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Title: ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE


1
ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE
  • An Introduction to Engineering
  • A Comprehensive Approach

2
CHAPTER 1
  • The History of Engineering

3
1.1 Introduction
  • Definition of Engineering
  • The profession in which knowledge of the
    mathematical and natural sciences, gained by
    study, experience, and practice, is applied with
    judgment to develop ways to use, economically,
    the materials and forces of nature for the
    benefit of mankind.

4
1.2 Getting Started
  • Prehistoric Culture
  • Our Computer Age
  • The Speed of History
  • Quick Overview

5
1.3 The Beginnings of Engineering
  • The Earliest Days
  • Egypt and Mesopotamia (add picture)

6
1.3 Pictures of Pyramids
7
1.4 The Overview Approach
  • Engineering the Temples of Greece
  • The Roman Roads and Aqueducts
  • The Great Wall of China
  • FROM HERE MIGHT WANT TO ADD PICTURES FROM BOOK

8
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages
  • 1200 B.C. A.D. 1
  • Quality of wrought iron is improved
  • Swords are mass produced
  • Siege towers are perfected
  • Greeks develop manufacturing
  • Archimedes introduces mathematics in Greece
  • Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads and
    aqueducts in Rome.

9
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages A.D. 1-1000
  • Chinese further develop the study of mathematics
  • Gunpowder is perfected
  • Cotton and silk manufactured

10
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1000-1400
  • Silk and glass industries continue to grow
  • Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval mathematician,
    writes the first Western text on algebra

11
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1400-1700
  • First toilet is invented in England
  • Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with
    which he observes the rotation about the sun
  • Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the existence
    of a vacuum
  • Issac Newton constructs first reflecting
    telescopes
  • Boyles Gas Law, stating pressure varies
    inversely with volume, is first introduced.

12
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1700-1800
  • Industrial Revolution begins in Europe
  • James Watt patents his first steam engine
  • Society of Engineers, a professional engineering
    society, is formed in London
  • First building made completely of cast iron built
    in England

13
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1800-1825
  • Machine automation is first introduced in France
  • First railroad locomotive is designed and
    manufactured
  • Chemical symbols are developed, the same symbols
    used today (Au, He)
  • Single wire telegraph line is developed

14
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1825-1875
  • Reinforced concrete is first used
  • First synthetic plastic material is created
  • Bessemer develops his process to create stronger
    steel in mass quantities
  • First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania
  • Typewriter is perfected

15
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1875-1900
  • Telephone is patented in the US by Alexander
    Graham Bell
  • Thomas Edison invents the light bulb and the
    phonograph
  • Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb Daimler
  • Automobile introduced by Karl Benz

16
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1900-1925
  • Wright brothers complete first sustained flight
  • Ford develops first diesel engines in tractors
  • First commercial flight between Paris and London
    begins
  • Detroit becomes center of auto production industry

17
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1925-1950
  • John Logie Baird invents a primitive form of
    television
  • The VW Beetle goes into production
  • First atomic bomb is used
  • The transistor is invented

18
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1950-1975
  • Computers first introduced into the market, and
    are common by 1960
  • Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put
    into space by USSR
  • First communication satelliteTelstaris put into
    space
  • The U.S. completes the first ever moon landing

19
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1975-1990
  • The Concord is first used for supersonic flight
    between Europe and the U.S.
  • Columbia space shuttle is reused for space travel
  • First artificial heart is successfully implanted

20
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1990-Present
  • Robots travel on Mars
  • The Chunnel between England and France is
    finished
  • GPS is used to predict and report weather
    conditions, as well as many other consumer
    applications

21
1.6 Case Study of Two HistoricEngineers
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Gutenberg and His Printing Press

22
1.7 The History of the Disciplines
  • Aerospace Eng.
  • Agricultural Eng.
  • Chemical Eng.
  • Civil Eng.
  • Computer Eng.
  • Electrical Eng.
  • Industrial Eng.
  • Mechanical Eng.

23
1.7 History Aerospace Engineering
  • Aerospace engineering is concerned with
    engineering applications in the areas of
    aeronautics (the science of air flight) and
    astronautics (the science of space flight).

24
1.7 History Agricultural Engineering
  • Agricultural engineering focuses on
  • Soil and water
  • Structures and environment
  • Electrical power and processing
  • Food engineering
  • Power and machinery

25
1.7 History Chemical Engineering
  • Chemical engineering applies chemistry to
    industrial processes, such as the manufacture of
    drugs, cements, paints, lubricants, and the like.

26
1.7 History Civil Engineering
  • Civil engineering focuses on structural issues,
    such as
  • Bridges and Highways
  • Skyscrapers
  • Industrial Plants and Power Plants
  • Shipping Facilities and Railroad Lines
  • Pipelines, Gas Facilities, Canals

27
1.7 History Computer and Electrical Engineering
  • The worlds business is centered around
    computers, and their uses are only increasing
  • Electrical is the largest branch of engineering
  • Involved in
  • Communication Systems
  • Computers and Automatic Controls
  • Power Generation and Transmission
  • Industrial Applications

28
1.7 History Industrial Engineering
  • Industrial engineers design, install, and improve
    systems that integrate people, materials, and
    machines to improve efficiency.

29
1.7 History Mechanical Engineering
  • Deals with power, the generation of power, and
    the application of power to a variety of
    machines, ranging from HVAC to space vehicles.

30
CHAPTER 2
  • Engineering Majors

31
2.1 Introduction
  • Several characteristics of students that might
    have an interest in engineering are
  • Proficient skills in math and physical science
  • An urging from a high school counselor
  • Knows someone who is an engineer
  • Knows that engineering offers literally dozens,
    if not hundreds of job opportunities
  • Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite
    lucrative

32
2.1 Engineers and Scientists
  • Scientists seek technical answers to understand
    natural phenomenon
  • Engineers study technical problems with a
    practical application always in mind
  • For example
  • Scientists study atomic structure to understand
    the nature of matter engineers study atomic
    structure to make smaller and faster microchips

33
2.1 The Engineer and the Engineering Technologist
  • Main difference between the two is
  • Engineers design and manufacture machines and
    systems, while engineering technologists have the
    technical know-how to use and install the
    machines properly
  • An example
  • The technologist identifies the equipment
    necessary to assemble a new CD player the
    engineer designs said CD player

34
2.1 What Do Engineers Do?
  • Ways to get information about careers
  • Visit job fairs
  • Attend seminars on campus by various employers
  • Contact faculty with knowledge of engineering
    fields
  • Get an intern or co-op position
  • Enroll in an engineering elective course

35
2.1 What Engineers Do
36
2.2 Engineering Functions Research
  • Research engineers are knowledgeable in
    principles of chemistry, biology, physics, and
    mathematics
  • Computer know-how is also recommended
  • A Masters Degree is almost always required, and a
    Ph. D is often strongly recommended

37
2.2 Engineering FunctionsDevelopment
  • Development engineers bridge the gap between the
    laboratory and the production facility
  • They also identify problems in a potential
    product
  • An example is the development of concept cars for
    companies like Ford and GM

38
2.2 Engineering FunctionsTesting
  • Testing engineers are responsible for testing the
    durability and reliability of a product, making
    sure that it performs how it is supposed to,
    every time. T.E.s simulate instances and
    environments in which a product would be used
  • Crash testing of a vehicle to observe effects of
    an air bag and crumple zone are examples of a
    testing engineers duties

39
2.2 Engineering FunctionsDesign
  • Design aspect is where largest number of
    engineers are employed
  • Design engineers often work on components of a
    product, providing all the necessary specifics
    needed to successfully manufacture the product
  • Design engineers regularly use computer design
    software as well as computer aided drafting
    software in their jobs

40
2.2 Engineering FunctionsDesign
  • Design engineers must also verify that the part
    meets reliability and safety standards required
    for the product
  • A concern always on the mind of design engineers
    is how to keep the development of a part cost
    effective, which is taken into account during a
    design process

41
2.2 Engineering FunctionsAnalysis
  • Analysis engineers use computational tools and
    mathematic models to enrich the work of design
    and research engineers
  • Analysis engineers typically have a mastery of
    heat transfer, fluid flow, vibrations, dynamics,
    acoustics, and many other system characteristics

42
2.2 Engineering FunctionsSystems
  • Responsible on a larger scale for bringing
    together components of parts from design
    engineers to make a complete product
  • Responsible for making sure all components of a
    product work together as was intended by design
    engineers

43
2.2 Engineering FunctionsManufacturing
Construction
  • Work individually or in teams
  • Responsible for molding raw materials into
    finished product
  • Maintain and keep records on equipment in plant
  • Help with design process to keep costs low

44
2.2 Engineering FunctionsOperations
Maintenance
  • Responsible for maintaining production line
  • Must have technical know-how to deal w/ problems
  • Responsible for inspecting facility and
    equipment, must be certified in various
    inspection methods

45
2.2 Engineering FunctionsTechnical Support
  • Works between consumers and producers
  • Not necessarily have in depth knowledge of
    technical aspects of product
  • Must have good interpersonal skills

46
2.2 Engineering FunctionsCustomer Support
  • Often have more of a technical knowledge than
    Tech. Support, because they must be able to work
    with basic customers
  • Evaluate whether or not a current practice is
    cost effective via feedback from customers

47
2.2 Engineering FunctionsSales
  • Sales engineers have technical background, but
    are also able to communicate effectively w/
    customers
  • Job market for sales engineers is growing, due to
    the fact that products are becoming more and more
    technically complex

48
2.2 Engineering FunctionsConsulting
  • Are either self-employed, or work for a firm that
    does not directly manufacture products
  • Consulting engineers might be involved in design,
    installation, and upkeep of a product
  • Sometimes required to be a registered
    professional engineer in the state where he/she
    works

49
2.3 Engineering MajorsAerospace Engineering
  • Previously known as aeronautical and
    astronautical engineering
  • First space flight Oct. 4, 1957 (Sputnik I)
  • KEY WORDS
  • Aerodynamics The study of the flow of air over
    a streamlined surface or body.
  • Propulsion engineers develop quieter, more
    efficient, and cleaner burning engines.

50
2.3 Engineering MajorsAerospace Engineering
  • KEY WORDS
  • Structural engineers use of new alloys,
    composites, and other new materials to meet
    design requirements of new spacecraft
  • Control systems systems used to operate crafts
  • Orbital mechanics calculation of where to place
    satellites using GPS

51
2.3 Engineering MajorsAgricultural Engineering
  • Concerned with finding ways to produce food more
    efficiently
  • KEY WORDS
  • Harvesting Equip. - removes crops from field,
    and begins processing of food
  • Structures used to hold crops, feed, and
    livestock Agricultural engineers develop and
    design the structures that hold crops

52
2.3 Engineering MajorsAgricultural Engineering
  • Food process engineers concerned with making
    healthier processed food products
  • Soil/Water Resources working to develop
    efficient ways to use limited resources

53
2.3 Engineering MajorsArchitectural Engineering
  • Structural primarily concerned with the
    integrity of the building structure. Evaluates
    loads placed on buildings, and makes sure the
    building is structurally sound
  • Mechanical systems control climate of building,
    as well as humidity and air quality(HVAC)

54
2.3 Engineering MajorsBiomedical
  • First recognized in 1940s
  • Three basic categories Bioengineering, Medical,
    and Clinical
  • Bioengineering is application of engineering
    principles to biological systems
  • Medical engineers develop instrumentation for
    medical uses
  • Clinical engineers develop systems that help
    serve the needs of hospitals and clinics

55
2.3 Engineering MajorsChemical
  • Emphasizes the use of chemistry and chemical
    processes in engineering
  • Chemical engineers develop processes to extract
    and refine crude oil and gas resources
  • Chemical engineers also develop circuit boards,
    and work in the pharmaceutical industry, where
    processes are designed to create new, affordable
    drugs

56
2.3 Engineering MajorsCivil Engineering
  • First seen in pyramids of Egypt
  • Structural engineers most common type of civil
    engineer
  • Transportation engineers concerned w/ design and
    construction of highways, railroads, and mass
    transit systems
  • Surveyors start construction process by locating
    property lines and property areas

57
2.3 Engineering MajorsComputer Engineering
  • Focuses primarily on computer hardware, not
    software
  • Work w/ electrical engineers to develop faster
    ways to transfer information, and to run the
    computer
  • Responsible for the architecture of the
    computer system

58
2.3 Engineering MajorsElectrical Engineering
  • More engineers are electrical than any other
    discipline
  • With an ever growing technological society,
    electrical engineers will ALWAYS have a job
  • Work in communications, microelectronics, signal
    processing, bioengineering, etc

59
2.3 Engineering MajorsEnvironmental Engineering
  • Often coupled with Civil Engineering
  • 3 aspects of environmental engineering
  • Disposal disposing of industrial/residential
    waste products
  • Remediation clean up of a contaminated site
  • Prevention working with corporations to reduce
    and/or prevent emissions and work to find ways to
    recycle products to be used again to reduce
    waste

60
2.3 Engineering MajorsIndustrial Engineering
  • Design, improvement, and installation of
    integrated systems of people, material, and
    energy
  • Emphasis placed on Production, Manufacturing,
    Human Factors Area, and Operations Research
  • Production focuses on plant layout, scheduling,
    and quality control
  • Human Factors focuses on the efficient placement
    of human resources within a plant/facility

61
2.3 Engineering MajorsMarine and Ocean
Engineering
  • Concerned with the design, development, and
    operation of ships and boats
  • Marine engineer designs and maintains the systems
    that operate ships, I.e. propulsion,
    communication, steering and navigation
  • Ocean engineer design and operates marine
    equipment other than ships, such as submersibles.
    O.E.s might also work on submarine pipelines
    and/or cables and drilling platforms

62
2.3 Engineering MajorsMaterials Engineering
  • Study the structure, as well as other important
    properties of materials, I.e. strength, hardness,
    and durability
  • Run tests to ensure the quality of the
    performance of the material
  • Material Engineers also study metallurgy, and the
    development of composites and alloys

63
2.3 Engineering MajorsMechanical Engineering
  • Concerned with machines and mechanical devices
  • Work in design, development, production, control,
    and operation of machines/devices
  • Requires a strong math and physics background.
    Often 4 or more math classes required for
    graduation

64
2.3 Engineering MajorsMining Engineering
  • Work to maintain constant levels of raw minerals
    used every day in industrial and commercial
    settings
  • Must discover, remove, process, and refine such
    minerals

65
2.3 Engineering MineralsNuclear Engineering
  • Most concerned with producing and harnessing
    energy from nuclear sources
  • Propulsion and electricity are the main uses of
    nuclear power
  • Engineers also responsible for disposal of the
    nuclear waste byproduct, and how to keep people
    safe from harmful nuclear products

66
2.3 Engineering MajorsPetroleum Engineering
  • Discover, remove, refine, and transport crude and
    refined oil around the world
  • PEs design and operate the machinery used to
    refine crude oil into its many forms

67
Chapter 3
  • Profiles of Engineers

68
3.1 Introduction
  • Diversity of the engineering work force
  • Wide range of engineering careers that are
    possible

69
3.1 Profile of a Biomedical Engineer
  • Sue H. Abreu, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
  • Occupation
  • Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Corps, United States
    Army
  • Medical Director, Quality Assurance, Womack Army
    Medical Center
  • Education
  • IDE (BSE, Biomedical Engineering), 1978
  • MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health
    Sciences, 1982

70
3.1 Profile of an Aerospace Engineer
  • Patrick Rivera Anthony
  • Occupation
  • Project Manager, Boeing Space Beach
  • Education
  • BS, Aerospace Engineering

71
3.1 Profile of a Civil Engineer
  • Sandra Begay-Campbell, Boulder, Colorado
  • Occupation
  • AISES Executive Director
  • Education
  • BSCE, 1987 MS, Structural Engineering, 1991

72
3.1 Profile of an Electrical Engineer
  • Ryan Maibach, Farmington, Michigan
  • Occupation
  • Project Engineer at Barton Malow Company
  • Education
  • BS-CEM (Construction Engineering and Management),
    1996

73
3.1 Profile of an Agricultural Engineer
  • Mary E. Maley, Battle Creek, Michigan
  • Occupation
  • Project Manager, Kellogg Company
  • Education
  • BS, Agricultural Engineering (food engineering)

74
Chapter 4
  • A Statistical Profile of the Engineering
    Profession

75
4.1 Statistical Overview
  • How many people study engineering?
  • What are the most common majors?
  • What kind of job market is there for engineers?
  • How much do engineers earn?
  • How many women and minorities study engineering?

76
4.2 College Enrollment Trends of Engineering
Students
  • 1950s-1960s 60,000-80,000 engineering students
  • 1970s marked the lowest number of students, at
    43,000
  • Engineering peaked in 1980s, with around 118,000
    students

77
4.3 College Majors of Recent Engineering Students
  • Of approximately 350,000 full-time undergrad
    engineering students, just less than 1/3
    (124,000) were majoring in computer and
    electrical engineering
  • Just over 32,000 were undecided

78
4.4 Degrees in Engineering
  • Steady decline in Engineering degrees awarded
    between 1986 and 1995. Since then, there have
    been many fluctuations, but as of data of 2000,
    there were 63,300 engineering degrees awarded
  • For a long time, electrical awarded the highest
    number of degrees, but that was eventually
    replaced by mechanical engineering

79
4.5 Job Placement Trends
  • 1999-2000 was the hottest year for engineering
    majors to find jobs
  • As the number of engineering students declines,
    employers must fight harder to get whatever
    students they can get their hands on to fill
    vacant positions. This has led to a very
    promising job placement ratio

80
4.6 Salaries of Engineers
  • On the whole, engineers make more money than any
    other graduate with another degree
  • Electrical, computer, and computer science
    recently have led the way, with average salaries
    from a Bachelor degree starting at around 52,000
  • A Ph.D. in computer science will earn a starting
    average of around 84,000

81
4.7 Diversity in the Profession
  • For a long time, white males dominated
    engineering
  • Recently, women, foreign nationals, and various
    minority students have entered colleges and
    universities with an engineering diploma in mind

82
4.8 Distribution of Engineers by Field of Study
  • Electrical engineering employs the highest number
    of engineers, nearly 25, numbering close to
    375,000
  • Mechanical employs almost 250,000
  • Civil is the next highest populated, with
    200,000 workers

83
4.11 Words of Advice from Employers
  • Looking for graduates who possess
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Teamwork
  • Leadership
  • Computer/Technical proficiency
  • Hard working attitude

84
Chapter 5
  • Global and InternationalEngineering

85
5.1 Introduction
  • After WWII, engineering became a more global
    business.
  • Taking a few foreign language classes in college
    cannot hurt, but only help your chances at
    getting a job after college.

86
5.2 The Evolving Global Market Changing World
Maps Alliances
  • Breakup of former USSR
  • New laws, regulations, policies have affected the
    spread of international engineering

87
5.2 NAFTA
  • 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (US,
    Mexico, Canada)
  • Designed to reduce tariffs, and increase
    international competition
  • Manufacturing trade has increased by 128 between
    Canada, US, and Mexico since 1994

88
5.3 International OpportunitiesFor Engineers
  • Engineers are employed internationally in
  • Automobile Industry
  • Manufacturing
  • Construction
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Food Industry
  • Petroleum and Chemical Industry
  • Computer and Electronics Industry
  • Telecommunications

89
5.4 Preparing for a Global Career
  • Students who look to work internationally should
  • Be language and culturally proficient
  • Should participate in study abroad programs
  • Look into work international work experienceand
    Co-Op opportunities

90
Chapter 6
  • Future Challenges

91
6.1 Expanding World Population
  • 1900-2000, world population climbs from 1.6
    billion to 6 billion people
  • Places new stress on conservation of resources,
    and gives engineers new challenges to compensate
    for high population

92
6.2 Pollution
  • Engineers concerned with management and the
    control of pollution, especially
  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution and the depletion of freshwater
    resources
  • Management of solid waste

93
6.3 Energy
  • It is predicted that energy usage in the
    Developing Countries will more than double in the
    next 30 years
  • Engineers must find new ways to generate power in
    an effort to conserve natural resources (fossil
    fuels)

94
6.5 Infrastructure
  • With mass transportation an ever-present problem,
    engineers will be responsible in the future for
    designing and maintaining a system by which the
    transportation of raw materials, as well as the
    human capital that process them, can easily and
    efficiently move from place to place

95
CHAPTER 7
  • Succeeding in the Classroom

96
7.2 Attitude
  • Success in an engineering curriculum depends
    largely on a students attitude and work ethic
  • If the students attitude is one of failure, the
    student will most likely fail
  • Keep an open mind, and be willing to work with
    the professor in order to best understand the
    material

97
7.3 Goals
  • Set goals that will be difficult to attain, but
    not impossible
  • This will motivate the student to work hard, not
    just hard enough to do the minimum, but to reach
    their higher standard/goal
  • Set short, intermediate, and long term goals
  • GPA for a semester, grade on an upcoming exam,
    GPA for a year/college career

98
7.4 Keys to effectiveness
  • GO TO CLASS
  • Allow 2 hrs. of study time outside of class for
    every hour in class
  • Re-read sections of book covered in class
  • Keep up with class and reading
  • Take good notes
  • Work lots of problems, not just the minimum
    amount for homework
  • Study in groups

99
7.5 Test Taking
  • Obtain past exams
  • Ask professor for practice exams
  • Work problems in book
  • Start with problems you know how to do, then work
    on the harder problems
  • Skim test first, to see what will basically be
    covered

100
7.6 Making the Most of Your Professor
  • Dont wait until the end of the semester to go
    for help
  • If you make yourself visible in class and during
    office hours, the professor may remember you
    while grading
  • Teaching is not professors only responsibility,
    often the are researchers and advisors as well,
    so give them the benefit of the doubt

101
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Each persons brain is unique to him or her
  • Proper nutrition, stress, drugs and alcohol are
    some of the factors that can affect a developing
    brain
  • Each person is born with all the brain cells, or
    neurons, they will ever have (estimated at 180
    billion neurons)

102
7.7 Learning Styles
  • None of us is ever too old or too dumb to learn
    something new!
  • People think and memorize in several different
    ways

103
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Memorizing
  • Refers to how people assimilate new material to
    existing knowledge and experience
  • How we accommodate, or change our previous way of
    organizing material

104
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Thinking
  • Refers to how we see the world, approach problems
    and use the different parts of our brain.

105
7.7 Learning Styles
  • We all have different learning styles
  • Memory Languages
  • Auditory
  • Visual
  • Kinesthetic

106
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Auditory Learner
  • Buy a small tape recorder and record lectures
  • Sit where you can hear the professor well
  • Focus on what is said in class, take notes from
    the tape recorder later
  • Ask the professor questions
  • Read out loud to yourself
  • Keep visual distractions to a minimum

107
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Visual Learner
  • Sit where you can see the professor and board or
    screen clearly
  • Write notes during lecture with lots of pictures
    and meaningful doodles
  • Rewrite notes later in a more organized fashion
    and highlight main ideas
  • Write out questions to ask the professor
  • Highlight and take notes in your book

108
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Kinesthetic Learners
  • TAKE Labs!
  • Make connections between what is being said and
    what youve done in the past
  • Talk to professor about ways to gain more
    hands-on experience, such as volunteering in
    his/her lab
  • Use models or experiments at home

109
7.7 Learning Styles
  • Thinking Skills
  • Refers to how we see the world, approach problems
    and use the different parts of our brain
  • Different people think differently
  • Two hemispheres in our brain, and four quadrants
    generally categorize how we think

110
7.7 Learning Styles
111
7.8 Well Rounded Equals Effective
  • Make sure to balance social, intellectual, and
    physical activities in your schedule
  • Well rounded students are generally more
    effective than students with a one-track mind

112
7.9 Your Effective Use of Time
  • Decide in advance what to study and when
  • Make schedules
  • Use calendars effectively
  • Organize tasks by priority level
  • Stay focused on task
  • Remember, everyone will fail at some point,
    its how you respond to a failure that determines
    your future success or failure

113
Chapter 8
  • Problem Solving

114
8.1 Introduction
  • Problem solving requires many tools and skills.
    Make sure that you have them, or at least know
    where to find them and how to use them

115
8.2 Analytic and Creative Problem Solving
  • Two basic types of problem solving involved in
    design process creative and analytic
  • More students familiar with analytic, where there
    is one right answer
  • Creative problem solving has no right answers

116
8.2 Analytic and Creative Problem Solving
  • Steps that typically help w/ problem solving
  • Make a model/figure
  • Identify necessary, desired and given info
  • Work backwards from answers
  • Restate problem in ones own words
  • Check the solution and validate it

117
8.3 Analytic Problem Solving
  • Six steps to analytic problem solving
  • Define the problem and create a problem statement
  • Diagram and describe the problem
  • Apply theory and any known equations
  • Simplify assumptions
  • Solve necessary problems
  • Verify accuracy of answer to desired level

118
8.4 Creative Problem Solving
  • Use divergence and convergence to gather and
    analyze ideas. Divergence is brainstorming.
    Convergence is analyzing and evaluating the
    ideas, seeking out the best possible solutions
  • What is wrong?
  • What do we know?
  • What is the real problem?
  • What is the best solution?
  • How do we implement the solution?

119
Chapter 9
  • Visualization and Graphics

120
9.1-9.2 Visualization
  • Visualization is often used as a mode of
    communication between engineers
  • Sketches, tables, graphs, computer generated
    drawings, blueprints are various ways in which
    engineers communicate via visual mediums

121
9.3 Sketching
  • Although most final drawings are computer
    generated, initial and freehand sketches are
    vital to the design process
  • Freehand does not mean messy. Sketches should
    display an adequate amount of detail, and any
    pertinent notes/comments pertaining to the
    drawing
  • For instance, if a line is supposed to be
    straight, make it as straight as possible. A
    square will not pass for a circle.

122
9.7 Graphical Communication
  • Oblique and isometric drawings are 3D and general
  • Orthographic drawings are 2D, more detailed, and
    often have dimensions for the part
  • Object, Hidden, Centerline, and Construction are
    4 common types of lines used in engineering
    graphics

123
Chapter 10
  • Computer Tools

124
10.1-10.6 Computer Tools for Engineers
  • There are many aspects to the design process of a
    product
  • Engineers must be competent in basic computer
    tools such as the internet, word processing, and
    basic spreadsheets
  • Engineers will most likely be required to have
    some knowledge of mathematical software, such as
    MatLab
  • Engineers also make computer presentations using
    most commonly, Microsoft PowerPoint

125
10.7-10.8 Operating Systems and Programming
Language
  • Engineers may be required to have experience or
    be expected to be able to work in UNIX, MS-DOS,
    or a Microsoft Windows System
  • Computers work on series of 1s and 0s, called
    binary code
  • FORTRAN, BASIC, C, and C are all programming
    languages used by engineers to communicate with
    the computer

126
Chapter 11
  • Teamwork Skills

127
11.1 Teamwork
  • Corporations develop teams for many reasons
  • Projects are becoming increasingly complex
  • Projects often span international borders, and
    require workers all over
  • Projects are requiring more speed, which require
    more workers

128
11.2 What Makes a SuccessfulTeam?
  • A common goal
  • Leadership
  • Each member makes unique contributions
  • Effective communication
  • Creativity
  • Good planning and use of resources

129
11.4 Team Leadership Structures
  • Traditional One leader, who directs
    subordinates. Leader typically is the only one
    who speaks.
  • Participative Leader is closer to individual
    workers.
  • Flat There is no leader. All members are
    equal. The leadership moves with the situation
    to the worker with the most expertise in a given
    subject

130
11.5 Decisions within a Team
  • Consensus All team members agree on a decision
  • Majority Rule
  • Minority/Committee decision
  • Expert input

131
11.7 Grading a Team Effort
  • Did the team accomplish its goal?
  • Were results of a high quality? If not, why?
  • Did the team grow throughout the process?
  • Evaluate the team leader
  • Evaluate the other members of the team
  • Evaluate your own contribution to the project

132
Chapter 12
  • Project Management

133
12.1 Introduction
  • Failure to plan is planning to fail.
  • A good plan is one of the most important
    attributes of successful teams and projects.
  • Projects should be organized systematically.

134
12.1 Eight Questions that can be Addressed with a
Plan
  • What to do first?
  • Next?
  • How many people?
  • What resources?
  • How long?
  • Time table?
  • Deadlines?
  • Objectives?

135
12.2 Creating a Project Charter
  • A project summary
  • Defining what your project is and when you will
    know when it is done
  • Elements include
  • Deliverables
  • Duration
  • Stakeholders
  • Team members

136
12.3 Task Definitions
  • Identify the completion tasks to achieve the
    objectives and outcomes
  • Plan
  • Design
  • Build
  • Deliver

137
12.3 Plans
  • Plans should include
  • Who to hold accountable for progress
  • Needed materials, resources, etc.
  • How to determine if the project is on schedule
  • Manage people and resources
  • Determine the end!

138
12.4 Milestones
  • Monitoring of your plans progress
  • Deadlines for deliverables
  • Completion of subcomponents

139
12.5 Defining Times
  • Include the full time needed for tasks
  • As a student, you dont have a full eight-hour
    work day every day
  • Break tasks into week segments
  • Weekday and/or weekend
  • Class periods
  • Break tasks into short time periods
  • No more than a week or two

140
12.6 Organizing the Tasks
  • Determine task relationships and sequencing
  • Relate the task groups from your outline

141
12.7 PERT Charts
142
12.7 PERT Charts
  • Each task is represented by a box containing a
    brief description of and duration for the task
  • The boxes can be laid out just as the project
    plan is laid out
  • Useful as a what if tool during planning stages

143
12.8 Critical Paths
  • The longest string of dependant project tasks
  • Ex. prerequisites such as the math curriculum
    for engineering
  • Some tasks can be accelerated by using more
    people, others cannot
  • Ex. nine people cannot have the same baby in
    one month

144
12.9 Gantt Charts
  • Popular project management charting method
  • Horizontal bar chart
  • Tasks vs. dates

145
12.9 Gantt Charts
146
12.10 Details, Details
  • Remember Murphys Law - Anything that can go
    wrong, will.
  • Leave time to fix debug or fix errors

147
12.10 Details, Details
  • Dont assume things will fit together the first
    time
  • Order parts well in advance to leave time for
    shipping, errors, or backorders
  • Leave time for parts malfunction
  • Push delivery times back to a week before theyre
    actually due this will help to avoid panic if
    things go badly

148
12.11 Personnel Distribution
  • Get the right people on the right tasks
  • Assign people after developing a draft of the
    plan
  • Balance the work between everyone
  • Weekly updates does everyone understand what
    theyre doing and is everyone still on task?

149
12.12 Money and Resources
  • Develop a budget
  • Estimate with high, middle, and lower quality
    products offer a range of solutions
  • Extra costs
  • Shipping
  • Travel
  • Extra parts such as nails, screws, resistors
  • Material costs and labor
  • Have someone be responsible for managing the
    budgets and financial aspects

150
12.13 Document As You Go
  • Document milestones as they occur
  • Leave time at the end for reviewing, not writing

151
12.14 Team Roles
  • Roles
  • Project Leader or Monitor
  • Procurement
  • Financial Officer
  • Liaison
  • Project Management Software

152
12.14 Project Leader or Monitor
  • Designate a leader, or rotate leaders
  • Monitor and track progress of milestones
  • Maintains timelines
  • Increases likelihood of meeting goals

153
12.14 Procurement
  • Learns purchasing system
  • Tracks team orders

154
12.14 Financial Officer
  • Manages teams expenses
  • Creates original budget
  • Makes identifying budgetary problems easier

155
12.14 Liaison
  • Responsible for keeping everyone informed about
    the progress of the plan and any changes
  • This includes outside customers, management,
    professors, etc.

156
Chapter 13
  • Engineering Design

157
13.1 Engineering Design
  • Engineering design is the process of devising a
    system, component, or process to meet desired
    needs. It is a decision making process in which
    the basic sciences and mathematics and
    engineering sciences are applied to convert
    resources optimally to meet a stated objective.
    Among the fundamental elements of the design
    process are the establishment of objectives and
    criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, and
    testing.

158
13.2 The Design Process
  1. Identify the problem
  2. Define the working criteria/goals
  3. Research and gather data
  4. Brainstorm ideas
  5. Analyze potential solutions
  6. Develop and test models
  7. Make decision
  8. Communicate decision
  9. Implement and commercialize decision
  10. Perform post-implementation review

159
Chapter 14
  • Communication Skills

160
14.1 Why do we Communicate?
  • Transfers important information
  • Provides basis for judging ones knowledge
  • Conveys interest and competence
  • Identifies gaps in your own knowledge

161
14.2-14.3 Oral and Written Communication Skills
  • Present communication on a level that you believe
    will be easily understood by whomever is to be
    receiving your communication
  • Dont use big words if a smaller,
    easier-to-understand word will suffice.

162
14.5 Power of Language
  • Be as clear as possible
  • Avoid clichés
  • Avoid redundancy
  • Avoid using jargon specific to a certain group of
    people
  • Dont make sexual generalizations, I.e. his,
    hers, he, she

163
14.6 Technical Writing
  • Identify thesis early
  • Follows a specific format
  • Follows a problem solving approach
  • Uses specialized vocabulary
  • Often incorporates visual aids
  • Complete set of references
  • Be objective, not biased either way

164
14.9 Formal Reports
  • Should include
  • Title short and concise
  • Summary of what will be discussed
  • Table of Contents (not including abstract)
  • Introduction
  • Analysis
  • Procedure and Results
  • Discussion of results
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendices

165
14.10 Other forms of Communication
  • E-mail
  • Progress reports
  • Problem statements
  • Cover letters
  • Resumes

166
Chapter 15
  • Ethics

167
15. The Nature of Ethics
  • Ethics is generally concerned with rules or
    guidelines for morals and/or socially approved
    conduct
  • Ethical standards generally apply to conduct that
    can or does have a substantial effect on peoples
    lives

168
Chapter 16
  • Units

169
16.1 History of Units
  • A common denomination of units is essential for
    the development of trade and economics around the
    world
  • National Bureau of Standards, established by
    Congress, adopted the English system of
    measurement (12 inches, etc)
  • Majority of nations in the world today operate on
    the metric system because of its simplicity
    (multiples of 10)

170
16.1 History of Units - SI Units
  • Le Systeme International dUnites, French for the
    International System of Units
  • Improvements in the definitions of the base units
    continue to be made by the General Conference of
    Weights and Measures as science dictates

171
16.2 The SI System of Units
  • Modernized metric system adopted by the General
    Conference, a multi-national organization which
    includes the United States
  • Built on a foundation of seven base units, plus
    two supplementary ones
  • All other SI units are derived from these nine
    units

172
16.2 The SI System of Units
  • Multiples and sub-multiples are expressed using a
    decimal system
  • Generally, the first letter of a symbol is
    capitalized if the name of the symbol is derived
    from a persons name, otherwise it is lowercase

173
16.2 The SI System of Units
  • Base Units in the SI system
  • Meter m
  • Kilogram kg
  • Seconds s
  • Ampere A
  • Kelvin K
  • Mole mol
  • Candela cd

174
16.3 Derived Units
  • Expressed algebraically in terms of base and
    supplementary units
  • Several derived units have been given special
    names and symbols, such as the newton (N).

175
16.3 Derived Units
  • Quantities whose units are expressed in terms of
    base and supplementary units

Quantity SI Unit SI Symbol
Area Square meter m2
Speed, velocity Meter per second m/s
Density Kilogram per cubic meter Kg/m3
176
16.3 Derived Units
  • Quantities whose units have special names

Quantity SI Name SI Symbol Other SI Units
Frequency hertz Hz cycle/s
Force newton N kgm/s2
Electrical Resistance ohm W V/A
177
16.3 Derived Units
  • Units used with the SI System

Name Symbol Value in SI Units
Minute min 1 min 60 s
Hour h 1 h 3600 s
Degree 1 p/180 rad
178
16.4 Prefixes
  • Defined for the SI system
  • Used instead of writing extremely large or very
    small numbers
  • All items in a given context should use the same
    prefix, for example in a table
  • Notation in powers of 10 is often used in place
    of a prefix

179
16.4 Prefixes
Multiplication Factor Prefix Symbol Term (USA)
1000000 106 mega M One million
1000 103 kilo k One thousand
.001 10-3 milli m One thousandth
.000001 10-6 micro m One millionth
180
16.5 Numerals
  • A space is always left between the numeral and
    the unit name or symbol, except when we write a
    degree symbol
  • 3 m 3 meters 8 ms 8 milliseconds
  • SI units a space is used to separate groups of
    three in a long number
  • 3,000,000 3 000 000
  • .000005 .000 005
  • This is optional when there are four digits in a
    number (3456 3 456 .3867 .386 7)

181
16.5 Numerals
  • A zero is used for numbers between -1 and 1 to
    prevent a faint decimal point from being missed
  • Rounding
  • Significant Digits

182
16.6 Conversions
To convert from To Multiply by
Degrees Radians 0.017 453
Inches Centimeters 2.54
Newtons Pounds 0.224 81
183
Chapter 17
  • Mathematics Review

184
17.1 Algebra
  • Three basic laws
  • Commutative a b b a
  • Distributive a ( b c ) a b a c
  • Associative a ( b c ) ( a b ) c

185
17.1 Algebra
  • Exponents
  • Used for many manipulations
  • Examples
  • xa xbxab
  • xab(xa)b
  • Logarithms
  • Related to exponents
  • bx y then x logby
  • Table 17.1.5

186
17.1 Algebra
  • Quadratic Formula
  • Solves ax2 bx c 0
  • Formula 17.1.6
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Used to expand (ax)n
  • Formula 17.1.7
  • Partial Fractions
  • Used for simplifying rational fractions
  • Formulas 17.1.8, 17.1.9, 17.1.10, 17.1.11
  • Examples

187
17.2 Trigonometry
  • Involves the ratios between sides of a right
    triangle
  • sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and
    cosecant are the primary functions
  • Trigonometry identities are often used
  • 17.2.3, 17.2.4, 17.2.5, 17.2.6, 17.2.7
  • For all triangle we can also use the laws of
    sines and cosines
  • Some other equations that can be found in your
    book are
  • Pythagorean Theorem 17.2.10
  • Hyperbolic Trig Functions 17.2.11
  • Examples

188
17.3 Geometry
  • Used to analyze a variety of shapes and lines
  • The equation for a straight line
  • Ax By C 0
  • This equation can also be written in Pint-slope,
    Slope-intercept, and Two-intercept forms
  • Distance between a line and a point is given in
    Formula 17.3.5
  • The general equation of the second degree is

189
17.3 Geometry
  • This equation is used to represent conic sections
  • Classified on page 473
  • Ellipse, Parabola, Hyperbola
  • More information on pages 474-475
  • Examples

190
17.4 Complex Numbers
  • Complex numbers consist of a real (x) and
    imaginary (y) part
  • xiy where i
  • In electrical engineering j is used instead of i
    because i is used for current
  • Useful to express in polar form
  • Eulers equation is also commonly used
  • Other useful equations can be found on page 477
  • Examples

191
17.5 Linear Algebra
  • Used to solve n linear equations for n unknowns
  • Uses m x n matrices
  • Many manipulations of this basic equation are
    shown on page 479
  • Determinants of matrices are often used in
    calculations
  • Illustrated on page 480
  • Eigenvalues are used to solve first-order
    differential equations
  • Examples

192
17.6 Calculus
  • We first write derivatives using limits
  • Some basic derivatives are shown on pages 484-485
  • Used to indicate points of inflection, maxima,
    and minima
  • LHospials rule when f(x)/g(x) is 0 or infinity
    17.6.6

193
17.6 Calculus
  • Inversely we have integration
  • Used for finding the area under a curve
  • Equation 17.6.7
  • Can be used to find the length of a curve
  • Used to find volumes
  • Definite when there are limits
  • When indefinite a constant is added to the
    solution
  • Basic Integrals on page 486
  • Examples

194
17.7 Probability and Statistics
  • The probability of one events occurrence effects
    the probability of another event
  • Probabilities
  • Many combinations can occur
  • P(A or B) P(A)P(B)
  • P(A and B)P(A)P(B)
  • P(not A) 1-P(A)
  • P(either A or B)P(A)P(B)-P(A)P(B)

195
17.7 Probability and Statistics
  • Probability ranges from 0 to 1
  • Additional equations on page 490
  • Arithmetic Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • Standard Deviation
  • Variance
  • Examples

196
Chapter 18
  • Engineering Fundamentals

197
18.1 Statics
  • Concerned with equilibrium of bodies subjected to
    force systems
  • The two entities that are of the most interest in
    statics are forces and moments.

198
18.1 Statics
  • Force
  • The manifestation of the action of one body upon
    another.
  • Arise from the direct action of two bodies in
    contact with one another, or from the action at
    a distance of one body upon another.
  • Represented by vectors

199
18.1 Statics
  • Moment
  • Can be thought of as a tendency to rotate the
    body upon which it acts about a certain axis.
  • Equilibrium
  • The system of forces acting on a body is one
    whose resultant is absolutely zero

200
18.1 Statics
  • Free Body Diagrams (FBD)
  • Neat sketch of the body showing all forces and
    moments acting on the body, together with all
    important linear and angular dimensions.

201
18.2 Dynamics
  • Separated into two sections
  • Kinematics
  • Study of motion without reference to the forces
    causing the motion
  • Kinetics
  • Relates the forces on bodies to their resulting
    motions

202
18.2 Dynamics
  • Newtons laws of motion
  • 1st Law The Law of Inertia
  • 2nd Law Fma
  • 3rd Law Fab-Fba
  • Law of Gravitation

203
18.3 Thermodynamics
  • Involves the storage, transformation and transfer
    of energy.
  • Stored as internal energy, kinetic energy, and
    potential energy
  • Transformed between these various forms
  • Transferred as work or heat transfer

204
18.3 Thermodynamics
  • There are many definitions, laws, and other terms
    that are useful to know when studying
    thermodynamics.

205
18.3 Thermodynamics
  • A few useful definitions
  • System
  • A fixed quantity of matter
  • Control Volume (open system)
  • A volume into which and/or from which a substance
    flows
  • Universe
  • A system and its surrounding

206
18.3 Thermodynamics
  • Some Laws of ideal gases
  • Boyles Law
  • Volume varies inversely with pressure
  • Charles Law
  • Volume varies directly with temperature
  • Avagadros Law
  • Equal volumes of different ideal gasses with the
    same temperature and pressure contain an equal
    number of molecules

207
18.4 Electrical Circuits
  • Interconnection of electrical components for the
    purpose of
  • Generating and distributing electrical power
  • Converting electrical power to some other useful
    form
  • Processing information contained in an electrical
    form

208
18.4 Electrical Circuits
  • Direct Current (DC)
  • Alternating Current (AC)
  • Steady State
  • Transient circuit

209
18.4 Electrical Circuits
Quantity Symbol Unit
Charge Q coulomb
Current I ampere
Voltage V volt
Energy W joule
Power P watt
210
18.4 Electrical Circuits
  • Circuit Components
  • Resistors
  • Inductors
  • Capacitors
  • Sources of Electrical Energy
  • Voltage
  • Current

211
18.4 Electrical Circuits
  • Kirchhoffs Laws
  • Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
  • Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
  • Ohms Law
  • VIR

212
18.4 Electrical Circuits
  • Reference Voltage Polarity and Current Direction
  • Circuit Equations
  • Using Branch Currents
  • Using Mesh Currents
  • Circuit Simplification
  • DC Circuits

213
18.5 Economics
  • Value and Interest
  • The value of a dollar given to you today is of
    greater value than that of a dollar given to you
    one year from today
  • Cash Flow Diagrams
  • Cash Flow Patterns
  • Equivalence of Cash Flow Patterns

214
Chapter 19
  • The Campus Experience

215
19.1 Orienting Yourself to Your Campus
  • Introduction to Campus Life
  • Tools to assist students to adjusting to the
    college lifestyle

216
19.2 Exploring
  • Begin by becoming familiar with some different
    locations on campus
  • Offices
  • Dorms
  • Classroom Buildings
  • Engineering Building
  • Sample map of Michigan State University Campus

217
19.3 Determining and planning your Major
  • Narrow down to a few different majors
  • Ask questions of insightful people
  • Look for any opportunity to learn more about each
    field

218
19.4 Get into the Habit of Asking Questions
  • Active questioners learn the most
  • Questions help students understand and complete
    tasks
  • Communication skills are vital to engineers
  • Understanding information given
  • Giving information that is understandable

219
19.5 The People Issue
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