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Short Stories

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Short Stories & Literary Devices ... Short stories are brief works of fiction in which a character faces a conflict that is resolved in the plot of the story. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Short Stories


1
Short Stories Literary Devices
                                               
                                      

2
Literary DevicesPart 1
3
What makes a story short?
  • Short stories are brief works of fiction in which
    a character faces a conflict that is resolved in
    the plot of the story.
  • Think about a 30 minute sitcom on TV some sort
    of conflict occurs, but its always fixed by the
    end of the show

4
  • Two important questions
  • What is a conflict?
  • Why does every short story need to have a
    conflict?

5
Conflict
  • The problem or struggle in a story that triggers
    the action.
  • There are 5 basic types of conflict.

6
Types of Conflict
7
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8
Internal ConflictMan v. Self
  • Any struggle or problem that is going on within
    the character.
  • How would we know a character in a story was
    having an internal conflict?

9
External Conflict
  • - Any struggle or problem that involves the
    character and any other person, thing or unknown
    force
  • Man v. Man
  • Man v. Nature
  • Man v. Society
  • Man v. God (Fate)

10
  • Besides conflict, every short story needs to have
    a series of events that somehow connect to build
    the story.
  • What is this called?

11
The Plot!
  • - The action or sequence of events in a story
  • - It is usually a series of related events that
    build up on one another as the story develops

12
Plot Line
13
  • 1. Exposition (the beginning) The background or
    situation surrounding the story, setting,
    characters
  • 2. Rising action (introduction of conflict) - the
    series of struggles that builds a story toward a
    climax, the main conflict introduced
  • 3. Climax (the high point) the turning point,
    which marks a change, for the better or the
    worse, for the protagonist

14
  • 4. Falling action (winding down) part of the
    story that works out decisions reached during the
    climax
  • 5. Resolution (the ending or denouement) is
    part of the story in which the conflict is solved
    or resolved

15
  • Ok, so now we have a plot with a conflict what
    else does a short story need?

16
Lets talk about characters
  • Protagonist Main, or focal, character in
    conflict with the antagonist
  • Antagonist - The person or thing working against
    the protagonist
  • (This could be a person or a force even
    societys expectations of the protagonist could
    be a force against him/her)

17
Literary DevicesPart 2
18
Theme
  • The lesson about life the author is trying to get
    across in a story
  • Is the theme told to you directly at the end of a
    story or implied?

19
  • In the childrens book Charlottes Web,
    Charlotte, the spider, tells Wilbur, the pig,
    that all living things must die, and later on,
    she dies saving his life.
  • The author was giving us a clue about what would
    happen later what is that device called?

20
Foreshadowing
  • The use in a literary work of clues that suggest
    events that will happen later in a story

21
Flashback
  • (this is almost the opposite of foreshadowing)
  • A flashback is when an author refers back to
    something that previously happened

22
Imagery
  • The words used to appeal to the five senses. It
    creates word pictures in our minds while we read.
  • The east wind came whipping across the fields
    from higher ground. He stamped his foot and blew
    upon his hands. In the distance he could see the
    clay hills, white and clean, against the heavy
    pallor of the sky (du Maurier 63).
  • We can feel / hear the wind and see the hill s
    and sky in our minds!

23
Setting
  • The time, place and background of the story.
  • The setting can change throughout a story
  • What is the setting of your favorite movie? Your
    favorite book?

24
Its finally ironic
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v32LCwZFoKio

25
Irony
  • Is using a word or phrase to mean the exact
    opposite of its literal or normal meaning.
  • Name an example of irony from the song Its
    finally ironic

26
  • Three Types of Irony
  • Dramatic - a contradiction in what a character
    thinks and what the reader/audience knows is true
  • Verbal - the writer says one thing and means
    another
  • Situational - an event occurs that contradicts
    the expectations of the characters, the reader,
    or the audience

27
  • Do you speak the same in front of your grandma as
    you do in front of your friends?

28
  • Probably not )
  • Authors choose their words carefully, too this
    is called their diction

29
Diction
  • The authors word choice, including the
    vocabulary used, the appropriateness of the
    words, and the vividness of the language.
  • Why would a short story author have to choose
    their words very carefully?

30
  • That moment when youre in a scary movie, and you
    KNOW the bad guy is about to jump out from around
    the corner, and your heart starts pounding a
    little, and you start feeling a little nervous
    because youre afraid of what is going to happen

31
That is called SUSPENSE
  • The uncertainty or anxiety we feel about what is
    going to happen next in a story

32
Characterization
  • - Is the method an author uses to reveal
    characters and their personalities

33
  • Direct Characterization a writer tells us
    directly what a character is like or what their
    motives are
  • Example The doctor was bald and quite impatient.

34
  • Indirect Characterization In which a writer
    shows us a character but allows us to interpret
    for ourselves the kind of person we are meeting
  • How do authors use indirect characterization?
  • Speech
  • Appearance
  • Private thoughts
  • Actions and how others in the story feel about
    them

35
  • Example As the doctors head shone in the light,
    he tapped his pen on the clipboard while the
    patient slowly described his symptoms.

36
More about Characters
  • If a character never learns a lesson or never
    changes in a story, what type of character is he?
  • What if that character DOES change or DOES learn
    a lesson throughout the story, what type of
    character would that be?
  • If the main character has only one real trait or
    quality about them, what would call him?
  • But, what if he had many traits and qualities,
    what type of character is that?

37
Characters
  • Static character A character who doesnt change
    or learn a lesson during the story
  • Dynamic character A character who develops and
    grows (changes) during the course of the story
  • Flat character A character who shows only one
    trait throughout the story
  • Round character A character who shows many
    traits in a story, both the good (virtues) and
    the bad (vices or faults)

38
Symbolism, Tone, and Mood
Literary ElementsPart 3
39
Symbolism
  • Person, place, thing, or event that stands both
    for itself and for something beyond itself.
  • Public symbols are symbols that are widely
    recognized and accepted
  • Can you think of any public symbols?

40
Symbolism, Literary Example
41
Symbolism
  • Why would the eagle be chosen as a symbol of the
    United States?
  • What metaphors exist within the symbol of the
    eagle when comparing it to a nation?

42
Symbolism
  • Strength of an eagles wings
  • Sharp eyes
  • Largeness of the bird
  • Why do you think our forefathers chose the eagle
    over Benjamin Franklins proposed turkey?

43
Tone
  • - Tone is the attitude that an author takes
    toward the audience, the subject, or the
    character.
  • - Tone is conveyed through the author's words and
    details.

44
Mood
  • - Mood is the emotions that you feel while you
    are reading. Some literature makes you feel sad,
    others joyful, and sometimes angry.

45
The End
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