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Protein Synthesis (to make proteins)

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rRNA Function where translation of RNA to protein takes place Ribosomes are made up of protein and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Remember: How many different ... Types of RNA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protein Synthesis (to make proteins)


1
Protein Synthesis (to make proteins)
2
What is Protein Synthesis?
  • Flow of Genetic Information
  • DNA RNA Protein
  • DNA holds the code for protein synthesis but
    cannot leave the nucleus

3
  • Protein Synthesis is performed at the ribosomes
    in the cytoplasm
  • The cell uses RNA to copy the code from DNA and
    bring it to the ribosomes

4
RNA Ribonucelic Acid
  • Nitrogenous Bases a. Adenine b. Cytosine c.
    Guanine d. Uracil
  • Simple Sugar a ribose rather than a deoxyribose
  • Phosphate Groups

5
II. Structure
a. A nucleic acid backbone b. single strand of
nucleotides c. Sugar is ribose d. Contains
uracil base instead of thymine
6
Difference between DNA and RNA
  • DNA RNA
  • Double strand single strand
  • Deoxyribose ribose
  • Thymine uracil

7
III. Types of RNA
  • Three types of RNA are used to make proteins
  • a. mRNA messenger RNA
  • b. rRNA ribosomal RNA
  • c. tRNA transfer RNA

8
IV. mRNA Function
  • A. transcribe DNA code
  • B. take code outside of nucleus to ribosome
  • C. give instructions to ribosome on how to
    build protein

9
How does DNA transfer info to RNA?
A U G C T A No Ts in RNA
10
V. tRNA Function
  • To deliver amino acids to the ribosome as it is
    building (synthesizing) protein

11
VI. rRNA Function
  • where translation of RNA to protein takes place
  • Ribosomes are made up of protein and ribosomal
    RNA (rRNA)

12
  • Remember
  • How many different amino acids are there?
  • 20
  • Look at your notes - What makes each amino acid
    different from one another?
  • R groups

13
VIII. The CODE!!
  • James Watson and Francis Crick, with the help of
    Rosalind Franklins X-ray crystallography images
    unraveled the structure of DNA
  • B. The fact that bases paired led directly to a
    theory of how DNA codes for proteins. It took a
    few years to determine that the bases spell
    three-letter words called codons

14
mRNA Codons
  • 3 letters on mRNA are called codons. These three
    letter codes are used to determine which Amino
    Acid is to be placed on the protein.
  • Ex TAC
  • AUG Start Codon (Methionine)
  • This is where you begin translation of DNAs code
    given to mRNA

15
  • See the mRNA codon chart (slime green)
  • Write the codon for Proline here
  • Glycine?
  • Which amino acid has the most codons?
  • Which amino acid has the fewest?
  • Start codon starts each protein
  • Three codons tell a ribosome to stop making a
    protein. List them here

16
Transcription?
  • - Copying the portion of DNA that carries the
    code for a protein.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vztPkv7wc3yUfeature
    related
  • mRNA Synthesis (Transcription begins with a
    promoter on DNA, site RNA polymerase binds to on
    DNA to begin transcription).
  • A mRNA is transcribed (built) using unwound DNAs
    code as a template.
  • RNA nucleotides find their compliment.
  • RNA Polymerase is the enzyme that brings in the
    nucleotides

17
  • - Completed when reaches terminator sequence on
    DNA ending transcription
  • The original strand is used as the template.

18
  • Result
  • The resulting mRNA looks exactly like the
    template strand of DNA, with one important
    distinction
  • each T is replace with a U.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJqx4Y0OjWW4feature
    related
  • Where does it go?
  • The RNA releases from DNA and is then edited
    before leaving the nucleus

19
(No Transcript)
20
  • Practice Transcription

DNA Strand
3 T A C G A T G C A T C G 5
RNA Strand
5 A U G C U A C G U A G C 3
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vNjczQKjFcksfeature
related
21
Translation
  • The process of interpreting mRNA to build a chain
    of amino acids that make up a protein.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vB6O6uRb1D38feature
    related

22
  • How does it work?
  • i. mRNA leaves the nucleus and heads to the
    cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located.
  • Remember Ribosomes are where translation will
    occur
  • Each sequence of nucleotides is a codon (mRNA
    codon). Each codon codes for a specific amino
    acid

23
  • ii. Amino acids are brought to the ribosome by
    tRNA.
  • There are 20 different tRNA molecules, one for
    each type of amino acid.
  • tRNA anticodon finds their complimentary codon on
    mRNA.


24
  • Anticodon 3 letters found to match the mRNAs
    codon.
  • mRNA codon UAA CGA GGC
  • tRNA anticodon AUU GCU CCG

25
  • iii. Peptide bonds form between the amino acids
    forming a polypeptide.
  • iV. Translation stops when a stop codon is
    reached.
  • Video http//www.youtube.com/watch?v41_Ne5mS2ls
    featurerelated

26
(No Transcript)
27
  • Video http//www.youtube.com/watch?v983lhh20rGY
    featurerelated
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