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The Global Positioning System: Policy, Program Status and International Activities


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Title: The Global Positioning System: Policy, Program Status and International Activities

The Global Positioning System Policy, Program
Status and International Activities
15th Korean Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS) Workshop Busan, Republic of
Korea October 30-31, 2008
Ray E. Clore Senior Advisor for GPS-Galileo
Issues Office of Space and Advanced
Technology U.S. Department of State
  • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and
    Timing (PNT) Policy
  • GPS Program Status and Modernization
  • GPS Augmentations Status
  • U.S. International Activities

2004 U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Provide GPS and augmentations free of direct user
    fees on a continuous, worldwide basis
  • Provide open, free access to information needed
    to develop equipment
  • Improve performance of GPS and augmentations to
    meet or exceed that of international systems
  • Encourage international development of PNT
    systems based on GPS
  • Seek to ensure international systems are
    interoperable with civil GPS and augmentations
  • Address mutual security concerns with
    international providers to prevent hostile use

2004 U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy
  • Recognizes the changing international scene
  • Other nations are implementing space-based
    systems that provide PNT services
  • National Executive Committee (EXCOM) for
    Space-Based PNT
  • Chaired by Deputy Secretaries of Defense and
  • Membership includes State, Interior,
    Agriculture, Commerce, Homeland Security, Joint
    Chiefs of Staff and NASA
  • National Coordination Office (NCO)
  • Established with staff from member agencies
  • National Space-Based PNT Advisory Board

  • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and
    Timing (PNT) Policy
  • GPS Program Status and Modernization
  • GPS Augmentations Status
  • U.S. International Activities

Current Constellation
29 Operational Satellites (Nominal
Constellation 24)
  • 11 Block IIA satellites operational
  • 12 Block IIR satellites operational
  • 6 Block IIR-M satellites operational
  • Transmitting new second civil signal (L2C)
  • 2 Block IIR-M satellites remain to be launched
  • Continuously assessing constellation health to
    determine launch need
  • Next IIR-M launch planned for early 2009
  • First IIF projected for launch mid 2009
  • Global GPS civil service performance commitment
    met continuously since 1993

Current GPS Accuracy
  • Signal-In-Space (SIS) User Range Error (URE)
    0.92 m RMS
  • User Position Error (maximum) 4 8 meters
  • User Position Error (observed) 2 4 meters

Signal-in-Space User Range Error (SIS URE) the
difference between a GPS satellites navigation
data (position and clock) and the truth,
projected on the line-of-sight to the user
GPS Modernization
  • System-wide improvements in
  • Accuracy
  • Availability
  • Integrity
  • Reliability
  • Backward compatibility
  • Robustness against interference
  • Improved indoor, mobile, and urban use
  • Interoperability with other space-based PNT

Modernized GPS Civil Signals
  • Second civil signal (L2C) starts with GPS Block
  • Designed to meet commercial needs
  • Higher accuracy through ionospheric correction
  • Higher effective power and improved data
    structure reduce interference
  • Speed up signal acquisition and enable
    miniaturization of receivers
  • First Launch Sep 2006 expect 24 satellites
  • Third civil signal (L5) starts with GPS Block
  • Designed to meet requirements for transportation
    safety-of-life (aviation)
  • Highly protected Aeronautical Radio Navigation
    Service (ARNS) band
  • First launch 2009 24 satellites 2018
  • Fourth civil signal (L1C) starts with GPS Block
  • Designed with international partners to enable
    GNSS interoperability
  • First launch 2014 24 satellites 2021

Recent GPS Program Accomplishments
  • Completed GPS Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP)
  • Transitioned to new GPS Ground Control Segment
    Sept. 2007
  • Activated fully capable backup GPS Operations
    Center at VAFB, CA
  • Announced GPS III without Selective Availability
    Sept 2007
  • Awarded GPS OCX Development Contracts -Nov 2007
  • ICAO accepted updated U.S. offer on GPS/SPS and
  • Launched two GPS-IIR(M) satellites (Dec 07/Mar
  • Awarded GPS IIIA Contract - May 2008

  • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and
    Timing (PNT) Policy
  • GPS Program Status and Modernization
  • GPS Augmentations Status
  • U.S. International Activities

WAAS Architecture
38 Reference Stations
3 Master Stations
4 Ground Earth Stations
2 Geostationary Satellite Links
2 Operational Control Centers
Geostationary Satellites (GEO)
WAAS Avionics Status
  • General Aviation
  • Over 37,000 Units Sold
  • Increasing at 1000 Units Per Month
  • New Products Coming to Market in Late 2008
  • Business Regional Aircraft
  • Over 500 Units Sold Since 2007
  • Two Additional Products Coming to Market in Late
  • Cessna CJs Delivering with WAAS Avionics in 2009
  • Acceptance Rates Should Increase Significantly in
  • Air Carrier Cargo Aircraft
  • Southwest Airlines Equipping 200 Boeing 737s
  • Federal Express Has Equipped 253 Caravan Aircraft
  • Horizon Airlines Equipping 48 Bombardier Aircraft
  • Helicopter Aircraft Implementing WAAS
  • Significant Growth Projected for First Responders
  • WAAS Avionics are Interoperable with Other SBASs

WAAS Approach Procedures - Projected to
Exceed Legacy Systems, eg. ILS By Sep 2008 -
  • September 2008
  • 1,333 WAAS LPV Approach Procedures
  • 783 at non-ILS runways
  • 329 at non-ILS airports

WAAS Procedures to be Published to All
Instrument Runways in the NAS by
Future WAAS Considerations
  • GNSS Modernization
  • GPS Dual Frequency (L1/L5) Service Provides
  • Potential for Larger GNSS or Use of Multiple GNSS
  • User Equipment Standards Development for New
  • WAAS Dual Frequency Upgrade
  • Determine Appropriate Level of Dual Frequency
    Integration Required to Maximize Benefit With
    Minimum Impact
  • Established GNSS Evolutionary Architecture Study
    (GEAS) to Investigate Long Range Planning for
    Dual Frequency GPS
  • Develop Architectural Alternatives to Provide
    Worldwide LPV-200 Service in the 2020-2030
  • Leverage Lessons Learned on WAAS/LAAS to Identify
    the Best Architecture Alternative to Meet
    Aviation Integrity Requirements

National Differential GPS
  • Operated/managed by USCG/NAVCEN as a joint system
    with Maritime DGPS
  • Extension of Maritime DGPS
  • Corrections broadcast at 285 and 325 kHz using
    Minimum shift Keying (MSK) modulation
  • Real-time differential GPS corrections provided
    in Radio Technical Commission for Maritime
    Services (RTCM) SC-104 format
  • No data encryption
  • Real-time differential corrections for
    terrestrial mobile and static applications
  • Single coverage on the ground over 92 of CONUS
    double coverage over 65 of CONUS

National Differential GPS (2)
  • Accuracy lt 1 meter at broadcast site
  • Degrades at an approximate rate of 1 meter for
    each 150 km distance from site
  • Typical user equipment achieves 1-2 meter
    horizontal accuracies throughout the coverage
    area, in real time
  • High-end user equipment achieves accuracies
    better than 1 meter, real time
  • Availability 99
  • Integrity alarm within 6 seconds site monitors
  • Fix rate 1-20 per second, three dimensional

National Differential GPS (3)ed DGPS Coverage
NDGPS Highway Applications
  • Surveys Land, roads, hydrological and
    environmental location, and management and
  • Inventory and asset management Infrastructure
    asset location, assessment, management,
    maintenance and protection
  • Utilities Location, management, and maintenance
  • Roadside management Precision application of
    pesticides, runoff minimization, avoidance of
    protected species, roadside features (condition
    and location)
  • Law Enforcement Incident location and
    reporting, emergency response

NDGPS Applications
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requires two meter
    accuracy to position dredges

NDGPS Monitoring of Space Weather
  • NOAAs Space Weather Prediction Center uses
    M/NDGPS data to map the spatial distribution of
    free electrons in the ionosphere, once every 15
  • and delays the arrival of GS The distribution of
    free electrons in the ionosphere affects HF radio
    communication and delays the arrival of GPS
    signals that is interpreted as position errors,
    which can be as large as 100 meters in extreme
    cases.trge as 100 meters in extreme cases

National Continuously Operating Reference
Stations (CORS)
  • Managed by NOAA
  • 1,200 sites
  • 200 public, private, academic organizations
  • Provides highly accurate, 3-D positioning
  • Centimeter-level precision
  • Tied to National Spatial Reference System
  • Uses include land management, coastal monitoring,
    civil engineering, boundary determination,
    mapping, geographical information systems,
    geophysical and infrastructure monitoring, and
    future improvements to weather prediction and
    climate monitoring

  • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and
    Timing (PNT) Policy
  • GPS Program Status and Modernization
  • GPS Augmentations Status
  • U.S. International Activities

2004 U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy(Excerpts
focused on International Relations)
  • Goals
  • U.S. space-based PNT systems and services remain
    essential components of internationally accepted
    PNT services
  • Promote U.S. technological leadership in
    applications involving space-based PNT services
  • To achieve this, the United States Government
  • Encourage foreign development of PNT
    services/systems based on GPS
  • Seek to ensure foreign space-based PNT systems
    are interoperable with civil GPS and
  • At a minimum, ensure compatibility
  • The Secretary of State shall
  • Promote the use of civil aspects of GPS and its
    augmentation services and standards with foreign
    governments and other international organizations
  • Lead negotiations with foreign governments and
    international organizations regarding civil PNT

Planned GNSS
  • Global Constellations
  • GPS (24)
  • GLONASS (24)
  • Galileo (27)
  • Compass (35)
  • Regional Constellations
  • QZSS (3)
  • IRNSS (7)
  • Satellite-Based Augmentations
  • WAAS (3)
  • MSAS (2)
  • EGNOS (3)
  • GAGAN (3)
  • SDCM (2?)

U.S. Objectives in Working with Other GNSS
Service Providers
  • Ensure compatibility ? ability of U.S. and
    non-U.S. space-based PNT services to be used
    separately or together without interfering with
    each individual service or signal
  • Radio frequency compatibility
  • Spectral separation between M-code and other
  • Achieve interoperability ability of civil U.S.
    and non-U.S. space-based PNT services to be used
    together to provide the user better capabilities
    than would be achieved by relying solely on one
    service or signal
  • Primary focus on the common L1C and L5 signals
  • Ensure a level playing field in the global

Pursue through Bi-lateral and Multi-lateral
The Goal of RNSS Civil Interoperability
  • Ideal interoperability allows navigation with one
    signal each from four or more systems with no
    additional receiver cost or complexity

Interoperable Better Together than Separate
U.S. - Europe Cooperation
  • U.S.-EU agreement signed in 2004 provides solid
    foundation for cooperation
  • Four working groups were set up under the
  • Technical, trade, and security issues working
    groups have met
  • Improved new civil
  • signal (MBOC) adopted
  • in July 2007
  • First Plenary Meeting
  • in October 2008

June 26, 2004, press conference at U.S.-EU Summit
in Ireland (U.S. Sec. of State Colin Powell,
Irish Foreign Minister Brian Cowen, EU
Vice-President Loyola De Palacio)
U.S. - Russian Federation Cooperation
  • U.S.- Russia Joint Statement issued in December
  • Negotiations for a U.S.-Russia Agreement on
    satellite navigation cooperation have been
    underway since late 2005
  • Several very productive technical working group
    meetings have been held
  • Russia WG-1 chair proposed adopting two new civil
    CDMA signals at L1, L5 to be interoperable with
  • Still under discussion within the Russian
  • Next WG-1 meeting is planned for December 2008

U.S. - Japan Cooperation
  • Japans status as a world leader in GPS
    applications and user equipment makes it an
    important partner
  • Regular policy consultations and technical
    meetings on GPS cooperation began in 1996 and led
    to the 1998 Clinton-Obuchi Joint Statement
  • Both countries have benefited from the close
  • QZSS is designed to be compatible and
    interoperable with GPS
  • U.S. working with Japan to set up QZSS monitoring
    stations in Hawaii and Guam
  • Next plenary meeting is planned in Nov. 2008

U.S. - India Cooperation
  • Policy and technical consultations on GPS
    cooperation underway since 2005
  • One aim is to ensure interoperability between GPS
    augmentation system WAAS and Indias planned
    GAGAN augmentation system based on GPS
  • Another important topic is ionospheric distortion
    and solutions
  • U.S.-India Joint Statement on GNSS Cooperation
    issued in February 2007 in Washington
  • Bi-lateral meeting held in Bangalore in September
  • Technical Meeting focused on GPS-IRNSS
    compatibility and interoperability held in
    January and July 2008

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation GNSS
Implementation Team (GIT)
  • Promote implementation of regional GNSS
    augmentation systems to enhance inter-modal
    transportation and recommend actions to be
    considered in the Asia Pacific Region
  • Reports to Transportation Working Group (TPT-WG)
    through the Inter-modal Experts Group (IEG)

APEC GNSS recent activities
  • Thailand with the support of AEROTHAI hosted a
    GNSS Technological Innovation Summit in May 2008
  • Completed the successful 1 million GNSS test bed
    project, located in Bangkok and funded by the
    U.S. Trade and Development Administration and
    supported by the U.S. FAA
  • Updated the Terms of Reference to take account of
    environmental benefits
  • Achieved consensus on a project proposal to
    survey and assess current applications for
    surface transportation utilizing GNSS
  • Adopted a Program of Action

  • The GNSS Implementation Team (GIT) reported to
    the Inter-modal Experts Group (IEG).
  • The IEG was impressed with the GNSS Technological
    Innovation Summit and the GIT 12 Outcomes and
    forwarded project proposal to APEC.
  • GIT contributed to the deliberations in all four
    working groups (Inter-modal, Maritime Safety,
    Maritime Experts and Aviation).
  • Interest expressed in learning more about GNSS in
    the Plenary and in the maritime safety group at
    the next APEC Transportation Working Group.

International Committee on Global Navigation
Satellite Systems (ICG)?
  • Emerged from 3rd UN Conference on the Exploration
    and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space July 1999
  • Promote the use of GNSS and its integration into
    infrastructures, particularly in developing
  • Encourage compatibility and interoperability
    among global and regional systems
  • Members include
  • GNSS providers (U.S., EU, Russia, China, India,
  • Other Member States of the United Nations
  • International organizations/associations

International Committee on Global
Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG)
  • ICG-2 held in September, 2007 in India
  • Established Providers Forum to address common
  • Began implementation of the ICG Work Plan within
    established working groups
  • A. Interoperability and compatibility
  • B. Enhancement of performance of GNSS services
  • C. Information dissemination, education, outreach
  • D. Interaction with monitoring reference
    station network organizations
  • U.S. will host the 3rd ICG in December 2008
  • http//

ICG Providers Forum
  • Six space segment providers listed previously are
  • Purpose
  • Focused discussions on compatibility and
    interoperability, encouraging development of
    complimentary systems
  • Exchange of detailed information on systems and
    service provision plans
  • Exchange views on ICG work plan and activities
  • Consensus reached at the first meeting on general
    definitions for compatibility and
  • Including spectral separation between each
    systems authorized service signals and other
    systems signals

  • As new space-based GNSS are emerging globally,
    interoperability is the key to success for all
  • U.S. is actively engaged in bi-lateral, regional,
    and multi-lateral cooperation on space-based
    navigation issues
  • International cooperation in the context of
    National Space-Based PNT Policy principles is a
    top priority for the U.S. Government

Contact Information
  • Ray E. Clore
  • Senior Advisor for GPS-Galileo issues
  • Office of Space and Advanced Technology
  • U.S. Department of State
  • 1990 K Street NW, Suite 410
  • Washington, D.C. 20006
  • 202-663-2394 (office)
  • http//
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