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EXAM 4 LECTURE NOTES

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Title: EXAM 4 LECTURE NOTES


1
EXAM 4 LECTURE NOTES
  • CHAPTERS 13, 14, 15, 16,17

2
  • Chapter 13 Physical and cognitive development in
    middle adulthood
  • (344-361)

3
1. Defining middle adulthood (346)
  • Approximately 40 to 60-65 years of age.
  • Declining physical skills and expanding
    responsibilities

4
  • Balancing work and relationship responsibilities
  • With physical and psychological changes
    associated with aging

5
2. Middle adulthood likely includes
  • Death of parents
  • Last child leaving home
  • Becoming grandparent

6
  • Preparing for retirement
  • Actual retirement

7
  • Physical development
  • Skin begins to wrinkle and sag
  • Loss of fat and collagen in underlying tissues

8
  • Small localized areas of pigmentation result in
    aging spots
  • Thinning and graying hair
  • Fingernails and toenails thicker and more brittle

9
3. Height and weight (347)
  • Begin to lose height
  • Men average ½ inch, from 30-50 ¾ inch from
    50-70
  • Women up to 2 inches from 20-75

10
  • Many people gain weight
  • Average 20 body fat during midlife
  • Being overweight or obese critical health problem
    in midlife

11
  • Increases likelihood for developing hypertension,
    diabetes, digestive disorders

12
4. Strength, joints, bones (348)
  • Sarcopenia age-related loss of muscle mass and
    strength
  • Exercise reduces rate of developing sarcopenia

13
  • Cartilage, tendons and ligaments become less
    efficient
  • Decline in bone density begins mid-late thirties
    and accelerates in 50s

14
5. Vision and hearing
  • Accommodation of eye declines most between 40-59
  • Difficulty focusing on near objects

15
  • Hearing begins decline about age 40
  • First lose sensitivity to high pitch sounds

16
6. Cardiovascular system
  • High blood pressure and high cholesterol
    noticeable
  • Fatty deposits and scar tissue develop on walls
    of blood vessels
  • Cholesterol collects on wall of blood vessels
  • Result in reduce blood flow to brain and heart

17
  • Exercise and healthy eating including fruits,
    vegetables and grains delay cardiovascular
    problems

18
7. Lungs (349)
  • About age 55, proteins in lung tissue become less
    elastic
  • Gradual stiffening of connective tissue in chest
    wall combines
  • result in decrease in lung capacity to bring
    oxygen to veins
  • Smokers have especially low lung capacity

19
8. Sleep
  • Total hours of sleep remains stable
  • Beginning in 40s, increasing frequency of
    wakeful periods
  • Less frequent stage 4 (very deep) sleep

20
9. Health and disease
  • Decrease frequency of accidents, colds, allergies
    for some
  • Stress increasingly a factor in disease,
    especially in immune system and cardiovascular
    system

21
  • Mortality rates (350)
  • Chronic diseases more likely cause of death than
    infectious diseases
  • Most likely a single, identifiable condition
  • Heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular disease

22
10. Sexuality
  • Menopause usually late 40s or early 50s in
    women
  • Menstrual flow stops
  • Timing and side effects vary widely
  • Side effects result from decline in estrogen
  • Include hot flashes, nausea, fatigue and rapid
    heartbeat

23
  • (351)
  • Side effects experiences vary widely, especially
    across different cultural and ethnic groups
  • May not be a negative experience for most women
  • Loss of fertility is important marker

24
  • Hormone replacement therapy controversial
  • Consists of forms of estrogen and progestin
  • Some HRT recipients developed increased risk of
    stroke and dementia
  • HRT study found lower risk of hip fractures and
    no increase in risk for heart attack or breast
    cancer

25
  • Hormonal changes in middle-aged men
  • Modest decline in sexual hormone level and
    activity
  • May be more psychological than physical
  • (352)
  • Gradually reduced sex drive
  • Erections less full and less frequent

26
  • Erectile dysfunction may be psychological and/or
    physical
  • Smoking, diabetes, hypertension and elevated
    cholesterol contribute to erectile problems

27
11. Sexual attitudes and behavior
  • Activity less frequent compared to early
    adulthood
  • Increasing career interests, family matters,
    lower energy levels, changing activity routines
    contribute

28
12. Fluid and crystallized intelligence
  • (353)
  • Fluid ability to reason abstractly declines in
    midlife
  • Crystallized accumulated information and verbal
    skills increase in midlife
  • Data from cross-sectional study (Horn and
    Donaldson, 1980)

29
  • Differences may have been because of cohort
    effects
  • Whether data collected in cross-sectional or
    longitudinal study affects results on
    crystallized and fluid intelligence

30
13. Seattle Longitudinal study beginning in 1956
  • (354)
  • Schaie,1996 Willis Schaie, 2005)
  • Tested vocabulary, verbal memory, spatial
    orientation, inductive reasoning, perceptual
    speed, numerical ability
  • Highest level functioning in midlife for first 4
    areas tested

31
  • Two abilities showed decline in midlife
    numerical ability and perceptual speed
  • Schaies results indicate cognitive funtioning
    peaks in midlife, not early adulthood

32
14. Information processing
  • Speed of information processing
  • Declines beginning in early adulthood and
    continues in midlife
  • Commonly measured using reaction-time task
  • Press a button when a light appears

33
15. Memory
  • (355)
  • Denise Park (2001) proposed more time required to
    learn new information beginning in midlife
  • Slowdown may be linked to changes in working
    memory (short-term memory)

34
  • Working memory allows manipulating and assembling
    information
  • especially -?
  • making decisions,
  • solving problems,
  • understanding written and spoken language

35
  • Memory decline most likely if not use strategies
    such as organization and imagery
  • Can improve memory in midlife if organize (phone)
    numbers in different categories or imagine the
    numbers representing different objects in a
    familiar location

36
16. Expertise
  • Most evident in midlife, possibly because of time
    needed to develop
  • Involves highly organized knowledge and
    understanding of a particular domain

37
  • Experts more likely to --?
  • rely on accumulated experience to solve problems
  • Process information automatically
  • Analyze information efficiently
  • Devise better strategies
  • Use shortcuts to solve problems
  • Be creative and flexible in solving problems

38
17. Careers, work and leisure
  • Work in midlife
  • Role of work usually central in midlife
  • Middle-aged adults also may have multiple
    financial responsibilities,
  • Often reach peak in position and earnings

39
  • Career paths are diverse
  • Some have stable careers
  • Others move in and out of work force
  • Age discrimination common in midlife
  • Midlife often a time of evaluation, assessment
    and reflection about employment

40
  • Midlife employment issues
  • Recognize limitations in career progress
  • Decide whether to change jobs or career fields
  • Decide whether to change balance in work and
    family responsibilities
  • Plan for retirement

41
18. Career challenges and changes
  • Challenges include -?
  • Globalization of work
  • Rapid technological developments
  • Organizational downsizing
  • Early retirement
  • Health care

42
  • Globalization has resulted in a workforce of
    employees with different ethnic and cultural
    backgrounds
  • Increased computer technology means increased
    computer literacy necessary for effective
    competition in the workforce

43
  • Increased frequency of restructuring, downsizing
    and outsourcing -?
  • Result increased incentive to retire early

44
  • Midlife career changes vary in motivation
  • Some self-related
  • desire for change in type or amount of
    responsibility
  • adjustment of idealistic hopes to realistic
    possibilities
  • Timing of reaching occupational goals

45
19. Leisure-? (357)
  • Pleasant activities after work when free to
    pursue interests of own choosing
  • Important during midlife
  • May have increased free time and money
  • Expanded leisure opportunities
  • Important in preparing for retirement

46
20. Religion and meaning in life
  • Religion, spirituality and adult life
  • Important to many adults across most cultures and
    ethnic groups
  • wide diversity of influence for individuals

47
  • Religion, spirituality and health
  • For mainstream, either no link or positive effect
  • Why a connection with health?
  • Lifestyle issues -?
  • Religious individuals have lower level drug use

48
  • Religious/spiritual social networks -?
  • People with strong social support networks tend
    to have fewer health problems
  • Coping with stress -?
  • Religion and spirituality offer source of comfort
    and support

49
21. Life meaning
  • Viktor Frankl (Mans Search for Meaning, 1984)
  • Emphasized individual uniqueness and life
    finiteness
  • Certainty of death adds meaning to life
  • -?

50
  • (359)
  • 3 distinct human qualities
  • Spirituality, freedom and responsibility
  • Spirituality human uniqueness of spirit,
    philosophy and mind
  • Recommends questioning existence, life goals, and
    life meaning

51
  • During midlife
  • Consider death more often
  • Realize there is less time in potential future
    compared to the past
  • Considering Frankls questions reflectively can
    help in times of stress

52
  • Chapter 14 Socioemotional development in middle
    adulthood
  • (362-379)

53
CHAPTER 14 LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
  • SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

54
1. Eriksons stage of generativity versus
stagnation
  • Generativity desire to leave legacy to next
    generation
  • Stagnation sense that you have done little or
    nothing for next generation

55
  • Generative adults -?
  • Commit to improvement of society
  • Positive legacy of self
  • Biological generativity offspring
  • Parental generativity nurture children
  • Work generativity develop skills and knowledge
  • Cultural generativity create, renovate, conserve

56
  • (364)
  • Promote and guide next generation
  • Levinsons Seasons of a Mans Life
  • Study focused on middle-aged men
  • Emphasized developmental tasks at each stage

57
  • Transition from teen to adult
  • Gain independence from parents
  • 20s novice phase of adulthood
  • Reasonably free experimentation
  • Testing idealistic dreams in real world

58
  • 28-33 transition to facing choice of goals
  • 30s focus on family and career development
  • Age 40 usually stable position in career

59
  • 40-45 4 major conflicts
  • 1)young versus old
  • 2)destructive versus constructive
  • 3)masculine versus feminine
  • 4)attachment versus separation

60
How pervasive are midlife crises?
  • Levinson saw midlife as suspension between past
    and future
  • Vaillant Grant study
  • Men in early 30s and 40s
  • 40s time of assessment
  • Only minority if individuals experience severe
    crises

61
  • Idea of midlife crisis probably exaggerated

62
Life events approach
  • Life events stressful circumstances prompting
    change in personality
  • Contemporary view of life events
  • Focus on life events mediating factors

63
Examples of mediating factors
  • Physical health
  • Family and other social support
  • Predictability
  • Control
  • Coping strategies
  • Social and historical context

64
  • Drawback to life events approach
  • Too much emphasis on change

65
Comparison of young, midlife and older adults
experience of stress
  • Start here Tuesday august 11 2009
  • Stress and personal control
  • Young and mid adults report more frequent
    stressors than older adults
  • Mid adults reported more overload stressors

66
  • Adults generally report more stress as they get
    older
  • Most frequent stressor interpersonal tension

67
Gender and educational level influence stress
experience
  • Mid-life women report more crossover stressors
  • Lower educational group members experience same
    number of stressors but rated them as more severe

68
Context of midlife development
  • Historical links similar to cohort influence
  • Neugarten values, attitudes expectations and
    behaviors different for different age groups or
    cohorts

69
  • Social clock time table for accomplishing life
    tasks
  • Provides guide for living life
  • If individual life not synchronized, experience
    more stress
  • Social clock different for different age groups

70
Cultural contexts
  • Concept of middle age unclear in nonindustrial
    countries
  • In some cultures movement between statuses
    depends more on life events rather than age

71
  • Midlife women in other cultures may experience
    advantages
  • Freedom from certain restrictions
  • More geographical mobility
  • Child care delegated
  • Domestic tasks reduced

72
  • Right to exercise authority over younger kin
  • Work more administrative
  • Eligible for special statuses and recognition
    beyond the household
  • Vocations including midwife, curer, holy woman,
    matchmaker

73
  • Cultural context can differ in several ways

74
Stability and change in personality
  • Costa and McCrae study

75
  • Big five personality factors
  • 1) openness to experience
  • 2) conscientiousness
  • 3) extraversion
  • 4) agreeableness
  • 5) neuroticism

76
  • Analysis of big five framework
  • More change in adult years
  • Extraversion components
  • social dominance (assertiveness)
  • social vitality (sociability)

77
  • Social dominance increases in adolescence and
    midlife
  • Social vitality increases in adolescence and
    decreases in early and late adulthood

78
Berkeley Longitudinal study
  • Continued in 1920s and 1930s
  • Stable intellectual orientation,
    self-confidence, openness to new experience
  • More likely to change being nurturing or
    hostile having good self-control or not

79
Vaillant studies 3 longitudinal studies
  • Studied whether personality at midlife predicts
    personality in late adulthood
  • Found alcohol abuse and smoking at age 50
    predicts death between 75 and 80
  • Factors at 50 predicting being happy and well -?

80
  • Regular exercise
  • Avoiding overweight
  • Being well-educated
  • Having a stable marriage
  • Being future-oriented
  • Being thankful and forgiving
  • Empathizing with others

81
  • Being active with others
  • Having good coping skills
  • Generativity in midlife strongly related to
    having enduring and happy marriage
  • Conclusions- personality traits not permanently
    fixed during adulthood

82
  • Personality change is limited
  • Age is positively related to personality
    stability
  • Stability peaks in 50s and 60s

83
Cumulative personality model
  • With time and age people become more adept at
    interacting with their environment to promote
    personality stability

84
Close relationships
  • Love and marriage at midlife
  • Love becomes more affectionate and companionate
  • More emphasis on security, loyalty and mutual
    emotional interest

85
Divorce at midlife
  • more positive in some ways and more negative in
    others compared to other age stages
  • For mature individuals divorce can be less
    stressful
  • They have more resources, use time to dispose of
    possessions
  • Their children are likely adults and they have
    greater self-understanding

86
  • Emotional and time commitment may be difficult to
    give up
  • May perceive divorce as failure
  • Divorcer sees escape
  • Person being divorced sees betrayal

87
  • Staying married because of children most often
    delays divorce

88
Main reasons for divorce
  • Women-?
  • Verbal, physical emotional abuse
  • Alcohol or drug abuse
  • cheating

89
  • Men -?
  • No problem, fell out of love
  • Cheating
  • Different values and lifestyle

90
Empty nest and refilling
  • For parents, an adjustment when children leave
    home
  • May be decline in marital satisfaction when
    children leave home
  • For many parents there is increase in marital
    satisfaction when last child leaves home

91
  • Parents have time to pursue careers, other
    interests, more time for each other
  • Refilling the empty nest
  • More common in uncertain economy
  • Children return home after college or before
    full-time employment

92
  • Young adults sometimes move back home after
    unsuccessful career experiences or divorce
  • Midlife adults usually willing to support younger
    generation, both financially and emotionally

93
  • Pluses and minuses when adult children return
    home
  • Parents and children should agree on expectations
    and conditions beforehand
  • If not negotiated, conflict will almost certainly
    result

94
Intimacy triangle
  • Symmetry
  • Risky self-disclosure
  • Empathy

95
Sibling relationships and friendships
  • Most sibling relationships remain close in
    adulthood, if developed in childhood
  • (375)
  • Friendships continue to be important in middle
    adulthood
  • Takes time to develop intimate relationships

96
Grandparenting
  • Many adults become grandparents for first time in
    middle adulthood
  • Grandmothers usually have more contact with
    grandchildren

97
Grandparent roles (376)
  • 3 major meanings to being a grandparent
  • (Neugarten and Weinstein, 1964)
  • Biological reward and continuity
  • Emotional self-fulfillment, companionship and
    satisfaction
  • Remote experience

98
Changing profile of grandparents
  • Increasing number of grandchildren live with
    grandparents
  • Divorce, drug use and adolescent pregnancies
    among primary reasons

99
Grandparenting stress linked to 3 conditions
  • Being younger grandparent
  • Having grandchildren with physical and mental
    disabilities
  • Low family cohesion

100
  • (377)
  • Special concern visitation privileges with
    grandchildren
  • Controversial if visitation privileges are forced
    and against parents wishes

101
Intergenerational relationships
  • Adults in midlife have variety of roles
  • Share experience and transmit values to younger
    generation
  • Experiencing empty nest
  • Adjusting to having grown children return home

102
  • May give or receive financial assistance
  • May care for widowed or ill parent
  • May adjust to being oldest generation after both
    parents have died

103
  • Common conflicts between generations
  • Communication and interaction styles
  • Habits and lifestyle choices
  • Child-rearing practices and values
  • Politics, religion and ideology

104
  • Gender differences in intergenerational
    relationships
  • Mothers and daughters usually have closer
    relationships than fathers and sons
  • Middle-age adults called sandwich generation
  • Having responsibility for both adolescent and
    young adult children as well as aging parents

105
  • Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in
    Late Adulthood
  • (380-404)

106
Longevity how long we live
  • Relates to life span and life expectancy
  • Life span maximum number of years an individual
    can live
  • Has remained at 120-125 years

107
Life expectancy
  • (381)
  • number of years the average person born in a
    particular year will probably live
  • (382)
  • Differences in life expectancy
  • In US, longer than some and shorter than others

108
  • Differences in life expectancy relate to health
    conditions and medical care
  • Women usually have longer life expectancy
  • Related to social factors (health attitudes,
    habits, lifestyles and occupations)

109
  • Gender differences in life expectancy related to
    physiological factors
  • Women have more resistance to infections and
    degenerative diseases
  • Estrogen level helps protect against
    arteriosclerosis
  • Additional X chromosome may be associated with
    higher antibody production

110
Biological theories of aging (383)
  • Cellular clock theory (Hayflick, 1977)
  • Cells can divide a maximum of 75-80 times
  • As we age, cells become less capable of dividing
  • Why? Possibly because of telomeres or DNA
    sequences that cap chromosomes

111
  • After each cell division, telomeres become
    shorter
  • At certain point, cells no longer able to
    reproduce

112
  • Free-radical theory
  • Aging occurs because of unstable oxygen molecules
    (free-radicals) that result from the metabolism
    process
  • Free radicals can damage DNA and other cell
    structures
  • Increasing number of free radicals linked to
    overeating, cancer and arthritis

113
  • Hormonal stress theory
  • Proposes aging of hormonal system lowers
    resistance to stress and increases likelihood of
    disease
  • (384)
  • Stressors stimulate release of certain hormones

114
  • Aging results in stress-related hormones
    remaining at elevated levels longer
  • Prolonged elevated levels of stress-hormones
    related to increased risk for certain diseases

115
Aging brain
  • Brain loses 5-10 of weight between ages 20 and
    90
  • Brain volume also decreases (can be as much as
    15 less in older adults)
  • Prefrontal cortex shrinks more than other areas

116
  • General slowing of function in brain and spinal
    cord begins in middle age and continues in old
    age
  • Associated with slowing reaction time
  • Impairs performance on timed tests

117
Adapting brain
  • Aging brain has significant repair capability
  • Activities in old age can influence brains
    development
  • Neurogenesis or development of new nerve cells
    can occur in humans
  • Demonstrated in hippocampus and olfactory area

118
  • (385)
  • Growth of dendrites can occur in humans and can
    partially explain the adapting brain
  • Dendritic growth occurs during 40s-70s
  • Slows and disappears during the 90s

119
  • Changes in lateralization is another type of
    adapting
  • Lateralization specialization of function in
    one or the other brain hemisphere
  • Lateralization occurs more in younger adults than
    older adults

120
Nun study Snowdon, 2002
  • Annual assessment of cognitive and physical
    functioning
  • Findings -?
  • Idea density linked to higher brain weight, fewer
    incidences of mild cognitive deficit, and
    Alzheimers disease

121
  • Positive emotions in early adulthood linked to
    increased longevity
  • (386)
  • Those who were teachers most of their lives
    showed more moderate deficits than those in
    service occupations

122
Physical development
  • Wrinkles and age spots most noticeable changes
  • Decreasing height because of bone loss in spinal
    vertebra
  • Decreasing weight after age 60 mostly because of
    muscle loss

123
  • Older adults move more slowly than younger adults
  • Regular walking can slow the rate of physical
    decline
  • Exercise and appropriate weight lifting decreases
    the onset and rate of muscle loss

124
Sensory development
  • Vision visual acuity, color vision and depth
    perception decline with aging
  • Dark adaptation and tolerance for glare decreases
  • Color vision problems related to yellowing of eye
    lens

125
3 diseases
  • Glaucoma damage to optic nerve because of
    pressure resulting from buildup of fluid in the
    eye
  • Cataracts thickening of eye lens causes vision
    to become cloudy, opaque and distorted

126
  • Macular degeneration deterioration of macula, an
    area of the retina, associated with difficulty
    with peripheral vision

127
Hearing
  • Impairment usually not a problem until late
    adulthood
  • usually because of cochlear degeneration
  • Cochlea is primary nerve receptor for hearing in
    inner ear
  • Hearing aids can remedy some problems

128
Smell and taste
  • Losses begin about age 60
  • Decline reduces enjoyment of food and life
    satisfaction
  • Can result in increased consumption of sweeter,
    saltier and spicier foods

129
Touch and pain (388)
  • Decreasing sensitivity to touch in lower
    extremities more so than upper extremities
  • Lower sensitivity to pain can help coping with
    disease and injury and
  • Can also mask injury and illness requiring
    treatment

130
Circulatory system and lungs
  • Consistent blood pressures above 120/80 can lead
    to heart attack, stroke or kidney disease
  • Rise in blood pressure linked to illness,
    obesity, anxiety and stiffening of blood vessels
  • Lung capacity decreases 40 between 20-80
  • Lung tissue loses elasticity, chest shrinks and
    diaphragm weakens

131
Sexuality
  • Can be lifelong with absence of disease and
    belief that older people should be asexual
  • Orgasm becomes less frequent with age
  • More direct stimulation needed to achieve
    erection

132
Health problems (389)
  • Aging increases likelihood of developing disease
    symptoms
  • Chronic diseases increase in older adulthood
  • Arthritis and hypertension most common chronic
    problems
  • Risk factors for disease include low income and
    relationship conflicts

133
Causes of death in older adults
  • Heart disease, cancer or stroke leading causes
  • Also chronic lung diseases, pneumonia and
    influenza and diabetes next in line
  • Decrease in frequency of cardiovascular disease
    and kidney problems could increase longevity by
    as much as 10 years

134
Arthritis
  • inflammation around joints accompanied by pain,
    stiffness, movement problems
  • Incurable
  • Affects knees, hips, ankles and vertebrae
  • Symptoms can be reduced by medication and
    range-of-motion exercises as well as weight
    reduction and surgery

135
Osteoporosis
  • Associated with severe loss of bone tissue
  • Main reason many adults walk with stooped posture
  • Women especially vulnerable
  • Linked to deficiencies of calcium, Vitamin D,
    estrogen and lack of exercise

136
  • To prevent osteoporosis -?
  • Eat foods rich in calcium
  • Exercise more
  • Avoid smoking

137
Exercise, nutrition and weight
  • Exercise
  • Can literally be difference between life and
    death
  • Positive effects for both men and women
  • Strength training and stretching also recommended

138
  • Exercise - continued
  • Can prevent falling down and being
    institutionalized
  • Linked to increased longevity

139
Nutrition and weight (391)
  • Calorie restriction can increase longevity in
    some animals
  • CR linked to delayed appearance of chronic
    problems
  • CR can delay age-related rise in cholesterol and
    triglycerides
  • CR may also delay aging symptoms in CNS

140
Health treatment
  • Adequate health treatment received about ½ the
    time
  • Aging increases likelihood of being in a nursing
    home or other extended care facility
  • Quality of nursing home care varies widely
  • 1/3 seriously deficient

141
Concerns relating to nursing home care
  • Patients medical care
  • Right to privacy
  • Access to medical information
  • Safety
  • Lifestyle freedom within physical and mental
    capability

142
Alternatives to nursing facilities
  • Home health care
  • Day care centers
  • Preventive medicine clinics

143
Rodin and Langer (1977) nursing home study
  • (393)
  • Found important factor relating to health and
    even survival -?
  • Patients feelings of control and
    self-determination
  • Perceived control can make the difference between
    life and death in a nursing facility

144
Cognitive functioning
  • Multidimensionality and multidirectionality
  • Cognition is complex
  • Cognition may decline, improve or remain stable
    during late adulthood

145
Sensory/motor and speed-of-processing dimensions
  • Speed of processing declines during late
    adulthood
  • Wide variety in decline
  • Likely because of declining functioning in brain
    and central nervous system

146
Attention (394)
  • Selective attention focusing on specific aspect
    of experience while ignoring others
  • Divided attention concentrating on 2 or more
    activities at one time
  • Sustained attention state of readiness to
    detect and respond to small changes in
    environment occurring at random - vigilance

147
  • Older adults less adept at selective attention
    compared to younger adults
  • less age difference in divided attention if
    tasks are easy or automatic
  • Few age differences in sustained attention

148
Memory
  • Changes with age
  • Different types of memory change in different
    ways

149
  • Episodic and semantic memory
  • Episodic remembering information relating to
    where and when events occurred
  • Semantic memory general knowledge about the
    world
  • Fields of expertise, academic and everyday
    knowledge, meanings of words, places and things

150
  • Younger adults better at episodic memory compared
    to older adults
  • In general, the older the memory, the less
    accurate it is
  • Older adults take longer to retrieve semantic
    memory but usually can remember it
  • Episodic memory declines more in older adults
    compared to semantic memory

151
  • Working memory and perceptual speed
  • Working memory linked to short-term memory
  • More emphasis on memory as a place for mental work

152
Perceptual speed
  • amount of time needed to perform simple
    perceptual-motor tasks
  • Considerable decline in late adulthood
  • Linked to decline in working memory

153
Explicit and implicit memory
  • Explicit memory memory of facts and experiences
    we consciously know and can state
  • Also known as declarative memory
  • Declines as we age

154
  • Implicit memory memory without conscious
    recollection
  • Involves skills and routine procedures performed
    automatically
  • Less likely to decline as we age

155
Wisdom
  • (396)
  • expert knowledge about practical aspects of life
  • Permits excellent judgment about important
    matters
  • Involves insight into human development and life
    matters

156
  • Wisdom continued
  • Involves coping with difficult life problems
  • Focuses on pragmatic concerns
  • Findings
  • 1) high levels of wisdom are rare
  • 2)factors other than age critical for wisdom
  • 3)personality factors linked (openness to
    experience, generativity and creativity)

157
Use it or lose it
  • Mental activities likely to benefit cognitive
    abilities
  • Reading books,
  • doing crossword puzzles,
  • going to lectures and concerts

158
  • Several studies support the use it or lose it
    idea (396)
  • Victoria Longitudinal study middle aged and
    older adults participated in intellectually
    challenging activities
  • Longitudinal study of 801 priests aged 65 -
    those who exercised their minds less likely to
    develop Alzheimers Disease

159
Training cognitive skills (397)
  • 2 key conclusions improvement through cognitive
    and physical fitness training
  • 1) training can improve cognitive functioning
  • 2)some loss in plasticity in late adulthood,
    especially in 85 group
  • Evidence from Willis and Schaie, 1986
  • Improved spatial orientation and reasoning skills

160
Cognitive neuroscience and aging
  • Cognitive neuroscience links brain and
    cognitive functioning
  • Relies on brain-imaging techniques, including
    fMRI and PET scans
  • Reveals areas of brain active during various
    cognitive activities

161
Work and retirement
  • What percentage of adults continue to work?
  • How productive are adults who work during late
    old age?
  • Who adjusts best to retirement?

162
Work (398)
  • Beginning of 21st century, percentage of men 65
    who work full time is less than at the beginning
    of 20th century
  • Important change in adult work patterns is
    increase in part-time work after retirement

163
  • Important characteristics predicting working
    after retirement
  • Good health
  • Strong psychological commitment to work after
    retirement
  • Distaste for retirement
  • Probability of employment positively linked to
    educational attainment and married to working wife

164
  • Older workers have lower absenteeism
  • Fewer accidents
  • Increased job satisfaction
  • Compared to younger workers
  • Increasing number of middle and older adults
    entering second and third career fields
  • Sometimes completely different type of work or a
    continuation of previous work

165
  • Many older adults volunteer or work in active
    volunteer organizations
  • Unpaid work activities
  • Options give opportunities for productive
    activity, social interaction, and positive
    identity

166
Best adjustment to retirement -?
  • Healthy
  • Well-educated
  • Have extended social network
  • Satisfied with their lives before retirement

167
Worst adjustment to retirement-?
  • Inadequate income
  • Poor health
  • Making adjustments to other stressors, such as
    death of spouse
  • Strong attachment to full-time work
  • Lack control over retirement transition

168
Mental health
  • Depression
  • Major depression is mood disorder, deeply
    unhappy, very low morale, self-derogatory and
    bored
  • Does not feel well, easily fatigued, poor
    appetite, listless and weak motivation
  • Symptoms linked to more economic hardships, more
    negative social interactions, decreased religious
    or spiritual tendencies

169
  • Depression links continued
  • Low level physical exercise
  • Poor health
  • Experiencing pain

170
  • Depression continued
  • Treatable condition
  • 80 older adults with depressive symptoms receive
    no treatment
  • Combination of medication and psychotherapy most
    effective

171
Dementia, Alzheimer Disease and Parkinson disease
  • (400)
  • Dementia global term for neurological disorder
    in which primary symptom involves deterioration
    of cognitive functioning
  • Lose ability to care for self, can lose ability
    to recognize familiar surroundings and people

172
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Progressive and irreversible brain disorder
  • Gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning,
    language and physical functioning
  • 2 types distinguished -?
  • Early onset before age 65
  • Late-onset after age 65

173
  • Early onset Alzheimer is rare
  • AD involves brain chemical acetylcholine
  • Brain shrinks and deteriorates
  • Deterioration associated with development of
    amyloid plaques (dense deposits of protein
    accumulating in blood vessels) and
    neurofibrillary tangles (twisted fibers that
    build up in neurons)

174
  • AD cause uncertain
  • Age is a factor
  • Genes likely contribute
  • Lifestyle can influence risk
  • Lower risk associated with good diet, exercise,
    weight control
  • Higher risk obesity, smoking, atherosclerosis
    and high cholesterol

175
Early detection and treatment of AD
  • Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents
    transitional state
  • Deficits in episodic memory can be important
    early indicator of AD risk
  • Special brain scans (MRI) can detect changes in
    brain indicating early AD

176
Drugs approved for AD treatment
  • Donepezil (Aricept)
  • Rivastigmine (Excelon)
  • Galantamine (Razadyne)
  • Designed to improve memory and other cognitive
    functions
  • Increase levels of acetylcholine

177
Caring for individual with AD (402)
  • Family can be important social support system
  • Has costs for family members who can become
    emotionally and physically drained
  • Can result in higher levels of caregiver burden
    and depression
  • Lower levels of well-being and physical health

178
  • Respite care services provide temporary relief
    for caregivers of those with diseases and
    disabilities or who are elderly
  • Important break away from providing chronic care

179
Parkinson disease
  • chronic, progressive disease
  • Characterized by muscle tremors
  • Slowing movement
  • Partial facial paralysis
  • Triggered by deterioration of neurons producing
    dopamine in brain

180
  • Dopamine necessary for normal brain function
  • Main treatment for PD administering drugs
    enhancing effect of dopamine
  • Later treatment administer L-dopa, converted by
    brain into dopamine

181
  • Chapter 16 Socioemotional development in late
    adulthood
  • (405-420)
  • Bonus chapter

182
Theories of socioemotional development
  • Ericksons theory (406)

183
  • Activity theory (407)

184
  • Socioemotional selectivity theory (407)

185
  • Selective optimization with compensation theory
    (408)

186
Personality and society
  • Personality (409)

187
  • Older adults in society (410)
  • Stereotyping
  • Policy issues in aging society

188
  • (411)
  • Income
  • technology

189
Families and social relationships
  • 412
  • Lifestyle diversity
  • Married older adults
  • Divorced and remarried older adults

190
  • 413
  • Cohabiting older adults
  • Older adults and their adult children

191
  • 414
  • Friendship
  • Social support and social integration

192
  • 415
  • Altruism and volunteerism

193
Ethnicity, gender and culture
  • 416
  • Ethnicity
  • gender

194
  • 417
  • culture

195
  • 418
  • Successful aging

196
  • Chapter 17 death, dying and grieving
  • (421-434)
  • Bonus chapter

197
Defining death and life/death issues
  • 422
  • Determining death
  • Decisions regarding life, death and health care
  • Natural death act and advance directive

198
  • 423
  • Euthanasia

199
  • 424
  • needed better care for dying individuals

200
Death and sociohistorical cultural contexts
  • 424
  • Changing historical circumstances

201
  • 425
  • Death in different cultures

202
Facing ones own death
  • 426-7
  • Kubler-ross stages of dying

203
  • 427
  • Perceived control and denial

204
Coping with death of someone else
  • 428-9
  • Communicating with a dying person

205
  • 429
  • Grieving
  • Dimensions of grieving

206
  • 430
  • Coping and type of death
  • Making sense of the world

207
  • 431
  • Losing a life partner

208
  • 432
  • Forms of mourning
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