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Growing Grapes and their uses Rachel Peterson


Growing Grapes and their uses Rachel Peterson Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002 Introduction Grapes are the most common fruit and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Growing Grapes and their uses Rachel Peterson

Growing Grapes and their usesRachel Peterson
Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education
Curriculum Office June 2002
  • Grapes are the most common fruit and are also
    the oldest cultivated plant throughout the world.
    This presentation will define the grape and
    inform you on the general information,
    nutritional facts, and the many varieties of
    grapes. If your pondering growing grapes here, in
    Wisconsin, there is helpful information on how to
    do it and problems that may occur. I explain the
    parts of the plant, site selection, planting,
    pruning, harvesting and picking, and diseases.
    Lets start out by asking, What is a grape?

  • Grape (grap),n. derived from an Old French word
    "grape," meaning "bunch" or "cluster" also a
    kind of hook used to harvest grapes. Compare to
    the English word "grapple."

General Information
  • Grapes do not continue to ripen after they have
    been picked.
  • Woody vine
  • Perennial Portions
  • roots
  • trunk
  • perhaps cordons
  • Compound buds

More General Information
  • Grapes are about 80 percent water
  • Grapes also add fiber to the diet.
  • Red grapes are rich in quercetin, a newly
    discovered anticancer agent that the University
    of California tab studies have shown can suppress
    malignant cells before they form tumors.
  • The mineral "boron" (found in apples, grapes,
    grape juice and raisins) may retard bone loss in
    women after menopause. Also, boron helps women on
    ERT (estrogen replacement therapy) keep the
    estrogen in their blood longer.

Nutritional Facts
  • serving size 1 1/2 cups (138g/14.9oz)
  • Amounts Per Serving Daily Value
  • Calories 90
  • Calories from Fat 10
  • Total Fat og
  • Sodium 0mg 0
  • Potassium 270mg 8
  • Total Carbohydrate 24g 8
  • Dietary Fiber 1g 2
  • Sugars 23g
  • Protein 1g
  • Vitamin A 2
  • Vitamin C 25
  • Calcium 2
  • Iron 2

Varieties of Grapes
  • Grapes come in three basic colors green
    (sometimes called white), red and blue-black.
  • More than 50 kinds of grapes are currently in
  • Each variety has its own distinct color, taste,
    texture and history.  

Varieties of Grapes
  • PerletteThe first grape of the season, the
    Perlette is light in color - almost frosty green
    with a translucent cast the berries are almost
    round. Perlette means "little pearl" in French.

Varieties of Grapes
  • SugraoneThe Sugraone berry is bright green and
    elongated. The fruit offers a light, sweet flavor
    and a distinctive crunch.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Thompson SeedlessAlmost everyone is familiar
    with this grape's light green color, oblong
    berries, and sweet, juicy flavor. The variety may
    have originated in southern Iran.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Calmeria This grape carries the nickname "lady
    fingers," so called for its elongated,
    light-green and delicately sculpted berries. A
    winter treat, this seeded grape has a mild, sweet
    flavor with an unforgettable tang.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Flame SeedlessThe result of a cross between
    Thompson Seedless, Cardinal and several other
    varieties, the Flame Seedless is a round,
    crunchy, sweet grape with a deep-red color.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Red GlobeThe large, remarkable clusters of the
    Red Globe contain plum-size seeded berries. The
    Red Globe is popular for both eating and
    decorating during the holiday season.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Ruby SeedlessGrown commercially in the San
    Joaquin Valley (California) since 1968, the Ruby
    Seedless is a deep-red, tender-skinned grape.

Varieties of Grapes
  • EmperorLarge, deep-red clusters and a lasting
    flavor characterize this seeded variety that was
    first planted in California in 1863.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Beauty SeedlessOriginating in Davis, California,
    this firm, bluish-black grape has a spicy taste
    and a tender flesh. Beauty Seedless ripens very
    early and shows a distinctive blue-green

Varieties of Grapes
  • ExoticBorn in 1947 in Fresno, California,
    Exotic's berries are plump and juicy and grow in
    long, beautiful clusters. A cross between the red
    Flame Tokay and the Ribier, this seeded grape is
    crisp and mild in flavor.

Varieties of Grapes
  • RibierThis dark blue-black seeded grape crossed
    the Channel from Orleans, France, in 1860. The
    skins are firm and the taste is mild.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Fantasy SeedlessThese blue-black sweet berries
    are oval, thin-skinned and firm. Fantasy's
    conical clusters have medium-sized berries with
    pale green flesh and a mellow flavor.

Varieties of Grapes
  • Marroo SeedlessOriginating in Australia, the
    Marroo Seedless is a cross between the Carolina
    Blackrose and the Ruby Seedless. Bluish-black in
    color, the medium-large berries are firm and
    juicy with a mellow flavor. 

Varieties of Grapes
  • NiabellThis Concord-type variety features
    thick-skinned, round berries ranging in color
    from purple to black with an earthy, rich flavor.

Growing Grapes In Wisconsin
Parts of the Grape Plant
Site Selection and Preparation
  • Grapes require full sunlight.
  • Adequate drainage and moisture retention,
  • The best soils are loams or sandy loams with
    added organic matter.
  • Grapes grow best in soil with a pH range of 5.5
    to 6.5.
  • Rows should usually run north to south. This
    allows the plants gather the most sunlight and
    less wind damage will occur.

  • Plant your vines in early spring (as early as you
    can work the soil).
  • Grapes do not like weeds so till the soil well to
    get rid of competing weeds and grasses. Dig a
    nice big hole so the roots can spread out.
  • Plant in Spring or Summer.
  • Grapes need the summer heat to develop and will
    produce the best grapes late in the season.

Planting, continued
  • If possible arrange the rows in a North-South
    orientation to allow maximum exposure to the sun.
  • For backyard plantings, nine feet between rows is
  • For larger plantings, ten feet is suitable.
  • Water newly planted vines every day.
  • Plant in straight rows for easier managability,
    and to reduce trellis costs.
  • Spread the roots out when you plant, giving them
  • Once you plant the grape, prune it back to 3 buds

  • Before pruning, an average grapevine may have
    200 to 300 buds which are capable of producing
    fruit. If the vine is left unpruned, the number
    of grape clusters would be excessive. The vine
    would be unable to ripen the large crop or
    sustain adequate vegetative growth. The purpose
    of pruning is to grow yields of high quality
    grapes and to allow better growth for the
    following season.

  • 1) After pruning the first winter. The single
    cane is cut back and tied to the lower wire.
  • (2) After pruning the second winter. Two new
    canes of four or five buds each are tied on the
    bottom wire. A third new cane is tied up to the
    top wire and cut off.
  • (3) After pruning the third winter. Three of the
    arms (A) and the fruiting canes (B) have been
    formed. A cane (C) with four or five buds is left
    to establish the fourth arm.
  • (4) A fully formed vine after pruning the fourth
    winter. The arms (A) should be shorter than those
    shown. The vine consists of a single permanent
    trunk (T), four semi permanent fruiting arms (A),
    four annual fruiting canes (F), and four renewal
    spurs (S), with two buds on each.

Harvesting and Picking
  • After 3 or 4 years each vine will produce 12-15
    pounds of grapes (about 45 bunches).
  • Wait until they separate easy from the seeds to
  • Pick on a dry day, wet grapes spoil quickly.

  • Like people, plants can catch, spread and suffer
    from various diseases also.
  • Here is some information on certain diseases
    along with some solutions and cures.

Rootworm Damage to Grape Roots
  • Species of a leaf beetle
  • Seriously damages commercial vineyards
  • Larvae (according to the Webster dictionary) is
    the immature, wingless, and often wormlike
    feeding form that hatches from the egg of many
    insects, alters chiefly in size while passing
    through several molts, and is finally transformed
    into a pupa or chrysalis from which the adult

Rootworm, continued
  • Produces only one generation a year
  • Begins as an egg which is deposited under the
    bark of grape vines, by the adult female
  • It will spend nine to ten months in the immature
    larvae stage in the soil feeding on roots
  • As an adult, it feeds on grape foliage
  • An insecticide can get rid of these pests.

Black Rot
  • Rots fruit/turns it black.
  • Leaves covered with spots.
  • Use a fungicide.

  • Phylloxera is a yellow aphid (type of insect),
    which feeds on vine roots and leaves.The feeding
    causes galls to form on the developing leaves or
    roots. The aphids live on the surface of root
    galls and inside the leaf galls.
  • There is no known cure for phylloxera.

  • You are what you eat. If thats true, Im a big
    ass perlette grape!
  • Hope you didnt get too bored with this LONG,
    but informative, PowerPoint presentation
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