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Ethical and Moral Philosophy

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Title: Ethical and Moral Philosophy


1
Ethical and Moral Philosophy
2
Sources of Our Moral Values
Family
Moral Values
3
Sources of Our Moral Values
Education
Family
Religion
Moral Values
4
Sources of Our Moral Values
Education
Family
Religion
Moral Values
Personality
Culture
5
Sources of Our Moral Values
Education
Family
Religion
Moral Values
Personality
Leadership/Mentors
Culture
6
Sources of Our Moral Values
Education
Family
Religion
Moral Values
Experience
Personality
Leadership/Mentors
Culture
7
Sources of Our Moral Values
Education
Family
Religion
Moral Values
Experience
Personality
Leadership/Mentors
Culture
Reflection
8
Ethical Systems
Rule Based Deontology
Ends-Based Teleology
Deontology Deontological ethics (from the Greek
Deon meaning obligation) or Deontology is an
ethical theory holding that decisions should be
made solely or primarily by considering one's
duties and the rights of others. Deontology
posits the existence of a priori moral
obligations, further suggesting that people ought
to live by a set of permanently defined
principles that do not change merely as a result
of a change in circumstances.
Care-Based Situational
9
Ethical Systems
Rule Based Deontology
Ends-Based Teleology
Care-Based Situational
Teleology Teleological moral systems are
characterized primarily by a focus on the
consequences which any action might have (for
that reason, they are often referred to as
consequentalist moral systems, and both terms are
used here). Thus, in order to make correct moral
choices, we have to have some understanding of
what will result from our choices. When we make
choices which result in the correct consequences,
then we are acting morally when we make choices
which result in the incorrect consequences, then
we are acting immorally.
10
Ethical Systems
Rule Based Deontology
Care-Based Situational
Ends-Based Teleology
Ethic of Care The ethics of care is one of a
cluster of normative ethical theories that were
developed by feminists in the second half of the
twentieth century. While consequentialist and
deontological ethical theories emphasize
universal standards and impartiality, ethics of
care emphasize the importance of relationships.
The basis of the theory is the recognition of 1)
The interdependence of all individuals for
achieving their interests 2) The belief that
those particularly vulnerable to our choices and
their outcomes deserve extra consideration to be
measured according to the level of their
vulnerability to one's choices and the level of
their affectedness by one's choices and no one
elses 3) The necessity of attending to the
contextual details of the situation in order to
safeguard and promote the actual specific
interests of those involved.result in the
incorrect consequences, then we are acting
immorally.
11
Ethical Systems
Rule Based Deontology
Ends-Based Teleology
The Grand Mean
Utilitarianism
Ethical Systems and Schools of Thought
Categorical Imperative
Egoism
Justice
Devine Command
Cultural Relativism
Situational Relativism
Care-Based Situational
12
Our Personal Code of Ethics
13
Making a Difference Through Leadership
Business Ethics Corporate Citizenship Social
Change
Personal Code of Ethics
Leadership
14
Ethical Systems
15
Ethical Perspectives
  • Teleology
  • Deontology
  • Moral Relativism

16
The Relativist Perspective
  • Defines ethical behavior subjectively from the
    experiences of individuals and groups
  • Relativists use themselves or those around them
    as their basis for defining ethical standards
  • A positive group consensus indicates that an
    action is considered ethical by the group
  • Acknowledges that we live in a society in which
    people have different views
  • There are many different bases from which to
    justify a decision as right or wrong

17
Deontology
Aristotle and the Ethics of Virtue Kant and the
Categorical Imperative Divine Command
Adapted from Lawrence M. Hinman, Ph.D.
http//ethics.sandiego.edu/
18
Deontology
  • Focuses on the rights of the individual, not
    consequences (considers intentions)
  • Believes in equal respect and views certain
    behaviors as inherently right
  • Proposes that individuals have certain inherent
    freedoms
  • Freedoms conscience, consent, privacy, speech
    and due process
  • Rule deontologist
  • Conformity to general moral principles
  • Act deontologists
  • Evaluate ethicalness based on the act

19
Virtue
  • Strength of character (habit)
  • Involving both feeling and action
  • Seeks the mean between excess and deficiency
    relative to us
  • Promotes human flourishing

Aristotle
20
Virtues and Spheres of Existence
21
Spheres of Existence--2
22
Two Conceptions of Morality
  • We can contrast two approaches to the moral life.
  • The childhood conception of morality
  • Comes from outside (usually parents).
  • Is negative (dont touch that stove burner!).
  • Rules and habit formation are central.
  • The adult conception of morality.
  • Comes from within (self-directed).
  • Is positive (this is the kind of person I want
    to be.).
  • Virtue-centered,often modeled on ideals.

23
The Purpose of Morality
  • Both of these conceptions of morality are
    appropriate at different times in life.
  • Adolescence and early adulthood is the time when
    some people make the transition from the
    adolescent conception of morality to the adult
    conception.

24
Rightly-ordered Desires
  • Aristotle draws an interesting contrast between
  • Continent people, who have unruly desires but
    manage to control them.
  • Temperate people, whose desires are naturallyor
    through habit, second-naturedirected toward that
    which is good for them.
  • Weakness of will (akrasia) occurs when
    individuals cannot keep their desires under
    control.

25
The Goals of Moral Education
  • Moral education may initially seek to control
    unruly desires through rules, the formation of
    habits, etc.
  • Ultimately, moral education aims at forming
    rightly-ordered desires, that is, teaching people
    to desire what is genuinely good for them.

26
Virtue As the Golden Mean
  • Strength of character (virtue), Aristotle
    suggests, involves finding the proper balance
    between two extremes.
  • Excess having too much of something.
  • Deficiency having too little of something.
  • Not mediocrity, but harmony and balance.

27
Virtue and Habit
  • For Aristotle, virtue is something that is
    practiced and thereby learnedit is habit
    (hexis).
  • This has clear implications for moral education,
    for Aristotle obviously thinks that you can teach
    people to be virtuous.

28
Courage
  • The strength of character necessary to continue
    in the face of our fears
  • Deficiency Cowardice, the inability to do what
    is necessary to have those things in life which
    we need in order to flourish
  • Too much fear
  • Too little confidence
  • Excess
  • Too little fear
  • Too much confidence
  • Poor judgment about ends worth achieving

29
Courage
  • Both children and adults need courage.
  • Without courage, we are unable to take the risks
    necessary to achieve some of the things we most
    value in life.
  • Risk to ask someone out on a date.
  • Risk to show genuine vulnerability.
  • Risk to try an academically challenging program
    such as pre-med.

30
Courage and the Unity of the Virtues
  • To have any single strength of character in full
    measure, a person must have the other ones as
    well.
  • Courage without good judgment is blind, risking
    without knowing what is worth the risk.
  • Courage without perseverance is short-lived, etc.
  • Courage without a clear sense of your own
    abilities is foolhardy.

31
Courage
32
Compassion
  • Etymology to feel or suffer with
  • Both cognitive and emotional
  • Leads to action
  • Excess the bleeding heart
  • Deficiency moral callousness
  • Contrast with pity

33
Compassion as an Emotion
  • Emotion is often necessary
  • to recognize the suffering of others
  • emotional attunement
  • part of the response to that suffering
  • others often need to feel that you care

34
Cleverness and Wisdom
  • The clever person knows the best means to any
    possible end.
  • The wise person knows which ends are worth
    striving for.

35
Self-Love
  • Involves feeling, knowing, and acting
  • Characteristics of loving another person
  • Feelings of tenderness, care, appreciation,
    respect toward that person
  • Knowing that person (infatuation usually does not
    involve knowledge)
  • Acting in ways that promote the flourishing of
    that person

36
Self-Love Principal Characteristics
  • Characteristics of self-love
  • Having feelings of care, appreciation, and
    respect for others
  • Valuing yourself--flows from feelings of
    self-love
  • Knowing yourself--a long, often arduous, and
    never completed task
  • Acting in ways that promote your genuine
    flourishing

37
Self-Love Deficiency
  • Deficiency
  • Too little feeling self-loathing
  • Too little self-valuing self-deprecating
  • Too little self-knowledge unwilling or unable to
    look at ones own motivations, feelings, etc.
  • Too little acting not taking steps to insure
    ones own well-being

38
Self-Love Excess
  • Excesses of self-love take many forms arrogance,
    conceit, egoism, vanity, and narcissism are but a
    few of the ways in which we can err in this
    direction.
  • Too much caring self-centeredness
  • Too much self-valuing arrogance, conceit
  • Too much self-knowledge narcissistic
  • Too much acting for self selfishness

39
Forgiveness
  • This, too, is a virtue indispensable for human
    flourishing
  • In any long-term relationship (friendship,
    marriage, etc.), each party will do things that
    must be forgiven by the other.
  • Long term relationships are necessary to human
    flourishing.
  • If we cannot forgive, we cannot have continuing
    long term relationships

40
Forgiveness Excess and Deficiency
  • Excess the person who forgives too easily and
    too quickly
  • may undervalue self
  • may underestimate offense
  • Deficiency the person who can never forgive
  • may overestimate his or her own importance
  • usually lives a life of bitterness and anger

41
Concluding Evaluation
  • Virtues are those strengths of character that
    enable us to flourish
  • The virtuous person has practical wisdom, the
    ability to know when and how best to apply these
    various moral perspectives.

42
Divine Command
  • We will consider three different accounts of the
    relationship between religion and reason in
    ethics
  • Religion takes priority over reason
  • Divine command theories
  • Teleological suspension of the ethical
  • Compatibilist theories
  • Autonomy of reason theories
  • These theories claim that something is right
    because God wills it.

43
Compatibilist Theories
  • Compatibilist theories say that reason and
    religion can never contradict one another
  • Strong they are saying the same thing
  • Weak they say different things, but not
    contradictory things

44
Weak Compatibilism
  • Thomas Aquinas believed that reason and faith
    could never contradict one another, but faith may
    reveals truths beyond the react of reason.

45
Rationalistic Theists
  • Immanuel Kant believed in God, but felt that even
    God was subject to the dictates of reason.

46
A Crucial Distinction
  • Distinguish two questions
  • Content. Can reason provide us with adequate
    guidelines about how we should act? The answer
    appears to be yes.
  • Motivation. Can reason provide us with adequate
    motivation to do the right thing? Here the
    answer appears to be no.

47
Possible Relationships between Religion and
Reason in Ethics
Supremacy of Religion Compatibilist Theories Supremacy of Reason
Strong version All morality based on divine commands Fundamentalism Reason and religion are identical Hegel Ethics based only on reason atheistic or agnostic Russell
Weak version Teleological Suspension of the Ethical Kierkegaard Reason and religion may be different but do not conflict Aquinas Even God must follow dictates of reason Kant
48
Gods Relationship to the World
49
Gods Interaction with the World
  • In this view, God interacts with the world in
    several ways
  • God creates the world
  • God is in contact interaction with the world
  • Gods creative act (esse) continually sustains
    the world in its existence
  • God gives the world a final purpose or goal or
    telos toward which it strives

50
Overview
  • We will consider three different accounts of the
    relationship between religion and reason in
    ethics
  • Religion takes priority over reason
  • Divine command theories
  • Teleological suspension of the ethical
  • Compatibilist theories
  • Autonomy of reason theories

51
Divine Command Theories
  • These theories claim that something is right
    because God will it.
  • Augustine and the voluntarist tradition
  • Clear in Islam, where the will of Allah is the
    measure of all that is right
  • Also characteristic of much of fundamentalism in
    all religions.

52
Criticisms of Divine Command Theories
  • How can we know Gods will?
  • Does divine command theory undermine human
    autonomy?
  • Can be used to subjugate the masses.

53
Abraham and Isaac
  • In the old Testament, God commands Abraham to
    sacrifice his only son, Isaac.

54
The Story of Abraham
  • Genesis, 221-10
  • And it came to pass after these things, that God
    did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham
    and he said, Behold, here I am. And he said,
    Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou
    lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah and
    offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of
    the mountains which I will tell thee of. And
    Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled
    his ass, and took two of his young men with him,
    and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the
    burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the
    place of which God had told him. Then on the
    third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the
    place afar off. And Abraham said unto his young
    men, Abide ye here with the ass and I and the
    lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to
    you. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt
    offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son and he
    took the fire in his hand, and a knife and they
    went both of them together. And Isaac spake unto
    Abraham his father, and said, My father and he
    said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the
    fire and the wood but where is the lamb for a
    burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God
    will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering
    so they went both of them together. And they
    came to the place which God had told him of and
    Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood
    in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him
    on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham
    stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to
    slay his son.

55
The Story of Abraham
  • Genesis, 2211-19
  • And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of
    heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham and he said,
    Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon
    the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him for
    now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou
    hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from
    me. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked,
    and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket
    by his horns and Abraham went and took the ram,
    and offered him up for a burnt offering in the
    stead of his son. And Abraham called the name of
    that place Jehovahjireh as it is said to this
    day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.
    And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham
    out of heaven the second time, And said, By
    myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because
    thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld
    thy son, thine only son That in blessing I will
    bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply
    thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the
    sand which is upon the sea shore and thy seed
    shall possess the gate of his enemies And in
    thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be
    blessed because thou hast obeyed my voice. So
    Abraham returned unto his young men, and they
    rose up and went together to Beersheba and
    Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.

56
The Issue
  • Gods command that Abraham should kill his only
    son as a sacrifice to God seems to go against
    reason and morality
  • The issue can God ask us to do things that go
    against reason and morality? Which takes
    precedence, Gods command or reason?

57
Immanuel Kantand the Ethics of Duty
58
Two Conceptions of Duty
  • Duty as following orders
  • The Adolph Eichmann model
  • Duty is external
  • Duty is imposed by others
  • Duty as freely imposing obligation on ones own
    self
  • The Kantian model
  • Duty is internal
  • We impose duty on ourselves
  • The second conception of duty is much more
    morally advanced than the first.

59
Duty and Inclination
  • Kant was mistrustful of inclinations (Neigungen)
    as motivations
  • This was part of his view of the physical world
    as causally determined
  • Saw feelings as
  • Unreliable
  • Passive
  • Phenomenal

60
Types of Imperatives
  • Hypothetical Imperative
  • If you want to drive to UCLA from San Diego,
    take the 405 freeway.
  • Structure ifthen
  • Categorical Imperative
  • Always tell the truth
  • Unconditional, applicable at all times

61
The Categorical Imperative
  • Most of us live by rules much of the time. Some
    of these are what Kant called Categorical
    Imperativesunconditional commands that are
    binding on everyone at all times.
  • Always act in such a way that the maxim of your
    action can be willed as a universal law of
    humanity.
  • --Immanuel Kant

62
Categorical Imperatives Respect
  • Always treat humanity, whether in yourself or in
    other people, as an end in itself and never as a
    mere means.
  • --Immanuel Kant

63
Categorical Imperative Publicity
  • Always act in such a way that you would not be
    embarrassed to have your actions described on the
    front page of The New York Times.

64
Conclusion
  • Kant saw that morality must be fair and
    evenhanded.
  • The Kantian path offers a certain kind of moral
    safety in an uncertain world.

65
Teleology
  • Considers acts as morally right or acceptable if
    they produce some desired result such as
    pleasure, knowledge, career growth, the
    realization of a self interest, or utility
  • Assesses moral worth by looking at
  • the consequences for the individual

66
Categories of Teleology
  • Egoism
  • Right or acceptable behavior defined in terms of
    consequences to the individual
  • Maximizes personal interests
  • Enlightened egoists take a longer term
    perspective and allow for the well being of
    others.
  • Utilitarianism
  • Concerned with consequences
  • Considers a cost/benefit analysis
  • Behavior based on principles of rules that
    promote the greatest utility rather than on an
    examination of each situation (greatest good for
    greatest number of people)

67
The Relativist Perspective
  • Defines ethical behavior subjectively from the
    experiences of individuals and groups
  • Relativists use themselves or those around them
    as their basis for defining ethical standards
  • A positive group consensus indicates that an
    action is considered ethical by the group
  • Acknowledges that we live in a society in which
    people have different views
  • There are many different bases from which to
    justify a decision as right or wrong

68
Three Types of Justice
  • Distributive justice
  • An evaluation of the outcomes or results of a
    business relationship (evaluating benefits
    derived/equity in rewards)
  • Procedural justice
  • Based on the processes and activities that
    produce the outcomes or results (evaluating
    decision making processes and level of access,
    openness and participation)
  • Interactional justice
  • Based on an evaluation of the communication
    processes used in business relationships
    (evaluating accuracy of information and
    truthfulness, respect and courtesy in the process)

69
Cognitive Moral Development
  • Kohlbergs model consist of 6 stages
  • Punishment and obedience
  • Individual instrumental purpose and exchange
  • Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships,
    and conformity
  • Social system and conscience maintenance
  • Prior rights, social contract or utility
  • Universal ethical principles

70
Kohlbergs Model
  • Kohlbergs 6 stages can be reduced to 3 different
    levels of ethical concern
  • Concern with immediate interests and with rewards
    and punishments
  • Concern with right as expected by the larger
    society or some significant reference group
  • Seeing beyond norms, laws, and the authority of
    groups or individuals
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