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WWII

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WWII Most costly ever in terms of lives lost and material destruction * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Tank! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWII


1
WWII
  • Most costly ever in terms of lives lost and
    material destruction

2
WWII
  • Began as a European conflict pitting Germany vs.
    Anglo-French coalition
  • Eventually involving nearly every nation in the
    world
  • Resulted in a New World OrderDominated by US and
    USSRTable set for the Cold War

3
Why do wars occur?
  • Nations compete over natural resources.
  • Individuals demand greater political and economic
    freedom.

4
We will study 3 aspects of WWII
  • The war in Europe against Germany and Italy
  • The war in Asia with Japan
  • The home front

5
What caused WWII in Europe?
  • Germany wanted back what she lost from WWI, and
    revenge
  • Appeasement Great Britain and France gave
    Hitler land w/o fighting for it.
  • Hitler was racist he invaded countries simply to
    kill the Jews living there.

6
The Central issue leading to WWII is the fallout
from the TREATY OF VERSAILLES
7
Treaty of Versailles
  • While the US, France, Great Britain emerged
    satisfied, Germany, Italy, Japan were not
  • Japan wanted control of China
  • US developed isolationist policy in response to
    Allied (European) failure to make good on War
    debts

8
Treaty of Versailles end of WWI
  • The main points of the Treaty BRAT  
  • 1.   Germany had to accept the Blame for starting
    the war
  • 2.     Germany paid Reparations for the damage
    done during the war.

9
Versailles cont. .
  • 3.     Germany was forbidden to have submarines
    or an air force.   She could have a navy of only
    six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
     

10
Versailles
  • 4.     Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe
    (see map). Germanys colonies were given to
    Britain and France.

11
Review Questions
  • How did WWI help cause WWII?

12
Changes realized in the Nature of Warfare
  • 1)Commitment of entire human and economic
    resources to the cause
  • 2)Battlefield came to include all of a Nations
    territory
  • 3)New weapons-long range rocket, atomic bomb
  • 4)Tremendous advances in aircraft and tanks

13
Failure of Peace Efforts
  • 1920-League of Nations formed-Hope for negotiated
    settlements
  • Would prove ineffective in many regions time and
    again
  • 1923-Paris Peace Pact-63 nations including all of
    the worlds greatest powers renounce war as a
    policy

14
  • Only USSR does not commit
  • The peace process will be tested by expansionist
    efforts by ambitious nations like Japan, Italy,
    and Germany

15
Japan 1st to Cause Trouble
  • Limited land mass creates a need to expand in
    order to accrue natural resources and raw
    materials
  • Makes use of a minor clash with Chinese troops to
    take over Manchuria
  • China appeals to the League of Nations
  • Japan is ordered to return Manchuria

16
  • Japan withdraws from the League of Nations
  • Revelation that the league is powerless
    encourages Italy and Germany in their
    expansionist ambitions
  • Italys goal was to secure control of Ethiopia
    (East Africa)

17
Italy in Africa
  • Ethiopian Emperor appeals to the League of
    Nationssanctions issued were ineffective
  • Did not include resources vital to Italian War
    effort
  • Both Germany Italy make use of participation in
    the Spanish Civil War to test their military
    machines

18
Spanish Civil War
  • 1931 Spain becomes a Republic
  • Republican government pursues reform
  • Redistribution of land/reduce role of the
    Catholic Church
  • Right-wing (conservative) Nationalists under
    General Francisco Franco oppose the Republican
    loyalists

19
Gen. Francisco Franco
20
  • Soviets, British, France, and US support
    loyalists
  • Germany and Italy support Nationalists
  • Brings Hitler and Mussolini together
  • Hitler was interested in Spanish resources (Iron
    ore, magnesium)

21
  • Herman Goering-Head of German Air force
    (Luftwaffe) and tested it in Spain
  • The alliance between Hitler and Mussolini came to
    include Japan in the
  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
  • Becomes known as the Axis Powers (1936-1937)

22
Review Rise of the Nazis
23
Depression in 1920s Europe
  • Economy was bad in Europe
  • WWI killed a lot of workers and customers
  • After years of humiliation and starvation,
    Germans looked for a strong leader.

24
NAZIs elected to power!
  • Nazis promised to build up their army and get
    revenge for the WWI
  • This is Adolf Hitler 1933.

25
Totalitarianism
Mussolini (Italy) Hitler (Germany)
26
Germany late 1930s
  • Germany escaped the Depression by militarizing.
  • This is Berlin 1936

27
Lebensraum (Living Space)
  • Hitlers expansion
  • 1936 The Rhineland is taken without response
  • March 1938-Annexed Austria
  • France and Britain awed by German
    armament-considered it an internal German affair

28
Czechoslovakia
  • Next was Czechoslovakia-had been only been a
    democratic state in central Europe by the late
    1930s
  • Strong military, high standard of living,
    alliances with France and the Soviet Union
  • Hitler coveted the western border of
    Czechoslovakia

29
Sudetenland
  • The Sudetenland home to 3.5 million ethnic
    Germans
  • British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain
    initiated peace talks (Sept 1938)
  • Resulted in the Munich Pact

30
Peace in our Time
  • He returned home to the cheers and adulation of
    his people
  • In reality the proposal was futile
  • Appeasement

31
Appeasement
  • Giving in to someones demands in order to
    prevent war

32
Appeasement Hitler wanted land, Britain and
France let him have it without war
33
  • Less than 6 months later, Hitler invaded and
    seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler then threatens Poland, the British
    government pledged to defend the Poles
  • France already had a mutual defense treaty with
    Poland

34
Hitler and the Soviets
  • Attention was turned to the USSR-Joseph Stalin,
    Soviet dictator was courted by both sides.
  • Hitler offer was more attractivein exchange for
    Soviet neutrality Stalin was secretly promised
    claims in Finland, Estonia, Latvia eastern
    Poland, eastern Romania(Nazi-Soviet Pact1939)

35
WWII started when Hitler invaded Poland 1939.
36
Invasion of Poland
  • Sept. 1 1939 in the early morning hours, the
    German invasion of Poland began
  • Sept. 3, Hitler was surprised by the French and
    British declaration of war on Germany
  • Hitler commits 1.5 million troops
  • The Poles mustered 1.8 million

37
Blitzkrieg
  • Lightening War
  • This paralyzed Poland
  • German had more firepower
  • 6 panzer divisions to 1 tank or armored Polish
    division
  • 1600 modern aircraft to 900 obsolete Polish planes

38
  • Lightning warfare
  • German strategy
  • 1st bomb by air, then send in panzer divisions
    (tanks)

39
  • Bombers destroyed railroads, preventing
    mobilization then used armored divisions followed
    by mobile infantry encircled the Poles
  • On the 17th, as Germans closed in on Warsaw The
    Soviet Red Army lunged across the border
  • Final surrender was complete by Oct. 6

40
  • The British were too late to prevent the
    occupation of Poland, but they may have delayed
    its surrender and the French were more concerned
    with self-defense
  • Holding the Maginot Line

41
Phony War
  • in the months following the German invasion of
    Poland in September 1939 and preceding the Battle
    of France in May 1940 that was marked by a lack
    of major military operations in Continental
    Europe.
  • Also known as Sitzkrieg

42
Invasion of France
43
Maginot Line
44
Maginot Line
  • Heavily fortified French line of defense
    fortifications on border with Germany
  • There was a serious flaw-a 50 mile gap in the
    Ardennes
  • Was built in response to WWI
  • Because the Ardennes was forested swampy they
    believed an invasion there would be difficult

45
Hitler focused German attention upon the low
countries
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Belgium
  • Low countries because of elevation

46
Charles de Gaulle
  • French Commander
  • Called for more planes tanks
  • But the French command said the Maginot Line was
    sufficient

47
  • Finland falls to the Soviets
  • May 10, 1940 a massive German airlift caught the
    Dutch off guard
  • They surrendered within 5 days of the invasion
  • At the same time the French British moved to
    defend Belgium

48
  • German Planes swept into the Ardennes
  • Other panzers broke through Luxembourg towards
    France

49
  • Hitler demands Norway and Denmark to accept Nazi
    protection from Britain
  • Danes accept but Norway resists
  • April 9th, 1940 Germans land unopposed in Norway
  • Occupied Oslo by noon

50
  • The remainder of the country held out
  • For about a month
  • This proved costly to the Germans who lost
    several ships

51
Replaces Chamberlain as Prime Minister
  • After the fall of Denmark and Norway
  • Winston Churchill

52
Germany Defeats France
  • Rather than send its main force through Belgium
    as it had done in WWI
  • Gen. Eric Von Manstein advised an unexpected
    attack through the Ardennes Forest
  • Attacking from the Northwest and then moving
    southeast behind the Maginot Line

53
  • Forces were equal in strength in areas of troops
    and tanks
  • Germans maintained a superiority in aircraft

54
  • The same day The Netherlands surrendered, the
    German panzers emerged from the Ardennes and made
    their push behind French and British forces that
    were supporting the Belgians

55
Dunkirk
  • Moving toward the Channel, Allied forces were
    trapped in the N.W. corner of France
  • Evacuation by sea was the only hope for the
    allies.

56
  • May 27 Belgiums King Leopold III surrendered
  • Germany paused and 328,000 men were rescued from
    Dunkirk

57
The Drive to France Begins
  • June 10, Italy declares war on the Allies
  • Though the Maginot line was in tact, no way to
    protect Paris
  • June 17, Marshal Henri Petain (WWI hero) asked
    for an armistice
  • Signed June 25, 1940
  • Terms gave control of Northern France and the
    Atlantic coast to Germany

58
Vichy Government
  • Petain sets up a capital at Vichy in the
    unoccupied Southeastwas a puppet government of
    Germany
  • In Britain, de Gaulle organized a free French
    government and the French resistance operated
    underground in France

59
Hitler in Paris
60
Fortress Europa
  • In no time, Germany conquered most of Europe with
    tanks, planes, railroads.

61
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
62
  • One significant foe remained for Hitler n the
    westBritain
  • Churchill vowed to fight to the bitter end
  • Hitler misjudged the resolve of Churchill and the
    British
  • Expecting Britain to seek peace when the
    situation facing them looked so bleak

63
  • The British had left many of their weapons on the
    beaches at Dunkirk
  • Stalin did not seem eager to challenge Hitler
  • Though the US, alarmed by the fall of France
    began peacetime conscription
  • 1st time everpublic opinion opposed the war

64
Battle of the Atlantic
  • Germany hope to starve Great Britain out
  • Using submarines warfare to cut British overseas
    lifelines
  • Subs were based in both France and Norway

65
  • The best way to force Britains surrender would
    be an invasion across The English Channel
  • Hitler would not risk this however unless the
    British Air Force could be neutralized
  • Thus the Battle of Britain was fought in the air
    not on the beaches

66
  • August 1940, the Germans launched daylight raids
    against airfields and inland cities in Southern
    Britain
  • The objective was to draw out British fighters
    and destroy them
  • Royal Air Force (RAF) were superior
  • So much owed by so many to so few
  • Speech by Churchill

67
  • German casualties were too high, by September
    they were forced to resort to night bombings
    raids57 nights
  • Goering sent more that 1,000 planes at a time
  • Between this time and May 1941, the Germans
    conducted 71 major raids against London and 56
    other cities

68
  • In 1 night the Luftwaffe dropped 70,000 fire
    bombs
  • The damage inflicted, though severe, was not
    militarily decisive

69
Children in East End of London
70
Newbury, England
71
  • On September 17, 1940 Hitler postponed the
    invasion of Britain indefinitely, thereby
    conceding defeat in The Battle of Britain
  • 1,700 German aircraft lost
  • Hitler shifts his focus to the Soviet UnionJuly
    1940still looking for living space

72
Russias Next
  • Hitler believed Britain was holding out for a
    falling-out between Germany and Russia
  • Once the Soviets were defeated, he expected
    Britain would make peace
  • Hitler wanted to begin the invasion in the fall
    of 1940

73
  • His advisers warned against a winter campaign in
    Russia(Napoleon)
  • He waited for spring
  • Meanwhile Germanys ally Mussolini staged an
    unsuccessful attack on British occupied Egypt and
    Greece
  • Britain responded by occupying airfields on Crete
    and in Greece

74
  • Hitler feared British planes within striking
    distance of his one major oil source, Ploiesti
    (Ployisht) fields of Romania
  • He dispatched Erwin Rommel (the Desert Fox) and
    his tanks to support his alliesHe would all but
    push the British out of Africa

75
  • Because he would need to cross their territory to
    get to Greece and the Soviet Union, Hitler
    brought Romania and Hungary into the Axis in
    November 1940, Bulgaria joined in March 1941
  • When Yugoslavia refused to follow suit, Hitler
    ordered the invasion of that country

76
Events which caused the U.S. to become involved
77
Meanwhile, in the USA. . .
78
  • Wanted to stay neutral
  • Cash carry
  • Lend-Lease U.S. lent , materials to the
    Allies for leases to military bases

79
Lend-Lease Act cont
  • 7 billion to lend or lease weapons and other aid
    to countries the president may designate
  • Could assist in defeating the Axis w/o using US
    Troops
  • By late summer 1941 we were in an undeclared war
    with Germany
  • US Marines occupied Iceland, replacing the
    British

80
Atlantic Charter
  • August 9, 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt meet
  • They issue the Atlantic Charter
  • Freedom of trade
  • The right of people to choose their own
    government
  • Called for the final destruction of Nazi Tyranny

81
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. America enters
WWII.December 7, 1941
82
Axis Powers
  • Germany and Italy declared war immediately after
    Pearl Harbor.
  • Germany, Italy and Japan made a deal to help each
    other in case on was attacked.

83
Allied Powers
  • The Allies were the USA, Great Britain, and the
    Soviet Union (USSR). These are called the big
    three.
  • In addition were the colonies and territories of
    these countries.
  • These include China, Canada, Australia, France,
    Poland and others.

84
USAs contribution was production, not blood.
85
Women in workforce
86
Rosie the Riveter
87
People rationed goods for war use.
88
The Army was segregated, but African Americans
served.
89
Tuskegee Airmen
90
Women in the Forces
91
Women in Forces
92
How did USA pay for this war?
93
Internment of Japanese Americans
  • USA was afraid if Japan were to attack the
    Pacific coast, Japanese Americans would help
    them.
  • The Government ordered them to move to camps.

94
Internment camp
95
Strangely, Japanese Americans served in the Army
96
Any questions before the quiz?
97
Home Front Quiz
  • 1. How did USA pay for WW2?
  • 2. Who were the Allied powers besides the USA?
  • 3. Why did the USA intern the Japanese
    Americans?
  • 4. What was the Lend Lease Act?
  • 5. When was the Pearl Harbor attack?

98
Meanwhile, in Asia. . .
99
Japan wanted China and the USSR.
  • Japan is an island, and not a big one.
  • They wanted more living space and resources for
    their superior people.

100
Japan wanted oil reserves
  • Japan wanted more oil to invade China.
  • America embargoed their oil in Indonesia
  • Japan considered this an act of war.

101
Japan joins Axis Powers
  • Germany was sick of the U.S. helping Britain with
    its lend lease program. Japan agreed to attack
    Pearl Harbor and distract the U.S. from Europe
    war.

102
Battle for Midway Island
  • If won, Japanese could have bombed Hawaii more
    from here.
  • Major turning point

103
Island Hopping US fought to gradually reach
Japan
104
Battle for Iwo Jima
  • Island hopping became fact of the war with Japan.
  • Died 6800 US 20000 Japanese.
  • This flag raising was a serious morale boost to
    soldiers on the island.

105
Kamikaze attacks
106
(No Transcript)
107
(No Transcript)
108
This plane dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima
109
Atomic bomb
  • Hiroshima-Little Boy
  • Nagasaki- Fat Man

110
Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
111
Victims in Hiroshima
112
Why drop the Atomic Bomb?
  • The Japanese had shown they would fight to the
    last man, woman and child.
  • The atomic bomb saved as many as 1 million U.S.
    lives, and possibly many Japanese.
  • Harry Truman said he dropped the bomb to end the
    war.

113
Japan surrenders 1945
114
World War II deaths
  • USSR 22 million
  • China 11 million
  • Germany 7 million
  • Poland 7 million
  • U.S. 0.5 million
  • Great Britain 0.3 million
  • Japan 1.5 million

115
Asia WW2 Quiz
  • 1. What cities were nuclear bombed?
  • 2. Define island hopping?
  • 3. What was the importance of Midway Island
    battle?
  • 4. Why did Japan want war with the USA?
  • 5. What ocean protected USA from Japan?

116
Operation Barbarossa
117
Invasion of USSR
  • Begins June 22, 1941 More than 3 million German
    soldiers move into The USSR
  • German preparation for this had been obvious for
    months, but Stalin, concerned about his
    militarys performance in the Finnish War had
    refused counteractively that might provoke Hitler

118
The Soviets are Unprepared
  • The Soviet military leadership concluded that
    blitzkrieg would not be possible on the scale of
    a German-Soviet War
  • Soviets had 2.9 million soldiers on the border
  • Outnumbered German tanks by 2 to 1 and 3 to 1 in
    aircraft

119
  • Large numbers of soviet aircraft destroyed on the
    ground the first day of fighting
  • Soviet tanks are scattered among the infantry
    (like the French) proved ineffective against
    German Panzer groups

120
  • Soviet infantry had been ordered to
    counter-attack which was impossible, and then
    forbidden o retreat which insured their wholesale
    destruction or capture

121
Germany three-pronged attack
  • Designating army groups in the North, Center, and
    South to drive towards
  • Leningrad
  • Moscow
  • Kiev
  • The objective was to lock the Soviet Army in
    battle and defeat it before it could disappear
    into the interior

122
  • War games had predicted a victory in about 10
    weeks
  • Essential because the Russian summer is short
  • By the end of the first week (July)army group
    center had taken 290,000 prisoners-another
    300,000 by Aug.5th
  • Was 2/3 of the way to Moscow

123
Winter comes to Russia
  • The wet fall and cold of winter slowed and then
    stopped German progress 50km. From Moscow in
    December
  • Soviets counter-attack with reserves led by Gen.
    Zhukov and began rolling back the German Army
    which abandoned vehicles and weapons

124
Tough cold winters killed many NAZI troops in
USSR.
  • Russian people are tough! 21 million dead, yet
    no surrender!

125
German Low Point
  • Hitler consolidate to two armies pushing toward
    Stalingrad
  • A mistake separating armies and making resupply
    for both over damaged RR impossibleStalin
    ordered his retreating army not another step
    back

126
Battle of Stalingrad
  • Turning Pt. in the War
  • Bloodiest in Modern History
  • The battle took place between 17 July, 1942 and 2
    February, 1943.
  • Russian Victory

127
  • Hitler needed to redeploy troops in ItalyThe
    Americans had landed on Sicily in July
  • Hitler anticipated an European invasionfeeling
    he could repel it
  • The allies would abandon the effortHe could then
    concentrate on the USSR

128
Operation Overlord
  • Normandy Invasion
  • June 6, 1944D-Day at Normandy under Omar Bradley
  • Eisenhower was the ETO Commander
  • An unsuccessful attempt on Hitlers life to save
    Germany (Valkyrie)

129
Invasion of Normandy, France
130
Tank!
131
Anti-tank weaponry
132
  • English Channel protected England
  • Britain resisted German air force

133
  • Hitler thought the invasion of Normandy was a
    feintno counter-offensivehe expected an assault
    North of the Seine River
  • August 3, Americans w/de Gaulle and the Free
    French Resistance forces liberate Paris

134
Race to Berlin
  • US and allied forces crossed the German border on
    September 11difficulty in maintaining the supply
    line slowed progress
  • Needed the port of Antwerp to be made operational
    again
  • In a race with Russia (Stalin underestimates
    speed of US Troops)

135
Beginnings of Communism
  • German allies surrendering in the east and
    communist regimes installed by the Soviets (Cold
    War)
  • The fall of 1944 saw air offensive against
    Germany until

136
Battle of the Bulge
  • German counter offensive in the Ardennes in
    December

137
Yalta Conference
  • Feb. 1945Stalin agrees to fight Japan after
    Germany surrenders

138
Dates to Remember
  • Roosevelt dies April 12
  • Hitler commits suicide April 30 in his bunker
  • German surrender May 7
  • May 8 V/E Day
  • Japan surrenders Aug 15, 1945

139
Germanys end
  • Germany invaded the Soviet Union and lost a
    million troops due to the cold and Russian
    bravery.
  • Germany spent too many resources trying to kill
    Jews and not supporting his troops
  • Germans fought Russians in the east and Americans
    and Brits in the West.

140
Germany surrenders April 45
141
  • Mussolini killed while trying to escape Italy
    dressed as Nazi officer
  • Hitler committed suicide in late April 1945
  • Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) 5/8/45 Germany
    surrendered

142
V-J Day
  • 9/2/45 representatives of Hirohito signed
    surrender terms aboard USS Missouri
  • Japan lost all land taken after 1875
  • Hirohito became a constitutional monarch
  • War crimes trials

143
July of 1945 Potsdam Conference
  • Big Three met
  • USSR would declare war on Japan invade
    Manchuria a.s.a.p.
  • Japan US occupied

144
Potsdam Cont
  • Korea would be occupied by Soviets N. of 38th
    parallel, by US S. of 38th parallel
  • Japan US occupied

145
The Settlement of WWII will lead to theCold War
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