegate hears their
country called , they are supposed to answer
present or present and voting
Setting the Agenda The first order of business
for the committee is the consideration of the
agenda. The only motion in order at this time
will be in the form of The nation of country
name moves that Topic Area X be placed first
on the agenda. The motion requires a second and
is debatable. A provisional speakers list shall
is established with two people speaking for and
two people speaking against the motion. After
this the committee shall move into an immediate
vote. A simple majority is required for the
motion to pass.
Caucus ( Informal Debate)
Speakers List (Formal Debate)
Moderated Caucus
Unmoderated Caucus
Working Papers and Draft Resolutions
Rules of Procedure
Rule Explanation To pass, Vote Required
Motion to Open and Close Speakers List At some Model U.N. conferences, once the speakers list is closed it is closed for the remainder of the session or topic. However, at most Model U.N. conferences the speakers list can be opened and closed multiple times. Once the speakers list is exhausted, it means no one else wishes to speak, debate is over, and the committee then moves into voting procedure. This motion requires an immediate vote. Simple Majority
Motion to set Speakers Time This is a motion to set or change the speakers time. It is a procedural motion, which requires two (2) delegates speaking for the amount of time motioned for, and two (2) delegates speaking against. Simple Majority
Motion to Suspend Meeting This motion is made to end the committee session until the next session. This motion is most commonly made to end committee session for the purpose of lunch or dinner. This motion requires an immediate vote. Not Debatable Simple Majority
Motion to Adjourn Meeting The motion of adjournment means that all business of the Committee or Council has been completed, and that the Committee or Council will not reconvene until the next annual session. This motion requires an immediate vote. Not Debatable. Simple Majority
Motion to Suspend Debate This motion is made to suspend the formal debate for the purpose of a regular caucus or a moderated caucus. When moving to suspend the meeting, the delegate should specify a certain amount of time and the purpose. This motion requires an immediate vote. Not Debatable. Simple Majority
Motion to Adjourn Debate or Table Debate Motion to adjourn debate is a tactic to put all of the work that the committee has completed on the topic in which they are discussing on hold and to table it, returning to it at later time. This motion requires two (2) delegates speaking for the adjournment of debate and two (2) delegates speaking against the adjournment of debate. 2/3rds Majority
Motion to Close Debate This motion is made in order for the committee to move into voting procedure. Once a delegate feels as if they have made their countrys position clear, there are enough draft resolutions on the floor, and everyone is ready, a delegate makes a motion to move into voting procedure by moving for the closure of debate. This motion requires only two (2) delegates speaking against the closure of debate and zero (0) delegates for the closure of debate. 2/3rds Majority
Appeal to the Chairs Decision This motion is made when a delegate feels as if the chairperson has made an incorrect decision. The delegate wishes to challenge the chairperson and does so by formally making a motion to appeal the chairpersons decision. This motion may be made verbally or in writing. The opposing delegate speaks and the chairperson defends his or herself before the vote. 2/3 Majority
Rule Explanation
Point of Personal Privilege During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may raise a Point of Personal (PHYSICAL) Privilege and the Chair shall immediately address the point. A Point of Personal Privilege must refer to a matter of personal comfort or safety and/or the well-being of the members of the committee. The Chair may refuse to recognize a Point of Personal Privilege if the delegate has not shown proper restraint and decorum, or if the point is dilatory in nature. It may interrupt the speaker
Rule Explanation
Point of Order During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may rise to a Point of Order to indicate an instance of improper parliamentary procedure. The Point of Order will be immediately decided by the Chair in accordance with these rules of procedure. The Chair may rule out of order those points that are improper. A representative rising to a Point of Order may not speak on the substance of the matter under discussion. A Point of Order may only interrupt a speaker if the speech is not following proper parliamentary procedure.
Rule Explanation
Point of Information After a delegate gives a speech, and if the delegate yields his or her time to Points of Information, one Point of Information (a question) can be raised by delegates from the floor. The speaker will be allotted the remainder of his or her speaking time to address Points of Information. Points of Information are directed to the speaker and allow other delegations to ask questions in relation to speeches and resolutions.
Point of Inquiry If there is no discussion on the floor, a delegate may raise a Point of Inquiry to request clarification on procedure. A Point of Inquiry may never interrupt a speaker.
Resolution Process
  • What is a Resolution?
  • Resolution-making


What is a Resolution ?
  • In a countrys government official documents are
    drafted which aim to solve a specific situation.
    In the United Nations, similar documents are also
    drafted called Resolution.
  • The final results of discussion, writing and
  • Written suggestions for addressing a specific
    problem or issue.
  • All UN bodies (except the Security Council) use
    resolutions to make recommendations or
    suggestions for future action.
  • Security Council resolutions compel nations for
    action and are directive.

  • First Unmoderated Caucus Forming blocsAfter
    the committee has explored the causes, effects
    and solutions of the problem, an unmoderated
    caucus should be raised. During this unmoderated
    caucus, delegates should seek out the blocs with
    which they would want to form the resolution.
  • Similar foreign policy W.R.T. agenda
  • Similar geographic location (AU, EU, SAARC)
  • Part of the same treaty (NATO)
  • 2. Second Unmoderated caucus Working papers
  • During this unmoderated caucus, delegates should
    try to form working papers.
  • Working papers are a collection of solutions for
    the agenda, in no specific format.
  • They must have the support of at least 20 of the
    committee to be considered.
  • One country can support as many working papers
    as it chooses.

  • 3. Third Unmoderated Caucus Draft
    resolutionsDuring this unmoderated caucus,
    working papers must be converted to draft
    resolutions.Draft resolutions are also a set of
    solutions, but have a very specific format.
  • Have 2 types of clauses Preambulatory and
  • Preambulatory clauses are introductory clauses.
    Basically give the why of the draft resolution,
    i.e. why it is being written, history of the
    agenda, past action. Format Bulleted, end with
  • Operative clauses are the actual solutions.
    Format numbered, end with a semi-colon, last
    operative ends with full-stop
  • Clauses can only begin with specific phrases,
    which must be underlined
  • Two types of support for draft resolution
  • Sponsors (3-6) support all clauses of draft
  • Signatories (as many as possible) disagree with
    some clauses, but want to see draft resolution
  • Total support required (sponsors signatories)
  • One country can sponsor one draft resolution,
    sign many.

  • 4. Formal debate on draft resolutions
  • Two sponsors of each draft resolution read out
    clauses and answer points of information (similar
    to speakers list)
  • All rules of Parliamentary Procedure followed
  • This is an excellent time for delegates to point
    out weaknesses in the draft resolutions and
    propose amendments.
  • 5. Amendments
  • Any delegate can propose to amend a draft
  • Two types of amendments friendly and unfriendly
  • Friendly amendments supported by all sponsors.
    Passed automatically. Mostly minor errors or
    last-minute changes.
  • Unfriendly amendments not supported by one or
    more sponsor. Brought to committee for roll-call
    vote. Requires simple majority (50 1 vote).

  • 6. Voting
  • After discussion and amendments, draft resolution
    is put to vote.
  • Alphabetical roll-call voting takes place.
  • Four types of votes allowed Yes, No, Pass,
  • Yes Delegate agrees with the resolution
  • No Delegate disagrees with resolution strongly
  • Abstain Delegate is unsure of his stance
    towards resolution, and abstains, i.e. neither
    Yes nor No.
  • Pass Delegate is unsure of his stance towards
    resolution, and asks for more time to make his
    decision. After tallying all other votes,
    delegate will be asked for final vote, and cannot
    Abstain. Helps see how allies have voted
  • If passed by simple majority, it becomes a