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AP World History I

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Title: AP World History I


1
Chapter 1The Early Civilizations
  • AP World History I

2
The Basics
  • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) Until about 14,000
    years ago (12,000 BCE)
  • Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) 12,000 BCE 8000
    BCE
  • Neolithic (New Stone Age) 8000 BCE ca. 3500
    BCE
  • Followed by Bronze Age and Iron Age

3
Characteristics
  • Paleolithic
  • Simple tool creation
  • Fire tamed around 750,000 years ago
  • 1.5 million people around 100,000 years ago
  • Homo Erectus emerges between 500,000 and 750,000
    years ago

4
Characteristics
  • Mesolithic
  • Improved tool making skills
  • Better weapons and cutting edges
  • Use of bone for needles.
  • Improved fishing

5
Characteristics
  • Neolithic
  • Invention of Agriculture
  • Creation of cities
  • Domestication of Animals
  • Concept of civilization

6
Human evolution
7
The Development of Agriculture
  • Human beings are able to settle in one spot
  • Allows humans the ability to focus on economic,
    political, and religious goals
  • Spawns a great increase in the number of people
    in the world
  • 6 to 8 million people during early Neolithic to
    about 100 million some 3000 years later!

8
The end of the Ice Age
  • Population increases
  • Big game animals retreatcauses a decline in the
    effectiveness of hunting
  • Increased dependence on wild grains, berries, and
    nuts sets the stage for the deliberate planting
    of seeds, and the ultimate improvement of crops
    through natural selection.

9
The Neolithic "revolution"
  • Combined old systems of hunting and gathering
    with new concepts of Agriculture.
  • Early agriculture could support many peoplefar
    more than hunting and gathering ever could.
  • Agriculture requires more regular work than
    Hunting and Gathering.
  • Larger populations freed some people for other
    specializations.
  • Basket-making
  • Pottery
  • Knowledge of science (weatherflooding, etc)

10
The Neolithic "revolution"
  • The Development of agriculture is driven by the
    following process
  • End of Ice Age
  • Ice melts, flooding the earths oceans, seas,
    rivers
  • Under ice, for thousands of years has been soil
    enriched by thousands of years of
    fertilizationuntouched!
  • Floods cause this highly fertilized soil (silt)
    to overflow the river banks
  • This silt becomes the highly charged and
    energized soil necessary for agricultural
    experimentation!

11
The Bronze Age
  • Development of agriculture causes faster
    development
  • By 4000 BCE we see the development of metal
    tools.
  • Copper at first
  • Bronze (more resilient) later
  • Improved Farming
  • Caused greater specialization
  • We still live in metal ages today
  • Bronze Age
  • Iron Age

12
Civilization
  • Tribes contained anywhere from 40-60 people
  • Slash and Burn Agriculture existed in parts of
    the American South and other parts of the world
  • Farm soil until its depleted
  • Advantages to staying in one place
  • Houses can be built
  • Wells can be built for water
  • Irrigation systems

13
Civilization
  • Economic surplus to form divisions of labor
  • Formal states
  • Cities
  • Development of Writing

14
The 8 features of Civilization
  1. Cities
  2. Well-Organized Central Government
  3. Complex Religions
  4. Job Specialization
  5. Social Classes
  6. Arts and Architecture
  7. Public Works
  8. Writings

15
Mesopotamia
  • The Worlds first civilization
  • Founded in the valley of Tigris and Euphrates
    Rivers
  • An example of completely independent social
    creation
  • Only occurs in China and Mesoamerica
  • Wheel had been invented for transportation, well
    established pottery industry, interesting
    artistic forms, farming needed irrigation, gave
    basis for complex political structures.
  • By 3500 BCE, the SUMERIANS developed a system of
    writing known as CUNEIFORM

16
Mesopotamia
17
Cuneiform
18
Cuneiform
19
Mesopotamia
  • Arts statues and frescoes adorned the temples of
    gods
  • Science founding of astronomy, and improved
    mathematical knowledge
  • Developed a number system based on units of 10,
    60 and 360.
  • What do those numbers represent for us?
  • Complex Religious rituals
  • Ziggurats monumental architecture
  • Polytheistic
  • Divine force was present in many natural objects
  • Belief in an afterlife of punishment

20
Mesopotamia
21
Mesopotamia
  • Organized City-States ruled by a king who claimed
    divine authority.
  • The King, noble class, and the priesthood
    controlled land which was worked by slaves.
  • Farmers learned about fertilizers, and adopted
    silver as a means of exchange.
  • Constant warfare in the region.
  • Sumerians
  • Akkadians
  • Babylonians

22
Mesopotamia
  • Babylonians
  • King Hammurabi introduces the Code of Hammurabi,
    an early codified law.
  • Established rules of procedure for courts of law
  • Regulated property rights
  • Set harsh punishments for crimes
  • Continual warfare by Semitic peoples, then
    Assyrians, and later the Persians

23
Egypt
  • Second civilization to spring uparound the NILE
    River forming by 3000 BCE
  • Less susceptible to invasion
  • Benefited from trade with Mesopotamia, but
    produced a unique culture due to some degree of
    isolation
  • The king, or pharaoh possessed immense power.
  • Influential in controlling the economy
  • Built tombs for themselvesthe pyramids
  • Control of Egypt spread up and down the Nile
  • The kingdom of Kush (southern Nile) invaded and
    ruled

24
Egypt
25
Egypt
26
Indus River and Chinese Civilization
  • Chinese Civilization (Huang He River)
  • Developed in considerable isolation
  • Extensive government that regulated the
    irrigation projects
  • By 2000 BCE, evidence of advanced technology and
    elaborate intellectual life.
  • Writing system of ideographic symbols
  • By 1500 BCE a line of Kings called the SHANG
    ruled
  • Indus River Valley Civilization
  • Civilization emerges by 2500 BCE
  • Many large cities, including Harappa and
    Mohenjo-Daro
  • Houses had running water
  • Writing has yet to be deciphered
  • Infiltration by Indo-Europeans and natural
    calamities result in destruction of civilization

27
Indus MapsIndia and China Resources
28
Mohenjo-Daro
29
Chinese RVC MapsChinese dynasty Art with maps
30
Heritage of RVC's
  • Monuments
  • Wheel
  • Taming of the horse
  • Usable alphabets
  • Writing implements
  • Key mathematical concepts
  • Well-organized monarchies
  • Bureaucracies
  • Calendars

31
Heritage of RVC's
  • Most RVCs were in decline by 1000 BCE
  • Phoenicians Around 1300 BCE produced a
    simplified alphabet with 22 letters, which was
    the predecessor of Greek and Roman alphabets
  • The Lydians introduce coined money
  • A Semitic group of people, the Jews, influenced
    by Babylonian Civilization settled near the
    Mediterranean around 1200 BCE and introduced
    monotheism.
  • Single god Jehovah guided the destiny of the
    Jewish people.
  • Forms the basis of the Hebrew Bible
  • Domination by foreign rulers from 772 BCE .
    Romans seize the state in 63 BCE
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