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Title: Argumentation:


1
Argumentation
  • Fighting with words

2
The Nature of the Argument
  • always grounded in reason (432).
  • seeks to be logical and to avoid fallacious
    reasoning (432).
  • does not involve trickery (432).
  • aims to be inclusive, to consider the
    controversy from all sides (432).
  • making certain concessions to those with other
    points of view is most often a matter of strength
    rather than weakness (432).

3
Aristotles Logos
  • deals with logical relationships within a text
    (435).
  • Logos aims at the most critical of audiences,
    those not subject to persuasion by pathos
    (feelings) or ethos (the character of the
    speaker) (436).

4
When we reason
  • We do so in two formal ways deductively and
    inductively (436).

5
Deduction
  • depends on the syllogistic form (436).

6
Syllogistic form
  • Example
  • All humans are mortal.
  • Socrates was a human.
  • Socrates was mortal.

7
Major Premise
  • The most general of the two and the most
    universally accepted as true (436).
  • All humans are mortal.

8
Minor Premise
  • moves us to a consideration of particulars
  • Socrates was a human.

9
Conclusion
  • Socrates was mortal.

10
A syllogism is valid and reliable
  • if the syllogism is constructed properly and its
    three terms (humans, mortals, Socrates) are
    distributed in accordance with the rules of
    logic, and if the two premises are reliable
    (436).

11
Reliable premises
  • A premise, a thesis, or an idea is said to be
    reliable when we are so convinced of its truth
    that we are willing to act on it (436).

12
Deductive logic
  • moving from the general to the specific (436).

13
Inductive logic
  • moving from the specific to the general (436).

14
Ethos
  • refers to the character of the speaker (437).
  • the audience is swayed because of the speakers
    authority in his or her fieldstature (437).

15
Pathos
  • an appeal to feeling (437).

16
Fallacies
  • an error in reasoning (438).

17
  • Common
  • Fallacies

18
Hasty generalization
  • reaching a conclusion based on too little
    evidence (438).

19
Hasty Generalization
  • Sometimes a writer will deliberately lead you to
    a conclusion by providing insufficient, selective
    evidence (126).

20
Example
  • Ping-pong is an extremely dangerous sport last
    year, my friend got hit in the eye with a
    ping-pong ball and almost lost his vision in that
    eye.

21
Stereotyping
  • making assumptions about things, places, or
    people based on too little evidence (438).

22
Circular reasoning
  • asserting one thing to explain the same thing
    or simply asserting the same idea in slightly
    different words (438).

23
Either-or-thinking
  • thinking that presents only two alternatives,
    thereby avoiding the vast spectrum of more
    reasonable possibilities that exist between the
    poles (438).

24
Ad Hominem
  • Latin for to the man
  • any kind of fallacious argument that criticizes
    an idea by pointing something out about the
    person who holds the idea, rather than directly
    addressing the actual merit of the idea
    (Hartzell 124).

25
Example
  • Of course that writer supports gun control shes
    a Democrat!

26
Argument from Authority
  • tempts us to agree with the writers assumptions
    based on the authority of a famous person or
    entity or on his or her own character

27
Example
  • It is absurd to believe that professional
    baseball players have used steroids because the
    most famous slugger of our time has repeatedly
    asserted that such a claim is false.

28
Appeal to Ignorance
  • based on the assumption that whatever has not
    been proven false must be true (125).

29
Example
  • No one can prove that the Loch Ness monster does
    not exist therefore, the Loch Ness monster
    exists.

30
Begging the Question
  • a fallacious form of argument in which someone
    assumes that parts (or all) of what the person
    claims to be proving are proven facts (125).

31
Example
  • The Loch Ness monster spoke to me in my dreams,
    so it must exist.

32
Non Sequitur
  • Latin for it doesnt follow.
  • a statement that does not relate logically to
    what comes before it (126).

33
Non Sequitur
  • In a non sequitur, there is no logical
    connection between the initial phrase and the one
    that follows it, so you shouldnt try to make
    one (126).

34
Example
  • If you really wanted to earn a 5 on the AP
    English Language and Composition exam, you
    wouldnt spend so much time reading Isabel
    Allendes novels.

35
False Dichotomy
  • consists of a consideration of only the two
    extremes when there are one or more intermediate
    possibilities (126).

36
Example
  • AP Calculus BC class is impossible either you
    get it or you dont.

37
Slippery Slope
  • arguments suggest dire consequences from
    relatively minor causes (126).

38
Example
  • If we stop requiring men to wear coats and ties
    in the dining room, pretty soon theyll start
    coming in dressed in beachwear.

39
Faulty Causality
  • refers to the (sometimes unintentional) setting
    up of a cause-and-effect relationship when none
    existsone event can happen after another without
    the first necessarily being the direct cause of
    the second (126).

40
Example
  • Violent crime among adolescents has risen in the
    past decade, and that is the result of increased
    sales of violent video games.

41
Straw Man Argument
  • consists of an oversimplification of an
    opponents argument to make it easier to attack
    (127).

42
Example
  • Students who want to eliminate the school uniform
    are exhibitionists who want to show off bare
    midriffs.

43
Sentimental Appeals
  • attempts to appeal to the hearts of readers (or,
    of course, listeners) so that they forget to use
    their minds (127).

44
Example
  • The assignment that I gave you last night was
    much too long, but just think how pleased your
    parents and I will be when you score a 5 on the
    AP exam. Think about the pride youll feel when
    tears of joy stream down our faces.

45
Red Herring
  • attempts to shift attention away from an
    important issue by introducing an issue that has
    no logical connection to the discussion at hand
    (127).

46
Example
  • My opponent talks about the poor quality of
    military intelligence, but this is a time for
    decisiveness, not for weakness. We must stick
    together and present a common front as the other
    nations look on. If we do not, we could
    jeopardize our position as a global leader.

47
Scare Tactics
  • used to frighten readers or listeners into
    agreeing with speaker often, when scare tactics
    are used, the speaker has no logical argument on
    which to fall back (127).

48
Example
  • My opponent talks about the need to explore stem
    cell research, but this would bring about an end
    to ethical uses of technology, and before long,
    scientists will be creating superracesthe Nazi
    dream of an Aryan Nation will ensue!

49
Bandwagon Appeals
  • encourages the listener to agree with a position
    because everyone else does. The logic goes
    something like this If everybody else is doing
    it, it must be all right (128).

50
Example
  • Its time for our county to repeal the ban on
    strip miningevery other county in the state has
    already done so!

51
Dogmatism
  • does not allow for discussion because the
    speaker presumes that his or her beliefs are
    beyond question essentially, the logic runs
    thusly Im correct because Im correct (128).

52
Example
  • We are members of the Wombat Party and, as such,
    know that we are right when we assert that
    Wombats are the best!

53
Equivocation
  • telling part of the truth, while deliberately
    hiding the entire truth typically, this is
    similar to lying by omission (128).

54
Example
  • Pink Panther movie Does your dog bite? The
    manager says, No. The dog bites Clouseau. He
    asks the manager, You told me that your dog does
    not bite. The manager says, Thats not my dog.

55
Faulty Analogy
  • an illogical, misleading comparison between two
    things (129).

56
Example
  • Why should we invade that country? Let me
    explain it to you like this. What if you looked
    out the window and saw a 20 bill in the street?
    Wouldnt you go outside and take it?
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