The Role of the Nurse in HIV Care - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Role of the Nurse in HIV Care PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 47456d-MzA2M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Role of the Nurse in HIV Care

Description:

The Role of the Nurse in HIV Care Eileen Nixon HIV Nurse Consultant Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals Nursing Competencies in Co-morbidities and co-infections ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:149
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 53
Provided by: fmi1
Learn more at: http://www.nhivna.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Role of the Nurse in HIV Care


1
The Role of the Nurse in HIV Care
  • Eileen Nixon
  • HIV Nurse Consultant
  • Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals

2
Aim of Presentation
  • Overview of key issues that affect people with
    HIV
  • Identify the role of the nurse in caring for
    people with HIV
  • Highlight nursing competencies required
  • Benchmark current competency level
  • Relate nursing role to course content

3
Global Epidemic
4
Adults and children estimated to be living with
HIV, 2006
Eastern Europe Central Asia 1.6 million 1.2
2.1 million
Western Central Europe
North America 2.1 million 1.1 3.0 million
North Africa Middle East 380 000 270 000 500
000
Asia 4.9 million 3.7 6.7 million
Caribbean 230 000 210 000 270 000
Latin America 1.6 million 1.4 1.9 million
Sub-Saharan Africa 22.5 million 20.9 24.3
million
Oceania 75 000 53 000 120 000
Total 33.2 (30.6 36.1) million
5
Global Epidemic of HIV
  • Multiple cultures of people affected
  • Media coverage
  • Immigration and asylum issues
  • Political and ethical issues
  • Discrimination
  • Travel
  • Returning to home countries
  • Treatment eligibility

6
Treatment Eligibility
  • Emergency and lifesaving care is free
  • TB treatment is free
  • Separating tourists from other health seeking
    actions
  • Balancing conversations about eligibility
  • Prioritising health
  • Discharge plans
  • NMC Guidelines

7
Stigma
8
Stigma
9
Nursing Role in Stigma
  • Appropriate universal precautions
  • Non-judgemental approach to care
  • Encouraging patients to become involved in
    service planning
  • Supporting patients with disclosure of HIV
    diagnosis
  • Supporting ongoing sexual relationships
  • Referral for counselling services
  • Peer Support
  • Addressing misconceptions

10
Nursing Competencies - Stigma
  • Level 2 Recognises the impact of HIV/AIDS stigma
    on the patient experience of living with HIV
  • Level 2 Recognises difficulty in disclosing HIV
    diagnosis after death and acts as a patient
    advocate when this arises
  • Level 3 Proactively supports patients where
    stigma impacts on their health and well-being

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
11
Competency Levels
  • Level 2 Registered Practitioner Entry point for
    RN to HIV specialty or working with HIV in a
    non-specialist setting
  • Level 3 Senior Registered Practitioner HIV
    specialist area at Team Leader, Charge Nurse or
    CNS level
  • Level 4 Consultant Practitioner Consultant or
    Senior Nurse Manager in HIV

12
Late Presentation
13
Defining Late Presentation ?
  • AIDS at diagnosis
  • AIDS within 3-12 months
  • CD4 lt 200
  • CD4 lt 50

14
Who presents late in the UK?
  • Heterosexual
  • Older
  • Male
  • Non-UK origin

15
BHIVA Audit 2006 Scenario leading to death
Top bars reclassified during audit Bottom bars
as initially reported
Mortality audit BHIVA audit and Standards
Sub-Committee 2006 accessible at www.bhiva.org
16
Evidence for late diagnosis in heterosexual men
women, and MSM AIDS cases Late diagnosis is
defined here as an interval of less than 3 months
between HIV diagnosis and AIDS
1200
1400
Diagnosed for 3
months or longer
1200
1000
Late diagnosis
1000
800
800
Number of AIDS cases diagnosed
600
600
400
400
200
200
0
0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Year of AIDS diagnosis
Year of AIDS diagnosis
Men who have sex with men
Sex between men and women
Data source HIV/AIDS reports. Reports received
by the end of September 2005.
17
Late Presenters in Brighton last 100 admissions
37
23
Bed days on Inpatient Unit
Number of admissions
18
Management of late presentation
  • Simultaneous treatment of opportunistic
    manifestation and HIV is extremely difficult!
  • Avoiding complex drug-drug interactions
  • Avoiding overlapping toxicities
  • When to start HAART?
  • Trying to avoid IRIS and how to avoid it
  • Lack of preparation time
  • Benefit of clinical networks and shared expertise

19
HAART in late presenters
  • Wait , but not too long
  • 2 weeks to 2 months
  • Avoid significant interactions
  • Rifampicin and PIs
  • Some chemotherapy and PIs
  • Avoid overlapping toxicities
  • AZT - high-dose septrin
  • D drugs - isoniazid
  • Avoid unnecessary diagnostic difficulties
  • Allow for other co-morbidities
  • Renal dysfunction
  • NG administration if on ITU
  • Chose likely effective regimen
  • Avoid NNRTIs until genotype available

20
Nursing care of late presenters
  • New HIV diagnosis
  • Coping with HIV and often AIDS diagnosis
  • Disclosure of diagnosis and contact tracing
  • Acute hospital care usually prolonged
  • Ongoing risk assessment
  • Care of opportunistic infections
  • Support in starting ARVs
  • Establishing support structures
  • Effective discharge planning and f/u
  • Employment and finance advice
  • Family planning and sexual health

21
Nursing Care of Opportunistic Infections
  • Monitoring presenting condition vital signs and
    observation
  • Monitoring for other opportunistic infections
  • Administering IV Treatments
  • Nutrition
  • Care of activities of daily living
  • Discharge Planning

22
Nursing Competencies of LP
  • Level 2 demonstrates a knowledge and
    understanding of, and can identify the major
    signs and symptoms of acute and chronic HIV
    related conditions and risks of illness
    associated with relevant CD4 counts
  • Level 3 Recognises signs and symptoms of complex
    and unstable health problems requiring review by
    senior colleagues

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
23
Palliative and Terminal Care
  • Level 2 Is aware of the assessment needs of a
    patient who requires terminal care and the
    evidence based tools available e.g. Liverpool
    care pathway
  • Level 3 Makes a comprehensive assessment of a
    patients palliative care needs and fully assess
    the physical needs of a patient who requires
    terminal care

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
24
Increasing UK Epidemic
25
HIV diagnoses, AIDS case reports and deaths in
HIV-infected individuals, UK
1
1 Numbers will rise, for recent years, as further
reports are received. Data Source HIV/AIDS
reports. Reports received by the end of September
2005.
26
HIV/AIDS Mortality - Brighton
27
Number of Patients in Brighton Clinic
28
Increasing Numbers of people with HIV
  • More patients
  • Living with chronic HIV disease
  • Co-morbidities
  • Co-infections
  • Treatment experienced
  • Review of benefits
  • Returning to work

29
Modernisation of HIV services
  • Changing focus of service delivery
  • Clinic visits
  • Chronic manageable illness
  • ARVs
  • Telephone/Email clinics
  • MDT
  • Patient continuity
  • Multicultural aspects
  • MOT
  • Nurses role development
  • Triage
  • Nurse Led Clinics
  • NHIVNA Competencies
  • Activity v Resources
  • GUM Targets
  • Primary Care
  • Sexual health screening

30
Nursing Competencies in developing roles for
nurses
  • Level 2 Describes the local policy relating to
    the inclusion/exclusion criteria for stable
    patients whether on or off therapy
  • Level 3 Identifies and implements essential
    aspects of managing stable patients, such as
    adherence, toxicity management and psychological
    and sexual health

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
31
Managing Patient Expectations
  • Keep patients informed
  • Give explanations
  • Address concerns
  • Act on patient feedback
  • Expert Patient Programme
  • User representation
  • Eliciting user views
  • Involving users in service provision

32
Co-Morbidities and Co-Infections
  • Diabetes and insulin intolerance
  • CVD
  • Lipodystrophy
  • Liver disease
  • Hypogonadism
  • Osteoporosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Tuberculosis
  • Leishmoniasis
  • Infectious diseases
  • Haemophilia

33
Nursing people with chronic HIV disease
  • Chronic Disease NSF
  • Identifying what is and what is not related to
    HIV disease
  • Adjusting to multiple pathology
  • Long term therapeutic relationships
  • Empowering people to live with HIV
  • Coordinating appointments
  • Engaging with GPs
  • Recognising when people are struggling

34
Nursing Competencies in Co-morbidities and
co-infections
  • Level 2 Demonstrates an understanding of
    treatment choices open to people with HIV
    co-infections and co-morbidities
  • Level 3 Demonstrates an understanding of the
    administration, side effects and risks associated
    with treatment of different HIV co-infections and
    co-morbidities

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
35
Ageing and HIV
36
Patient age in Brighton Cohort 19962006
300
gt50 years old
250
gt60 years old
200
gt70 years old
Number of patients
150
100
50
0
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
Personal communication, M. Fisher, August 2007
37
Psychological Care
38
Nursing Role in Psychological Care
  • Coping with diagnosis
  • Establishing support structures
  • Appropriately involving patients in care
  • Mental Health
  • Adjustment disorders
  • Health beliefs and behaviours
  • Chronic Disease Management
  • Empowering people to live with HIV
  • Expert patient Programmes
  • Social care, finances, employment

39
Nursing Competencies in Psychological Care
  • L2 Demonstrates an awareness and understanding
    of the psychological and emotional impact of an
    HIV diagnosis on a newly diagnosed HIV patient,
    patients starting or switching therapy or a
    patient with acute, chronic, terminal condition
    or palliative needs
  • L3 Works autonomously to comprehensively assess
    complex psychological and emotional needs of the
    above groups of patients

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
40
Antiretroviral Therapy
41
Nursing Role in Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Discuss common treatment options
  • Recognise common side effects (s/t and l/t)
  • Discuss treatment outcomes
  • Administer ARVs correctly
  • Assess patients beliefs about ARV therapy
  • Assess adherence to ARVs
  • Explain implications of poor adherence

42
Nursing Competencies and ART
  • Level 2 Demonstrates an understanding of how ART
    works, drug classes, administration, times,
    dietary restrictions and key side effects
  • Level 3 Assess and triages problems associated
    with medications and side effects including short
    and long term side effects

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
43
Nursing Care and Adherence
  • Level 2 Recognises when situations are
    detrimental to the correct administration of ART,
    such as nausea and vomiting and hospitalisation
  • Level 3 Anticipates any threats to ART
    administration and intervenes to facilitate
    optimal adherence (i/p and o/p)

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
44
Sexual Health
45
(No Transcript)
46
HPA warns of continuing HIV and STI epidemic in
gay men 23 November 2007
47
Role of the Nurse in Sexual Health of people with
HIV
  • Promote prompt access to routine STI screening
  • Promote safer sex practices
  • Advise on disclosure / partner notification
  • Understand criminalisation
  • Family Planning possibilities
  • PEPSE

48
Sexual Health Competencies
  • Level 2 Assists in the assessment and treatment
    of the sexual health needs of patients living
    with HIV
  • Level 3 Undertakes sexual health risk assessment
    as part of routine assessment of patients with
    HIV and describes treatment options for STIs

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
49
Health Promotion
50
Health Promotion in HIV
  • CVD risks and smoking cessation
  • Nutrition
  • Exercise
  • Stress management
  • Mental health
  • Alcohol and drug use
  • Screening for hepatitis, cervical smears, lipids,
    BP, BMI

51
Nursing Competencies in Health Promotion
  • Level 2 Demonstrates an understanding of
    maintaining a health lifestyle and how this
    relates to HIV
  • Level 3 Undertakes detailed risk assessment in
    relation to smoking, cardiovascular risk, sexual
    health etc. Develops action plan and makes onward
    referrals based on the assessment

National HIV Nursing Competencies, 2007
52
Core Principles of HIV Nursing
  • Ability to identify stage of illness and disease
    manifestations including surrogate markers
  • Understanding ART and adherence
  • Holistic and patient centered approach to care
  • Incorporating the sociology of HIV into care
  • Managing the changing skills profile

53
(No Transcript)
54
Adults and children estimated to be living with
HIV, 2007
Eastern Europe Central Asia 1.5 million 1.1
1.9 million
Western Central Europe 730 000 580 000 1.0
million
North America 1.2 million 760 000 2.0 million
East Asia 740 000 480 000 1.1 million
Middle East North Africa 380 000 280 000 510
000
Caribbean 230 000 210 000 270 000
South South-East Asia 4.2 million 3.5 5.3
million
Sub-Saharan Africa 22.0 million 20.5 23.6
million
Latin America 1.7 million 1.5 2.1 million
Oceania 74 000 66 000 93 000
Total 33 million (30 36 million)
About PowerShow.com