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Title: OSHA

(No Transcript)
OSHAs New National Emphasis ProgramCrystalline
Why Does OSHA Have a New National Emphasis
  • Silica-related illnesses and fatalities continue
    to occur
  • The NEP is a written compliance directive
    incorporating updated information and policies
    and procedures adopted since 1996

Why a New NEP? (contd)
  • Expands 1996 SEP memorandum
  • Provides updated research results on silica
    exposure hazards
  • Details inspection procedures, including
    follow-up inspections where overexposure found
  • Addresses targeting of worksites and provides
    updated NAICS codes for industries with worker
    exposure to crystalline silica
  • Explains calculation of PELS in General Industry,
    Construction, and Maritime
  • Establishes program evaluation procedures
  • Provides for Regional and Area Office outreach

What Is Crystalline Silica?
  • SiO2 silicon dioxide
  • Also known as free silica
  • Significantly more hazardous than amorphous
  • 3 mineralogical forms
  • Quartzmost common
  • Cristobalite
  • Tridymite

What Are the Health Effects of Crystalline Silica?
  • Silicosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
  • Chronic, accelerated, acute
  • A continuing problem
  • Lung cancer
  • Tuberculosis
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
  • Other
  • Immunologic disorders and autoimmune diseases
  • Renal disease
  • Stomach and other cancers

What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Chronic
  • NOTE There may be no symptoms in the early
  • As the disease progresses
  • Cough
  • Breathlessness
  • Weakness
  • Significant X-ray changes
  • after 15-20 years of exposure

Symptoms of Related Illnesses (such as
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Chest pains
  • Respiratory failure
  • These symptoms can become worse over time,
    leading to death.

Where Are There Workplace Exposures to
Crystalline Silica?
  • Solid dust particles generated from
    silica-containing materials by
  • Handling
  • Grinding
  • Blasting
  • Drilling
  • Crushing
  • High historical exposures
  • Sandblasting
  • Mining (regulated by MSHA)
  • Tunneling
  • Granite cutting
  • Sand-casting foundry operations

Crystalline Silica Exposures
How Will Employees Know They May Exposed?
  • Identify factors that indicate probable use of
  • Check product labels
  • Check the Material Safety Data Sheets

Probable Use of Silica
If you can answer YES to any of these, then it is
likely that Silica is used at your work and that
it is airborne.
Identify factors that indicate probable use of
crystalline silica
Check to see whether you (a) Work in an industry
in the left column (b) Are in an occupation in
the middle column or (c) Work with materials
listed in the right column
MaterialsAre any of these involved?
OccupationsAre you one of these?
IndustryDo you work in any of these? 
  • Abrasives
  • Coal Dust
  • Concrete
  • Dirt
  • Filter Aids
  • Graphite, natural
  • Mica
  • Mineral Products
  • Paints
  • Pavement
  • Perlite
  • Plant Materials
  • Plastic Fillers
  • Polishing Compounds
  • Portland Cement
  • Sands
  • Silicates
  • Slag
  • Brickmason/stonemason
  • Construction laborer
  • Crane and tower operator
  • Crushing and grinding machine operator
  • Furnace, kiln, non-food oven operator
  • Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing
    machine operator
  • Hand molder/shaper (not jeweler)
  • Heavy-equipment mechanic
  • Janitor or cleaner
  • Machinist
  • Metals/plastics machine operator
  • Molding and casting machine operator
  • Mining machine operator
  • Miscellaneous material moving equipment operator
  • Millwright
  • Operating engineer
  • Painter who sandblasts (High Risk)
  • Production supervisor
  • Abrasive blasting
  • Asphalt pavement manufacturing
  • Blast furnaces
  • Cement manufacturing
  • Ceramics, clay, and pottery
  • Concrete mixing
  • Concrete tunneling
  • Construction (mainly cement, concrete work)
  • Demolition
  • Electronics industry
  • Foundry industry grinding, molding, shakeout,
    core room (High Risk)
  • Hand molding, casting, and forming
  • Jack hammer operations
  • Manufacturing abrasives, paints, soaps, and glass
  • Mining
  • Repair or replacement of linings of rotary kilns
    and cupola furnaces
  • Rolling and finishing mills
  • Sandblasting (High Risk)

Source OSHAs Silica eTool
And One You May Not Usually Think ofDental
Source What Dental Technicians Need to Know
About Silicosis. NJDHSS.
  • A product that contains 0.1
  • crystalline silica (by weight or
  • volume) must say so
  • The machines used in the operations may also have
    warning signs indicating that silica is being
  • Manufacturers responsibility attach a label to
    all products that contain 0.1 crystalline
  • Employers responsibility ensure that the label
    is not removed or defaced

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
  • Contain data for materials
  • or products containing hazardous
  • chemicals
  • If a material or product contains
  • 0.1 crystalline silica, there
  • must be a MSDS
  • Manufacturers and importers
  • obtain or develop a MSDS for each hazardous
    chemical they produce or import
  • Employers ensure access to MSDSs for all
    hazardous chemicals at the workplace

The National Emphasis Program
  • Applies to General Industry
  • and Construction worksites
  • Goals
  • Eliminate employee overexposure
  • Control health hazards associated
  • with overexposure
  • Features
  • OSHA procedures for inspections
  • 2 percent of inspections
  • Mandatory follow-up inspections if possible where
    overexposures occurred

What Will OSHA Check for on an Inspection?
  • Employee exposure monitoring, including
    collection of bulk samples
  • Engineering and work practice controls
  • Respiratory protection
  • Hazard communication

What is the OSHA PEL for General Industry?
  • Quartz (respirable dust)
  • 10 mg/m3
  • respirable quartz 2
  • Cristobalite and Tridymite use ½ of the value
    calculated from the formula for quartz

What is the OSHA PEL for Construction?
  • Quartz (respirable dust)
  • 250 mppcf
  • silica 5
  • OSHA-adopted conversion factor
  • 1 mppcf 0.1 mg/m3 respirable dust

Crystalline Silica PELs Bottom Line Message
  • Whether you work in General Industry or in
    Construction The more crystalline silica there
    is in the dust, the less of the dust you should

What Will OSHA Check for on an Inspection?
  • Symptoms of silicosis in workplace
  • Housekeeping and hygiene
  • Employee exposure and medical records
  • Abrasive blasting

Scope of Inspection
  • Inspection may be expanded
  • beyond silica-related
  • activities if other
  • hazards or violations
  • are observed.

Follow-up and Evaluation
  • Mandatory follow-up inspections where citations
    for overexposure are issued
  • If follow-up not possible (operation concluded),
    written documentation of abatement efforts from

Follow-up and Evaluation (contd)
  • Where exposures cannot be reduced below the PEL
  • engineering and administrative controls must be
    used to reduce exposures as low as possible
  • respiratory protection must be used to supplement
    other controls
  • Abatement verification data used by Office of

What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure?
  • Substitute materials that have no crystalline
  • Locate employees as far as possible from
    dust-generation source
  • Isolate employees OR the source
  • Control rooms
  • Enclosures
  • Barriers

Moving Employees Farther from Point of Exposure
Source NIOSH Publication No. 1999-113 Control
of Drywall Sanding Dust Exposures
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure?
  • Use local exhaust ventilation (LEV systems)
  • Use tools with dust-collecting
  • systems

Example of a Combination of Controls
Source What Dental Technicians Need to Know
About Silicosis. NJDHSS.
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure?
  • Use wet methods
  • Cutting
  • Chipping
  • Drilling
  • Sawing
  • Grinding
  • Clean surfaces with HEPA vacuums or wet
    sweepingno compressed air!

ControlsWet Methods
Source Dry Cutting and Grinding is RISKY
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure?
  • And if other methods are not sufficient
  • Use Proper Respiratory Protection

Respiratory Protection
Source NIOSH Publication No. 2004-108
Silicosis Learn the Facts!
Example of a Combination of Controls
Source NIOSH Publication No. 2002-105
Silicosis in Sandblasters A Case Study for Use
in U.S. High Schools
What Can Workers Do to Protect Themselves and
Their Families?
  • Become informed
  • Reduce their exposure to dust
  • Use respirators when needed
  • Participate in medical screening
  • Practice good personal hygiene at the workplace
  • It is the employers responsibility to provide a
  • workplace
  • It is your responsibility to use any controls
  • provided

Source CPWR.
What Information Does OSHA Have on the Internet?
  • NEP for crystalline silica
  • Go to www.osha.gov
  • Select Directives
  • Select 2008
  • Look under January (1/24/08)
  • Other information on crystalline silica
  • Go to www.osha.gov
  • Select S from the alphabetical topic index
  • Select Silica, Crystalline

Other Internet Information
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health (NIOSH) website
  • www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/silica

Audience Suggestions?
  • Control methods for crystalline silica on your
    job or in your workplace?
  • Suggestions for getting the word out?
  • Other groups that might be interested in reducing
    exposure to crystalline silica?

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