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Higher Education South Africa

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Title: Higher Education South Africa


1
Higher Education South Africa
2
The Science and Technology Ministerial Review
Report
  • South African Higher Education Institutions and
    the National System of Innovation

3
Remit (1)
  • In July 2010, Minister of Science and
    Technology constituted a Review Committee. The
    purpose of the committee was to
  • review the Science, Technology and Innovation
    landscape and its readiness to meet the needs of
    the country
  • appraise the degree to which the country is
    making optimal use of its existing strengths

4
Remit (II)
  • assess the degree to which the country is well
    positioned to respond rapidly to a changing
    global context and meet the needs of the country
    in the coming ten to thirty years.
  • The study was to provide the nation with
  • an understanding of what is being
  • achieved in and by the National System
  • of Innovation (NSI).

5
Phase One
  • Phase one comprised scrutiny of the relevant
    policy framework established since the adoption
    of the White Paper on Science and Technology in
    1996, and evaluation of the systemic response to
    the external review of the South African National
    System of Innovation (NSI) conducted by the
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
    Development (OECD) in 2006/2007.

6
Phase Two
  • Phase Two focused on the development of
    recommendations for a greatly enhanced NSI.
  • In particular Phase Two was expected to make
    recommendations regarding
  • Framework conditions to achieve coordination and
    coherence
  • Appropriate institutional arrangements and
    structures that would direct the NSI
  • Location and levels of investment responsibility
    for the NSI, including government, business,
    foreign support and other sources of funding

7
WHAT IS AN NSI
  • The idea of a National System of Innovation rests
    on the importance of linkages and interactions
    among organisations and institutions in the
    creation of knowledge, its transfer and the
    development of innovations.
  • The main actors are business, government research
    laboratories and universities.
  • Government plays many roles setting framework
    conditions, providing infrastructure, human
    resource development
  • Framework conditions policies regulations, tax
    incentives.

8
Governance of the NSI (I)
  • Assessment
  • Department of Science and Technology achievements
    reviewed much that is positive.
  • Lack of shared understanding across Government
    departments of conception of National System of
    Innovation
  • Poor inter-governmental coordination and
    cooperation
  • Many sectoral ST services under-performing.
  • Failure of New Strategic Management Model for
    SETIs.

9
Governance of the NSI (II)
  • The trust placed in voluntary inter-departmental
    cooperation has not been realised
  • Virtually no prospective NSI planning as
    envisaged in the White Paper has been possible
  • There is still too little systemic coherence and
    sense of common purpose between the private
    sector, Government, Higher Education and civil
    society
  • There is an absolute requirement for coherent
    information-gathering and analysis for effective
    agenda-setting and prioritisation in the NSI, and
    for the achievement of clearer and better-aligned
    institutional missions and functioning of the
    agencies.

10
Governance of the NSI (III)
  • Recommendation 1 Establish a statutory National
    Council on Research and Innovation (NCRI) chaired
    by Deputy President representatives from
    Government, private sector, HEIs, Research
    Councils, Labour, Civil Society. Responsible for
    oversight of NSI.
  • Recommendation 2 Establish a Unitary
  • Research and Innovation Vote.

11
Governance of the NSI (IV)
  • Recommendation 3 The primary function iof
    Ministry and Department of Science and Technology
    would be a systemic formulator and co-ordinator
    of NSI-related policy and strategy, consistent
    with decisions of NCRI, allocating
    macro-resources andpromoting the system.
  • Recommendation 4 Transform the present National
    Council on Innovation (NACI) into a new
    statutory Office for Research and Innovation
    Policy (ORIP).

12
Governance of the NSI (V)
  • Recommendation 5 Establish three core
  • NSI nexuses by written agreements.
  • Post-school education and training involving the
    Department of Higher Education and Training
    (DHET) and the DST
  • Business and enterprise development, involving at
    least the departments of Trade and Industry (the
    dti), the Economic Development (EDD), Public
    Enterprises (DPE) and the DST
  • Social development and social innovation,
    involving the DST and departments concerned with
    social and rural development, and the social
    security, health and education complex.

13
Governance of the NSI (V)
  • Recommendation 6 Broaden modes of public
    grant-making participatory sectoral funds.
  • Recommendation 7 Review, re-think and integrate
    the Science Councils and the Government ST
    services system.

14
The enabling environment for NSI (I)
  • Assessment
  • Deep-seated gap between business and government
    (too little joint participation, decision-making,
    benefit-sharing, etc).
  • Tax incentive schemes under-subscribed.
  • Innovation survey hides low patenting and
    international impact of business innovation.

15
The enabling environment for NSI (II)
  • Falling contribution of business to Higher
    Education and Science Council RD .
  • Technology balance-of-payments poor.
  • Technology and Human Resources for Industry
    Programme and Support Programme for Industrial
    Innovation positive, but slow multi-helix
    formation.
  • NSI not yet open and permeable enough.
  • Despite some good examples, public service
    innovation weak.

16
The enabling environment for NSI (III)
  • Recommendation 8 Systematic efforts should be
    made to bring industry and government closer
    together, and to strengthen the response of the
    system to demand signals from business and
  • industry, on the one hand, and social spheres, on
    the other. The effective participation of the
    private sector should be structured into all
    levels of the system, including participation in
    the NCRI.

17
The enabling environment for NSI (IV)
  • Recommendation 9 A concerted effort must be
    made to bridge the knowledge transfer gap between
    local companies (big and small) and public sector
    researchers and administrators, in order to
    ensure that the nations considerable
    intellectual resources are utilised to a much
    greater extent.
  • Recommendation 10 The research investment
    climate must be improved through a review of
    present and further incentive schemes for
    accessibility, simplicity and effectiveness, with
    broadening as required.

17
18
The enabling environment for NSI (V)
  • Recommendation 12 An explicit
  • Strategy should be developed for the
  • advancement of social innovation
  • within NSI.

18
19
The Human Capital and Infrastructure (I)
  • Assessment
  • Multiple systemic pipeline jams hindering
    action (or implementation)
  • Massive unresolved schooling issues
  • Deficits in FET, vocational training (Green
    Paper)
  • The achievement of an innovative and
    technology-rich economy and society depends on
    the depth, width and overall quality of the
    reservoir of human capital

20
The Human Capital and Infrastructure (II)
  • Assessment cont.
  • Despite sustained efforts to increase admission
    to HE for academically deserving but financially
    disadvantaged students, overall particpation rate
    remains low at approximately 17 18.
  • Low graduation rates and drop-out rates at all
    levels
  • Innovation-driven economies tend to have strongly
    differentiated HE system
  • Difficult to increase postgraduate enrollements
  • Disciplinary ageing due to failure to reproduce
    the existing researcher cadre next generation
    of scholars.

21
The Human Capital and Infrastructure (III)
  • Recommendation 13 In order to meet the human
    resource development requirements of a knowledge
    economy, a planned, concerted, well-resourced and
    sustained programme of action in all areas of
    human capital development should be undertaken by
    all the relevant policy-makers and performers.

22
The Human Capital and Infrastructure (IV)
  • Teaching at all levels should be declared an
    essential public service within labour and other
    legislation and relevant regulations.
  • Public resourcing (both from outside and inside
    institutions) should be focused on departments or
    research enterprises that are demonstratively
    capable of attracting and hosting large numbers
    of successful postgradautes.
  • Opportunities in the academic job market should
    be widened to increase the population of
    productive academics.

23
The Human Capital and Infrastructure (IV)
  • Recommendation 14 The existing infrastructure
    needs not only to be expanded but restructured in
    terms of its elements to ensure a higher degree
    of effectiveness and efficiency in its
    deployment
  • Recommendation 15 There is a strong case for the
    establishment and step-wise rollout of an
    Infrastructure Roadmap for South Africa.
  • Recommendation 16 Establish a National Advisory
    Panel on Cyber-infrastructure to deal with
    cyber-infrastructure at strategic and policy
    level.

24
Monitoring and Evaluation (I)
  • Assessment
  • Progress in improving the functioning of the NSI
    is currently still hampered by absence of an
    assigned responsibility for ensuring the
    availability, collation, maintenance (and even
    analysis) of the STI indicators (quantitative and
    qualitative) ME and planning of NSI.

25
Monitoring and Evaluation (II)
  • Assessment cont.
  • No entity currently has the capability to do
    system mapping, analysis, building, steerage,
    evaluation, learning and foresight for the NSI.

25
26
Monitoring and Evaluation (III)
  • Recommendation 17 ORIP should be a centralised
    facility to serve as a repository of evaluation
    information on the NSI, and an expert site for
    its distillation and distribution to inform
    strategy and steerage at the highest levels and
    more broadly.
  • Attention to foresight studies, as well as
    carefully designed social fabric studies.

27
Financing the NSI (I)
  • Assessment
  • Comparison of the 20082009 RD expenditure
  • data with those for 20072008 shows an
  • increase in total real spend of only 1.3,
    while
  • the total number of researchers and RD
  • personnel has generally been static, and
  • actually fell when expressed as a percentage of
  • the total employment in the country, to only 1.4
  • researchers per 1000 persons employed.

28
Financing the NSI (II)
  • Assessment cont.
  • The current incentive schemes are laudably
    investing about R600 million of government money
    in innovation projects of business/industry, most
    of it actually spent in HEIs and science
    councils.
  • The tax benefit for business RD activity that
    meets set criteria is being taken up too slowly.

29
Financing the NSI (III)
  • Recommendations 17, 18 and 19
  • Increase public resourcing of HE RD (using
    performance as key criterion).
  • Encourage and incentivise business/industry to
    increase its RD expenditure
  • The incentive schemes offered by the DTI and
    TIA/DST should be expanded.

30
Financing the NSI (IV)
  • Recommendation 20 Encourage government
    departments to improve service delivery through
    RDI, including the effective use of the annual
    survey of government expenditure on science and
    technology activities, to draw up prospective
    expenditure plans annually for such activities.
  • Recommendation 21 Everything possible must be
    done for South Africa to become the preferred
    destination on the African continent for
    RD-related foreign direct investment.
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