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Stem Cells and Cancer

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Stem Cells and Cancer Human development: a stem cell hierarchy Developmental hierarchies: the hematopoietic system Embryonic versus adult Isolated from early embryos ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cells and Cancer


1
Stem Cells and Cancer
2
THERAPEUTIC CLONING ORGANISM CLONING
3
Reproductive cloning

Nuclear transfer
G. Daley
4
Potential therapeutic uses of stem cells
  • Transplantation of bone marrow for muscular
    dystrophies
  • Direct injection of bone marrow stem cells for
    cardiac regeneration
  • Bone marrow injections for neurodegenerative
    diseases

5
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6
What are stem cells?
Units of development and regeneration
Stem cell
Differentiated cell
Liver, blood, nerve
7
What are stem cells?
Units of development and regeneration
  • Why are stem cells unique?
  • They are unspecialized
  • The can produce more stem cells
  • They can produce specialized cells

8
Human development a stem cell hierarchy
Liver Gut Pancreas
Endoderm
Blood Muscle Bone
Mesoderm
Nervous system Skin
Ectoderm
Embryonic stem cells
9
Developmental hierarchies the hematopoietic
system
10
Embryonic versus adult
  • Isolated from early embryos
  • Can expand indefinitely in culture
  • Can give rise to all cell types
  • Isolated from adult human tissue
  • Can not be expanded in culture
  • Can only give rise to same tissue

11
Reproductive cloning

Nuclear transfer
G. Daley
12
WHY ORGANISM CLONING MIGHT NOT WORK
  1. TECHNICAL REASONS---
  • GENES OR CHROMOSOMES ARE LOST OR CHANGED IN
  • DEVELOPMENT

13
DNA IS MODIFIED DURING DEVELOPMENT
CH
3
5- methylcytosine
14
IN HUMAN FEMALES ONE X INACTIVATED IN DEVELOPMENT
15
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16
Reproductive cloning

Nuclear transfer
G. Daley
17
(No Transcript)
18
Rudolf Jaenisch
19
(No Transcript)
20
Potential therapeutic uses of stem cells
  • Transplantation of bone marrow for muscular
    dystrophies
  • Direct injection of bone marrow stem cells for
    cardiac regeneration
  • Bone marrow injections for neurodegenerative
    diseases

21
Reproductive cloning

Nuclear transfer
G. Daley
22
Cancer as a stem cell disease?
  • Low clonogenic ability of tumors in vitro
  • Most tumors are morphologically heterogeneous

23
Models of cancer cell growth
Stochastic Model
Stem Cell Model
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
NORMAL
24
Experimental evidence of cancer stem cells
  • Acute myeloid leukemia CD34 CD38neg cells are
    tumor initiating (only 0.1 of total tumor cells)
  • Breast cancer CD44CD24neg (2 of all tumor
    cells)
  • Brain cancer CD133 (20 of all tumor cells)

25
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