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Safety analysis of aircraft systems

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Safety analysis of aircraft systems In aviation, safety is defined as the absence of accidents and incidents. JAR 25 treats systems as a whole. Acceptable accident ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety analysis of aircraft systems


1
Safety analysis of aircraft systems
  • In aviation, safety is defined as the absence of
    accidents and incidents.
  • JAR 25 treats systems as a whole.
  • Acceptable accident rates must be established,
    100 safety can never be guaranteed.
  • A relationship must be established between
    severity of effect and probability of occurrence.

2
Probability versus severity of effect
3
The principle of graceful degradation
  • In any system the failure of a single element,
    component or connection should not prevent
    continued safe flight and landing.
  • This single failure should also not lead to an
    unacceptable workload for the operating crew.

4
Types of failure to be considered
  • Single active failure
  • Passive and undetected (dormant) failures
  • Combinations of independent failures
  • Common-mode failures
  • Cascade failures
  • Failures produced by the environment

5
Errors
  • Design errors
  • Manufacturing errors
  • Maintenance errors
  • Pilot mismanagement
  • Errors in manuals or checklists

6
Dormant failure
  • Reverser is deployed!
  • Lauda Air B767 , 26-5-1991
  • Design errors in the thrust reverser electric
    systems led to unobserved deterioration of the
    HIV valve

7
Common-mode failure
  • Whatever you do, keep us away from the city!
  • UA 232, 19-6-1989, Sioux City, Iowa.
  • No. 2 engine fan disc disintegration severed all
    3 hydraulic lines in the tail area.
  • Exceptional flying by the crew led to a landing
    at Sioux airport

8
Cascade failure
  • THY 981, 3-7-1974, Paris
  • Inadequately closed lower deck door opened,
    causing floor collapse
  • This blocked the flying control runs under the
    floor, causing catastrophic failure

9
Failure rates in light single engined aircraft
  • Engine failure. A minimum demonstrated flying
    speed must be 61 kts or below, to enable a
    succesful off-airport landing.
  • Instrument systems for IFR operations must be
    dual and independent. Vacuum pump MTBF 700 hrs.
  • Prevention of flap asymmetry must be adequate

10
A few examples
  • Cessna 172. Seat rails, flap system, elevator
    control
  • Piper PA 28 wing attachment
  • Robinson R22 helicopter, mast bumping

11
Current concerns for GA
  • Inadequate training
  • Inadequate currency
  • Insufficient pilot ability
  • Lack of familiarity with the full flight envelope
  • Inadequate understanding of increasingly complex
    systems

12
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