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2014 ANATOMY(B)

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2014 ANATOMY(B) Karen Lancour Patty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor A&P – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 2014 ANATOMY(B)


1
  • 2014 ANATOMY(B)
  • Karen Lancour Patty
    Palmietto
  • National Bio Rules National Event
  • Committee Chairman Supervisor AP

2
Event Rules 2014
  • DISCLAIMER
  • This presentation was prepared using draft
    rules.  There may be some changes in the final
    copy of the rules.  The rules which will be in
    your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be
    the official rules.

3
Event Rules 2014
  • BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT
    PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

4
ANATOMY
  • Event Content 2014
  • BASIC ANATOMY (Structure and function)
  • Nervous System
  • Integumentary System(new)
  • Major disorders
  • Treatment and prevention of disorders
  • PROCESS SKILLS - observations, inferences,
    predictions, calculations, data analysis, and
    conclusions.

5
TRAINING MATERIALS
  • Training Power Point content overview
  • Training Handout - content information
  • Sample Tournament sample problems with key
  • Event Supervisor Guide prep tips, event needs,
    and scoring tips
  • Internet Resource Training CDs on the
    Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.org under
    Event Information
  • Biology-Earth Science CD, Anatomy/AP CD
    (updated) as well as the Division B and Division
    C Test Packets are available from SO store at
    www.soinc.org

6
Divisions of the Nervous System
  • Brain
  • Spine

Rest of Body
7
Neuron
  • Dendrite receive stimulus and carries it
    impulses toward the cell body
  • Cell Body with nucleus nucleus most of
    cytoplasm
  • Axon fiber which carries impulses away from
    cell body
  • Schwann Cells- cells which produce myelin or fat
    layer
  • Myelin sheath lipid layer around the axon
  • Node of Ranvier gaps or nodes in the myelin
    sheath
  • Impulses travel from dendrite to cell body to axon

8
Impulses
  • Impulse
  • Self propagating
  • Mechanism Na K pump
  • Synapse
  • Junction between neurons
  • Neurotransmitters

9
Synapse
Junction between neurons The neurons do not
actually touch at the synapse Neurotransmitters
used to restart impulse in dendrite of 2nd neuron

10
Neurotransmitters
  • Chemicals in the junction which allow impulses to
    be started in the second neuron

11
Reflex Arch
12
Central Nervous System
  • Brain
  • Brain stem medulla, pons, midbrain
  • Diencephalon thalamus hypothalamus
  • Cerebellem
  • Cerebrum
  • Spine
  • Spinal Cord

13
Cerebrum Regions
  • Lobes of the Cerebrum
  • Frontal
  • Parietal
  • Temporal
  • Occipital
  • Special regions
  • Brocas area
  • Wernickes area
  • Limbic System

14
(No Transcript)
15
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Cranial nerves
  • 12 pair
  • Attached to undersurface of brain
  • Spinal nerves
  • 31 pair
  • Attached to spinal cord

16
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Regulates bodies involuntary responses
  • Two divisions
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Emergency response
  • Fight or flight
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • Normal everyday conditions

17
Autonomic Nervous System
18
Major Sense Organs
  • Vision Eye
  • Hearing Ear
  • Taste Taste receptors (new)
  • Smell Olfactory system
  • Skin Hot, cold, pressure, pain

19
Eye
20
Images
Cornea and the lens help to produce the image
Images are upside down and backwards when they
reach the retina
21
Visual Pathway
22
Ear
23
Taste Buds
  • Chemical Receptors
  • Sweet
  • Sour
  • Bitter
  • Salty
  • MSG

24
Olfactory Receptors
  • Chemical Receptors
  • Top of nasal cavity
  • Extremely sensitive
  • Easily fatigued
  • Much of taste involves smell

25
Sensesin Skin
  • Heat
  • Cold
  • Light pressure
  • Heavy Pressure
  • Pain

26
Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Epilepsy,
  • Seizures,
  • Alzheimers Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinsons Disease,
  • Shingles (herpes zoster),
  • Cerebral palsy,
  • Glaucoma,
  • Pink eye (conjunctivitis)
  • Symptoms of disorders
  • Treatments and prevention

27
Effects of Drugs
  • Effects of drugs on the nervous system
  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Marijuana

28
  • INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  • Karen Lancour Patty
    Palmietto
  • National Bio Rules National Event
  • Committee Chairman Supervisor AP

29
Integumentary System
  • The integumentary system consists of the skin,
    hair, nails, the subcutaneous tissue below the
    skin, and assorted glands.

30
Skin Functions
  • Protection from injury
  • Protection against infection
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Regulates water loss
  • Chemical synthesis
  • Sensory perception

31
Types of Membranes
  • Serous Membranes
  • Line body cavities that have no opening to the
    outside
  • Secrete a watery fluid called serous fluid that
    lubricates surfaces.
  • Mucous Membranes
  • Line cavities and tubes that open to the outside
  • Synovial Membranes
  • Form the inner lining of joint cavities
  • Secrete a thick fluid called synovial fluid
  • Cutaneous Membrane also known as skin

32
Skin Layers and Attachment Layer
  • Epidermis
  • Covers internal external surfaces of body
  • Dermis
  • Inner layer Contains
  • accessory skin structures
  • Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer
  • Attaches the skin to underlying organs tissues

33
Thin skin vs. Thick skin
  • Thin - 1-2 mm on most of the body and 0.5 mm in
    eyelids Hairy Covers all parts of the body
    except palms, soles Thin epidermis and lacks
    stratum lucidum Lacks dermal papillae Has more
    sebaceous glands Fewer sweat glands, sensory
    receptors than thick skin 
  • Thick - up to 6 mm thick on palms of hands and
    soles of feet Hairless Covers palms, and soles
    Thick epidermis and a distinct stratum lucidum
    Epiderma ridges are present due to
    well-developed, numerous dermal papillae. Lacks
    sebaceous glands, has more sweat glands Sense
    receptors are also more densely packed

34
Epidermal Cell Types
  • Keratinocytes - 90 of epidermal cells are
    keratinized contains keratin (fibrous protein)
    protects and waterproofs the skin
  • Melanocytes - 8 of the epidermal cells produces
    melanin contributes to skin color and absorbs UV
    light
  • Langerhans cells - Arise from red bone marrow and
    migrate to the epidermis -Constitute small
    portion of epidermal cells -Participate in immune
    responses Easily damaged by UV light
  • Merkel cells - Least numerous of the epidermal
    cells Found in the deepest layer of the
    epidermis-Along with tactile discs, they function
    in sensation of touch

35
Epidermal Layers
  • Stratum corneum - nuclei and organelles are
    destroyed by lysosomes and the cells fill with
    keratin
  • Stratum lucidum - only found in the palms and
    soles of feet 3-5 layers of clear, flat, dead
    keratinocytes -Dense packed intermediate
    filaments Thick plasma membranes
  • Stratum granulosum - cells start to become
    keritanized -Marks the transition between deeper
    metabolically active strata and the dead cells of
    the superficial strata -Secretes lipid-rich
    secretion that acts as a water sealant
  • Stratum spinosum - 8-10 layers of keratinocytes
  • Cells have spine-like projections (bundles of
    filaments of the cytoskeleton) tightly joins
    cells to each other-Provides skin both strength
    and flexibility
  • Stratum basale - Also referred to as stratum
    germinatum -where new cells are formed - Deepest
    layer of the epidermis -Single row of cuboidal or
    columnar keratinocytes

36
Growth of Epidermis
  • Newly formed cells in the stratum basale undergo
    keratinazation as they are pushed to the surface
    and accumulate more keratin during the process
  • Then they undergo apoptosis or death
  • Eventually they slough off and are replaced
  • The process takes about 4 weeks
  • Rate of cell division in the stratum basale
    increases during injury

37
Dermis
  • Second deepest part of the skin
  • Composed mainly of connective tissues (collagen
    and elastic fibers)
  • Collagen fibers make up 70 of the dermis and
    give structural toughness and strength
  • Elastin fibers are loosely arranged in all
    directions and give elasticity to the skin.
  • Papillary Layer Surface area is increased due
    to projections called dermal papillae which
    contains capillaries or tactile receptors
    -Epidermal ridges conforms to the dermal papillae
  • Reticular Layer -Contains hair follicles, nerves,
    sebaceous and sudoriferous glands

38
Hypodermis
  • (subcutaneous) Attaches the skin to underlying
    organs and tissues
  • Not part of the skin - lies below the dermis
  • Contains connective tissue and adipose tissues
    (subcutaneous fat) for insulation
  • Infants and elderly have less of this than adults
    and are therefore more sensitive to cold

39
Skin Color
40
Skin Color
  • Genetic Factors Skin pigmentation
  • All humans have the same number of melanocytes
  • How much melanin they produce is controlled by
    several genes
  • Lack of pigment is called albinism
  • Environmental Factors - Exposure to sunlight
  • Volume of Blood Hemoglobin in blood

41
Skin Pigments Melanin
  • Located mostly in epidermis
  • Number of melanocytes are about the same in all
    races
  • Difference in skin color is due to the amount of
    pigment that melanocytes produce and disperse to
    keratinocytes.
  • Freckles are caused by the accumulation of
    melanin in patches
  • Liver spots are also caused by the accumulation
    of melanin
  • Melanocytes synthesize melanin from an amino acid
    called tyrosine along with an enzyme called
    tyrosinase. All this occurs in the melanosome
    which is an organelle in the melanocyte.
  • Two types of melanin eumelanin which is brownish
    black and pheomelanin which is reddish yellow
  • Fair-skinned people have more pheomelanin and
    dark skinned people have more eumelanin

42
Aging Skin
  • In our 20s, the effects of aging begin to be
    visible in the skin.
  • Stem cell activity declines skin thin, repair
    difficult
  • Epidermal dendritic cells decrease reduced
    immune response
  • Vitamin D3 production declines calcium
    absorption declines and brittle bones
  • Glandular activity declines skin dries, body can
    overheat
  • Blood supply to dermis declines tend to feel
    cold
  • Hair follicles die or produce thinner hair
  • Dermis thins and becomes less elastic wrinkles

43
Sensesin Skin
  • Heat
  • Cold
  • Light pressure
  • Heavy Pressure
  • Pain

44
Skin Receptors
  • Heat
  • Cold
  • Light pressure
  • Heavy Pressure
  • Pain

45
Environmental Factors Affect Melanin Production
  • UV light increases enzyme activity in melansomes
    increased melanin production
  • A tan amount of melanin increases darkness of
    melanin
  • Eumelanin protection from UV radiation but
    pheomelin breaks down with too much UV
  • Too much UV radiation may cause skin cancer

46
Other Skin Pigments
  • Carotene yellow -orange pigment
  • precurser of Vitamin A important for vision
  • Found in Stratum corneum and fatty areas of
    dermis and hypodermal layer
  • Hemoglobin oxygen carrying pigment in red blood
    cells

47
Skin Markings
  • friction ridges markings on fingertips
    characteristic of primates - allow us to
    manipulate objects more easily-fingerprints are
    friction ridge skin impressions
  • flexion lines on flexor surfaces of digits,
    palms, wrists, elbows etc.- skin is tightly bound
    to deep fascia at these points
  • freckles flat melanized patches vary with
    heredity or exposure to sun
  • moles elevated patch of melanized skin, of the
    with hair mostly harmless, beauty marks

48
Skin Derivatives
  • During embryonic development thousands of small
    groups of epidermal cells from stratum basale
    push down into dermis to form hair follicles and
    glands

49
Functions Hair Nails
  • Functions of Hair
  • Hair on the head protects scalp from injury and
    sunlight
  • Eyelashes and eyebrows protect eyes
  • Nostril and ear hairs protect from foreign
    particles
  • Help in sensing light touch due to the touch
    receptors associated with the hair root plexuses.
  • Functions of the Nails
  • Grasping objects
  • Manipulating objects
  • Protects ends of digits from trauma
  • Scratching

50
Hair Features Texture
About 100,000 hairs are on the scalp Almost every
part of body is covered with hair except palms of
hands, soles of feet, sides of fingers and toes,
lips and parts of genitals. Hair shafts differ
in size, shape, and color. In the eyebrows they
are short and stiff while on the scalp they are
longer and more flexible. Over the rest of the
body they are fine and nearly invisible Oval
shaped hair shafts produce wavy hair, Flat or
ribbon-like hair shafts produce curly or kinky
hair Round hair shafts produce straight hair.
Roughly 5 million hairs cover the body of an
average individual
51
Hair Growth
Hair follicles grow in repeated cycles. One
cycle can be broken down into three
phases. Anagen - Growth Phase Catagen
Transitional Phase Telogen - Resting Phase Each
hair passes through the phases independent of the
neighboring hairs
52
Skin Glands
  • Sudoriferous - sweat glands
  • Eccrine sweat glands -Secretes cooling sweat
  • Appocrine sweat glands - during emotional
    stress/excitement
  • Sebaceous - oil glands
  • Acne - inflammation of sebaceous gland ducts
  • Ceruminous - modified sweat glands of the
    external ear that produce ear wax

53
Nails
  • Made of tightly packed, hard, keratinized
    epidermal cells
  • Consist of
  • Nail body portion of the nail that is visible-
    Free edge part that extends past the distal end
    of the digit
  • Nail root portion buried in a fold of skin
  • Lunula means little moon - Crescent shaped area
    of the nail
  • Hyponychium secures the nail to the fingertip
    -Thickened stratum corneum
  • Eponychium or cuticle narrow band of
    epidermis-Growth of nails is in the nail matrix.

54
Skin Imbalances
  • Skin Leisons
  • Skin Infections
  • Viral as cold sores, herpes simplex, warts (HPV)
  • Bacterial as bioles, carbuncles, inflammmation
    of hair follicles and subaceous glands. Impetigo
  • Fungal as athletes food, Tinea
  • Contact Dermatitis
  • Irritant Dermatitis as soaps, detergents,
    shampoo
  • Allergic Dermatitis as poison ivy, poison oak,
    rubber gloves, nickel and other metals,
    fragrances

55
Genetic Disorders
  • Psoriasis
  • chronic, noninfectious skin disease
  • skin becomes dry and scaly, often with pustules
    and many varieties
  • cycle of skin cell production increases by 3-4xs
    normal
  • stratum corneum gets thick as dead cells
    accumulate
  • often triggered by trauma, infection , hormonal
    changes or stress
  • Vitiligo a autoimmune pigmentation disorder
    where melanocytes in the epidermis are destroyed
    eg Michael Jackson

56
Burns
57
BURN CLASSIFICATION
  • First-degree
  • only epidermis (sunburn)
  • Second-degree burn
  • destroys entire epidermis part of dermis
  • fluid-filled blisters separate epidermis
    dermis
  • epidermal derivatives are not damaged
  • heals without grafting in 3 to 4 weeks may
    scar
  • Third-degree or full-thickness
  • destroy epidermis, dermis epidermal
    derivatives
  • -Skin may appear black, white, or red. Large
    amounts of fluid is lost, infection is likely
  • damaged area is numb due to loss of sensory
    nerves
  • Fourth degree burns
  • When body parts are partially or completely
    burned away

58
Skin cancer
59
Types of Skin Cancer
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma
  • Spread uncommon, very curable if found early
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Occurs parts exposed to the sun

60
Types of Skin Cancer (cont.)
  • Malignant Melanoma
  • Most common in southern hemisphere where the
    ozone layer is thin.
  • Deadly if not caught early!!

61

Skin Cancer
  • Very common
  • ABCD
  • Asymmetry
  • Borders
  • Color
  • Diameter

62
Skin Cancer Prevention
  • Use SPF 15 minimum.
  • Wear hats and shirts with sleeves.
  • Wear sunglasses to protect eyes from UV.
  • Avoid tanning beds
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