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Planning Differentiated Instruction

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Title: Planning Differentiated Instruction


1
Planning Differentiated Instruction
  • Sharon Walpole
  • University of Delaware
  • Michael C. McKenna
  • University of Virginia

2
RAND Model of reading
  • Reading comprehension is our goal. It involves
    extraction of ideas from text and construction of
    ideas in the head of the reader. It is influenced
    by characteristics of the reader, the text, the
    activity, and the context in which it happens.

http//www.rand.org/multi/achievementforall/readin
g/readreport.html
3
Stage models of reading
  • When children are acquiring literacy developing
    the skills necessary for reading comprehension
    they tend to move through stages in which their
    focus is very different. All along, during each
    stage, they are developing oral language skills.

Oral Language Fluency
Oral Language Alphabet Knowledge
Oral Language Phonemic Awareness
4
Start thinking . . .
  • If you were trapped on a desert island until you
    could come up with an ideal reading program for
    your school, what would it include?
  • To what extent does your current program include
    these things?
  • If there are missing elements, why dont you
    think the designers included them?

5
Overview
  • Define differentiation
  • Describe instructional tiers
  • Propose instructional diets and groupings
  • Introduce a planning process

6
  • At its most basic level, differentiation
    consists of the efforts of teachers to respond to
    variance among learners in the classroom.
    Whenever a teacher reaches out to an individual
    or small group to vary his or her teaching in
    order to create the best learning experience
    possible, that teacher is differentiating
    instruction.
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson, Differentiation of
    Instruction in the Elementary Grades. ERIC
    Digest. http//www.ericdigests.org/2001-2/elementa
    ry.html

7
(No Transcript)
8
Defining Differentiation (adapted from Tomlinson)
Content What a student needs to learn
Process Activities and instruction to accomplish that learning
Product Evidence to demonstrate that learning
Learning Environment Procedures and opportunities for support and collaboration
9
Lets think it through
  • Youve read aloud a piece of childrens
    literature to develop vocabulary and
    comprehension.
  • How could you differentiate for students on or
    above grade level, just below grade level, and
    well below grade level?
  • Would you choose to differentiate content,
    process, product, and/or learning environment?
    Why?

10
Lets think it through
  • Make it more complex. You have a class of 20
    students and a well-designed core reading
    program. Your goal is to develop at least
    grade-level competence in decoding, fluency, and
    comprehension.
  • How could you differentiate for students on or
    above grade level, just below grade level, and
    well below grade level?
  • Would you choose to differentiate content,
    process, product, and/or learning environment?
    Why?

11
Researchers have long tried to focus
differentiation for reading
  • Balanced reading was a critical concept in
    literacy history. It curricularized
    differentiation as one part of reading
    instruction. Teachers read aloud from childrens
    literature, engaged in shared reading from big
    books and posters, formed flexible groups for
    guided reading of little books and leveled books,
    and finally provided time for independent reading
    from a wide range of materials.

12
Guided reading
  • takes advantage of social support and allows the
    teacher to operate efficiently, to work with the
    tension between ease and challenge that is
    necessary to support readers moving forward in
    their learning. (p. 6)
  • Fountas, I. C., Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided
    reading Good first teaching for all children.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinemann.

13
(No Transcript)
14
Defining Differentiation(Fountas and Pinnell)
Planning Form groups based on fluency. Choose a text for each group.
Before Reading Introduce the text. Conduct a picture walk to develop comprehension.
During Reading Listen and take notes about strategy use. Discuss the story. Confirm and support problem-solving for words.
After Reading Discuss, respond to the story. Assess understanding.
15
Lets think it through
  • You have first graders, 12 of whom have been
    identified as at-risk in the area of decoding by
    your screening assessment.
  • How would a guided reading format support their
    development?
  • What would you gain by planning guided reading
    for all of them?
  • What would you lose by planning guided reading
    for all of them?

16
  • This text was dedicated specifically to coaches
    and teachers in Georgia. It is derived from
    challenges and lessons in implementing Reading
    First.

17
Differentiation is
  • instruction that helps children accomplish
    challenging tasks that are just out of their
    reach
  • instruction that targets a particular group of
    childrens needs directly and temporarily
  • instruction that applies a developmental model
  • Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2007).
    Differentiated reading instruction Strategies
    for the primary grades. New York Guilford Press.

18
The concept of three tiers of instruction
  • The 3-tier model (University of Texas
    System/Texas Education Agency, 2005) is a general
    framework and just a framework for explaining
    how any research-based program can be executed in
    a school.
  • (http//www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/3tie
    r_letter.asp)

Sharon Vaughn
19
Tier I Core Classroom Reading Instruction
  • 1. A core reading program grounded in
    scientifically based reading research
  • 2. Benchmark testing of all kindergarten through
    third-grade students to determine instructional
    needs at least three times per year (fall,
    winter, and spring)
  • 3. Ongoing professional development to provide
    teachers with the necessary tools to ensure that
    every student receives quality reading
    instruction

20
Tier II Supplemental Instruction
  • For some students, core classroom reading
    instruction is not enough. Tier II is designed to
    meet the needs of these students by providing
    them with additional small-group reading
    instruction daily.

21
Tier III Instruction for Intensive Intervention
  • A small percentage of students require more
    support in acquiring vital reading skills than
    Tier II instruction can provide. For these
    students, Tier III provides instruction that is
    more explicit, more intensive, and specifically
    designed to meet their individual needs.

22
In Georgia Reading First
  • All students should have access to both Tier I
    and Tier II instruction during the 135-minute
    block
  • Our ideal is that all students have small-group
    differentiated instruction every day
  • Tier III instruction (Intensive Intervention)
    occurs outside the block and is reserved for
    those students for whom Tiers I and II are not
    working

23
Do children come in tiers, too?
  • Think about last years instruction.
  • How well did your strongest students do?
  • How well did your middle group do?
  • How well did your struggling students do?

24
  • It may be hard to accept, but the results youre
    getting are the results youre supposed to be
    getting. In other words, whatever you are doing
    right now is bringing you the results you are
    getting right now . . . Change what you are doing
    and you can change your results. Pretty simple
    really.

Vitale, J. (2006). Life's missing instruction
manual The guidebook you should have been given
at birth. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley and Sons.
25
I define insanity as doing the same thing over
and over and expecting to get different
results. Einstein
26
Our state-level data indicate that we are not yet
meeting the needs of all students our school
visits indicate that differentiated instruction
is not yet fully realized.
27
Setting the stage for differentiation requires
careful analysis of the core.
28
Decide what to teach when.
  • We are more likely to achieve improvements in
    vocabulary and comprehension for K and 1st grade
    during whole-group read-alouds, using both core
    selections and childrens literature.
  • We can introduce and practice phonemic awareness
    and phonics concepts during whole group, but
    were more likely to achieve mastery during
    small-group time.

29
Decide what to teach when.
  • We are more likely to achieve improvements in
    fluency and comprehension in 2nd and 3rd grade if
    we introduce them in whole-group and practice in
    small-group time.
  • We can introduce word recognition concepts during
    whole-group time, but we will likely achieve
    mastery only during small-group time.

What do we have to do to accomplish this?
30
Make more time for small groups.
  • Literacy coaches and grade-level teams must
    determine exactly how to use the core program
  • Sort core instructional components from extension
    and enrichment activities
  • Moderate and control instructional pacing so that
    early introductions and reviews are fast

What do we have to do to accomplish this?
31
Make a very simple centers rotation.
  • Look for materials already in the core.
  • Consider daily paired readings and rereadings.
  • Consider a daily activity linked directly to your
    read-aloud. Your children can write in response
    to that text every day.
  • Make your centers coherent! They are not
    babysitting stations but tools to reinforce and
    extend what you teach.
  • Consider a daily activity linked directly to your
    small-group instruction. Your children can
    practice the things youve introduced.

What do we have to do to accomplish this?
32
Considerations for K Centers
  • Strategic and intensive children are struggling
    with LNF
  • Computer station?
  • Letters for distributed practice at home?
  • Only half the children are established with ISF.
    Only 5 children are low risk for PSF
  • Picture sorts
  • Pictures to say and spell

33
Considerations for 1st-grade Centers
  • Fluency
  • Paired rereading of old stories
  • Paired reading of additional texts (benchmark)
  • Phonics
  • Picture sorts, word sorts
  • Spelling for sounds
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension
  • Listening station

34
Considerations for 2nd-grade Centers
  • Fluency
  • Assisted fluency work for intensive
  • Paired rereading of old stories for strategic
  • Paired reading of additional texts for benchmark
  • Phonics
  • First grade materials?
  • Intervention materials?
  • Practice with core vocabulary
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension
  • Listening station with retelling sheet
    (intensive)
  • Leveled books and expository texts with retelling
    sheets (strategic and benchmark)

35
Considerations for 3rd-grade Centers
  • Fluency
  • Assisted fluency work for intensive
  • Paired rereading of old stories for strategic
  • Paired reading of additional texts for benchmark
  • Phonics
  • First grade materials?
  • Intervention materials?
  • Practice with core vocabulary
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension
  • Listening station with retelling sheet
    (intensive)
  • Leveled books and expository texts with retelling
    sheets (strategic and benchmark)

36
Now you have set the stage for differentiated
reading instruction.
  • Its time to plan.
  • Gather your resources.
  • Consider your childrens needs.
  • Try it out.

37
Gather your instructional resources.
  • Remember that time is a resource!
  • Make a daily or weekly schedule for instruction
    at each grade level.
  • The more collaborative it is, the better.
  • The more specific it is, the better.
  • The more time you reserve for small-group
    instruction, the better.
  • The more specific you are about the texts for
    read-alouds, the better.

38
Wheres the teacher?
Walpole McKenna, The Literacy Coachs Handbook
39
A Basic Template
Whole-Group Instruction Whole-Group Instruction Whole-Group Instruction
Needs-based Center or Intervention Center
Center Needs-based Center
Center Center Needs-based
Whole-Group Instruction Whole-Group Instruction Whole-Group Instruction
40
For First Grade, perhaps
Whole-Group Instruction Vocabulary Comprehension with Core/Read-Aloud Whole-Group Instruction Vocabulary Comprehension with Core/Read-Aloud Whole-Group Instruction Vocabulary Comprehension with Core/Read-Aloud
Core PA/Phonics/Fluency Phonics/Fluency Intervention Comprehension Center
Comprehension Center Core PA/Phonics/Fluency Fluency Center
Fluency Center Comprehension Center Core PA/Phonics/Fluency
Whole-Group Instruction WR and Fluency with Core/Shared Reading Whole-Group Instruction WR and Fluency with Core/Shared Reading Whole-Group Instruction WR and Fluency with Core/Shared Reading
41
Gather your instructional resources.
  • Summarize, in list form, the scope and sequence
    of instruction at each grade level.
  • What order for letter names?
  • What order for letter sounds?
  • What order for letter patterns?
  • What order for high-frequency words?
  • What order for comprehension skills and
    strategies?

42
Gather your instructional resources.
  • Examine ALL assessments that are designed as part
    of your core they would be useful to test the
    extent to which your children are keeping pace
    with the pace of the core.
  • Make decisions about exactly which assessments to
    use, for which children, and when.
  • Make decisions about exactly which assessments to
    omit and why.

43
Gather your instructional resources.
  • Once you know what assessments you have in your
    core, gather others together from your
    professional books we proposed a checklist

Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2006). The role of
informal reading inventories in assessing word
recognition. The Reading Teacher, 59, 592-594.
44
Make an assessment toolkit.
  • For phonemic awareness
  • A test of phonological awareness levels (e.g.,
    syllable, onset-rime, phoneme)
  • A test of phoneme segmentation

45
Make an assessment toolkit.
  • Alphabetic principle
  • Letter name inventory
  • Letter sound inventory
  • Phonics inventory
  • Pseudoword decoding test
  • Spelling inventory

46
Make an assessment toolkit.
  • Word recognition
  • High-frequency word reading test
  • High-frequency word spelling test
  • Graded word lists

47
Make an assessment toolkit.
  • Fluency
  • Set of graded passages
  • Norms for reading rate
  • Prosody rubric

48
Monitor Student ProgressWords Correct per Minute
Grade Spring Benchmarks Spring Benchmarks Spring Benchmarks Spring Benchmarks
Grade Rasinski (2003) DIBELS ORF GPS Hasbrouck Tindal (2005) (50th percentile rank)
1 60 40 60 53
2 94 90 90 89
3 114 110 120 107
4 118 123
5 128 139
6 145 150
7 167 150
8 171 151
49
Make an assessment toolkit.
  • Comprehension
  • Retelling rubrics for narratives and information
    texts
  • Passages with comprehension questions

50
Consider your childrens needs.
  • Given your screening data, you will know that
    some portion of children are likely at benchmark,
    some are just below grade level, and some are
    well below grade level.
  • For children at benchmark, you can decide to
    focus small-group time on fluency and
    comprehension or on vocabulary and comprehension.
  • Only the below-grade-level children need
    additional assessments.

51
McKenna, M. C., Walpole, S. (2005). How well
does assessment inform our reading
instruction? The Reading Teacher, 59, 84-86.
52
Word Recognition Word Recognition
Deficit Revealed by Screening Next Steps
Oral Reading Fluency Screen in phonics If there is a problem in phonics, do not group for fluency Screen for sight vocabulary If there is a problem with sight vocabulary, do not group for fluency If phonics and sight vocabulary are adequate, provide needs-based fluency instruction.
Walpole McKenna, 2007, p. 27
53
Word Recognition, continued Word Recognition, continued
Deficit Revealed by Screening Next Steps
Sight Vocabulary Screen in phonics Plan needs-based sight word instruction based on words inventoried
Phonics Screen in phonological awareness If there is a problem in phonological awareness, do not group for phonics. Give phonics inventory to determine specific deficits Provide targeted phonics instruction
Phonological Awareness Give a phonological awareness inventory Use the inventory to determine level of awareness Provide instruction designed to bring student to next level.
54
Sample Cases Involving Word Recognition
  • Lets look at some cases that illustrate the
    Cognitive Model in the area of word recognition.
  • Dont make them too complicated! They are simply
    intended to lead you quickly through the process
    of determining a childs instructional needs.

55
Case 1 Adam
  • Beginning grade 2
  • Fall ORF is strategic
  • Model suggests you screen in phonics
  • Fall NWF is strategic
  • Fry Inventory Adam knows nearly all
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?
  • What should be the instructional focus?

56
Case 2 Eve
  • Beginning grade 2
  • Fall ORF is intensive
  • Model suggests you screen in phonics
  • Fall NWF is benchmark
  • Fry Inventory Eve knows about half
  • What should be the instructional focus?
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?

57
Case 3 Ryan
  • Beginning grade 2
  • Fall ORF is strategic
  • Model suggests you screen in phonics
  • Fall NWF is intensive
  • Fry Inventory Ryan knows only 100
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?
  • What should be the instructional focus?

58
Case 4 Peg
  • Beginning grade 2
  • Fall ORF is Strategic
  • Model suggests you screen in phonics
  • Fall NWF is Benchmark
  • Fry Inventory Peg knows nearly all 300
  • What should be the instructional focus?
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?

59
Case 5 Latrelle
  • Beginning grade 1
  • Fry Inventory Latrelle knows only 3
  • Fall NWF is Benchmark
  • Do you need to consider PA results?
  • What should be the instructional focus?
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?

60
Case 6 Demetrius
  • Beginning grade 1
  • Fry Inventory Demetrius knows 100
  • Fall NWF is Intensive
  • Fall PSF is Benchmark
  • What should be the instructional focus?
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?

61
Case 7 Pam
  • Beginning grade 1
  • Fry Inventory Pam knows 200
  • Fall NWF is Intensive
  • Fall PSF is Strategic
  • What should be the instructional focus?
  • What additional assessment/s should be
    administered?

62
Case 8 Jeff
  • Beginning grade 1
  • Fry Inventory Jeff knows 150
  • Fall NWF is Benchmark
  • Fall PSF is Intensive
  • Is this really possible since PA is required for
    phonics learning?
  • What would you do?

63
Consider your childrens needs.
  • Make instructional groups.
  • Differentiated groups will not be of equal size
    they will have similar needs.
  • Your benchmark children may constitute one group.
  • Make additional groups with similar needs, based
    on your new data.

64
Consider your childrens needs.
  • Using the Cognitive Model of Reading Instruction
    (McKenna Stahl, 2003), choose your focus for
    each group
  • Phonemic awareness and phonics
  • Phonics and fluency
  • Fluency and comprehension
  • Vocabulary and comprehension

65
Phonemic awareness and word recognition.
  • These children still need to work on learning
    letter names and sounds, and they are not yet
    able to segment phonemes automatically.
  • They will work on coordinated activities to
    manipulate phonemes, learn new letters and sounds
    and review letters previously taught.
  • They will work with letters and words during
    small-group time.

66
Word recognition and fluency
  • These children still need to work on decoding,
    but they can segment and blend phonemes to read
    some words.
  • They will work on coordinated activities to learn
    new letter patterns and review patterns
    previously taught.
  • They will work with words and with phonic-focused
    texts during small-group time.

67
Fluency and comprehension
  • These children have relatively few decoding
    problems, but they lack automaticity.
  • They will work in a repeated reading format they
    may review particularly challenging words (for
    their pronunciation or their meaning), but they
    will use most of their time reading and rereading
    challenging leveled texts and discussing text
    meaning.

68
Vocabulary and comprehension
  • These children are at grade level in the areas of
    decoding and fluency.
  • They will extend what they know into new texts
    and new text types.
  • They will write in response to reading.

69
Consider your childrens needs.
  • Choose instructional strategies from the
    scientific literature in each of the two target
    areas for each group.
  • These strategies should be simple to implement
    repetitively.
  • These strategies should be adequate to use for
    daily instruction for three weeks.

70
Consider your childrens needs.
  • Plan three weeks instruction for each of your
    groups.
  • Gather manipulatives.
  • Make word lists.
  • Select texts.

71
Try it out!
  • If you are going to differentiate, you have to be
    flexible.
  • Make a plan and give it time to unfold.
  • Evaluate your own implementation of the plan.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan in
    addressing the needs of each child in each group.
  • Start again for another three weeks!

72
The Big Picture
  • It is essential to keep the big picture in mind
    as you plan for small groups.
  • The following slides show how small-group
    planning is nested within your overall planning
    for the block.
  • These examples come from Differentiated Reading
    Instruction.

73
Walpole McKenna (2007). Differentiated reading
instruction Strategies for the primary
grades. New York Guilford.
74
(No Transcript)
75
Walpole McKenna (2007). Differentiated reading
instruction Strategies for the primary
grades. New York Guilford.
76
Walpole McKenna (2007). Differentiated reading
instruction Strategies for the primary
grades. New York Guilford.
77
Our goal
  • We have designed this years professional
    development plan so that coaches work with
    teachers to increase the effectiveness of
    differentiated instruction.
  • We will provide you guidance and activities you
    need to make time for planning and implementing
    these small groups.

78
References
  • Fountas, I. C., Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided
    reading Good first teaching for all children.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinemann.
  • McKenna, M. C., Stahl, S. A. (2003). Assessment
    for reading instruction. New York Guilford.
  • McKenna, M. C., Walpole, S. (2005). How well
    does assessment inform our reading instruction?
    The Reading Teacher, 59, 84-86.
  • RAND Reading Study Group. (2002). Reading for
    understanding Toward an RD program in reading
    comprehension. Santa Monica CA RAND.
    (Downloadable at http//www.rand.org/pubs/monograp
    h_reports/MR1465/)
  • Tomlinson, C. A. (2004). The differentiated
    classroom Responding to the needs of all
    learners. Alexandria, VA ASCD.
  • Tomlinson, C. A. (2001-02). Differentiation of
    instruction in the elementary grades. ERIC
    Digest. (http//www.ericdigests.org/2001-2/element
    ary.html)
  • Vitale, J. (2006). Life's missing instruction
    manual The guidebook you should have been given
    at birth. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley and Sons.
  • Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2007).
    Differentiated reading instruction Strategies
    for the primary grades. New York Guilford.
  • Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2006). The role of
    informal reading inventories in assessing word
    recognition. The Reading Teacher, 59, 592-594.
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