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Molecular Imaging

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Molecular Imaging & Positron Emission Tomography Nicholas Mulhern BME 281 Molecular Imaging Produces Images of the body Allows Visualization of the cellular function ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Molecular Imaging


1
Molecular Imaging Positron Emission Tomography
 
  • Nicholas Mulhern
  • BME 281

2
Molecular Imaging
  • Produces Images of the body
  • Allows Visualization of the cellular function
  • Fine molecular changes
  • understanding molecular pathways
  • Allows for quantitative tests
  • More objectivity to the study of Specific Areas
  • Noninvasive manner
  • Origins in the 1950s

3
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4
Why its important?
  • Earlier and more precise Disease diagnosis
  • Cancer
  • Neurological
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Elucidate biochemical processes
  • Track the impact of experimental drugs
  • clinical trials
  • Many Applications 
  • Oncology, Neuroimaging, Cardiology, Pharmacology
    Small animal imaging, Musculo-skeletal imaging

5
(PET) 
  • Provides a three-dimensional image or picture of
    functional processes in the body
  • blood flow
  • other biochemical
  • functions

6
Biomarkers
  • Injected into Patient
  • tagged with a radioactive atom
  • Molecule determines the function imaged
  • Indicator of the Biological state
  • Help image particular targets or pathways
  • Chemically interact with their surroundings 
  • Alter Images according to Molecular changes
  • Carbon-11, Fluorine-18, Oxygen-15, or Nitrogen-13
  • short decay time

positron emitting radionuclide
 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
7
Gamma Ray Detector
  • Flat table moves incrementally within Housing
  • Circular Gamma ray detector Array  
  • Donut Shaped
  • Contains series of scintillation crystals
  • connected to a photomultiplier tube
  • Scintillation crystals
  • convert the gamma rays, emitted from the patient,
    to photons of light
  • Photomultiplier Tubes 
  • Convert and amplify the photons to electrical
    signals

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11
Electrical signals
  • Electrical signals are then processed by the
    computer to generate images
  • The table is then moved
  • process is repeated
  • Time Dedication
  • 60 min Resting Period
  • Scan 30 minutes
  • Analytical results within
  • 24 hours

12
Result Imaging
  • Resulting in a series of thin slice images
  • Region of interest
  • brain, breast, liver
  • These thin slice images can be assembled into a
    3D representation of the patient's body

13
shows that leukemia present in the bone marrow
before treatment, left, persisted after
chemotherapy, right.
Brain scans of a healthy person (top of image)
and a person with schizophrenia (bottom)
14
Today
  • Few PET centers in the country
  • Must be located near a particle accelerator
    device
  • It produces the short-lived radioisotopes used in
    the technique
  • PET/CT scanner "co-registration"
  • Combines CT X-ray Scan simultaneously
  • Provides Anatomic Info what the structure is
  • Metabolic Inform what it is doing biochemically
  • TIME Magazine as the medical invention of the
    year in 2000

15
A complete body PET/ CT Fusion Image
16
Sources
  • http//www.rikenresearch.riken.jp/eng/frontline/64
    14
  • http//mips.stanford.edu/grants/icmic/2010-2015/
  • http//www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-medicine1.htm
  • http//blog.cleveland.com/medical/2009/03/is_my_ch
    emo_working_new_use_fo.html
  • http//sitemaker.umich.edu/pet.chemistry/positron_
    emission_tomography
  • http//www.biologyreference.com/Po-Re/Psychiatric-
    Disorders-Biology-of.htmlb
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