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PERSONALITY THEORIES

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PERSONALITY THEORIES Personality Theories BEHAVIORISTS (Skinner) PSYCHOANALYTIC (Freud, Neo-Freudians, Psychodynamic) SOCIAL COGNITIVE (Bandura, Mischel, Seligman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PERSONALITY THEORIES


1
PERSONALITY THEORIES
2
Personality Theories
  • BEHAVIORISTS (Skinner)
  • PSYCHOANALYTIC (Freud, Neo-Freudians,
    Psychodynamic)
  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE (Bandura, Mischel, Seligman)
  • HUMANISTIC (Rogers, Maslow)
  • BIOLOGICAL (Eysenck)
  • TRIAT (Allport, Catrell, Sheldon)

3
Skinner
  • Argued for determinism--behavior is fully
    determined by environmental stimuli.
  • Free will is but an illusionThere is no place
    in the scientific position for a self as a true
    originator or initiator of action.
  • Collection of response tendencies that are tied
    to various stimulus situations.

4
Social Cognitive Theories
  • Applies principles of learning, thinking and
    social influences
  • Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura)idea that
    internal mental events, external environmental
    events and overt behavior all influence one
    another. Your environment determines your
    behavior your behavior can change your
    environment.

5
Behavior
Environment
Beliefs
6
Bandura continued
Observational Learning Bobo doll experiment
Often considered the father of the cognitive
movement
7
Walter Mischel
  • Colleague of Bandura at Stanford (now at
    Columbia)
  • Extent to which situational factors govern
    behaviorcontroversy over the consistency of
    human behavior
  • Emphasizes and highlights situational
    determinants of behavior

8
Martin Seligman Julian Rotter
  • Learned Helplessness
  • Optimism
  • Julian Rotter--Locus of control (internal and
    external)

9
Humanists (Phenomenological)
  • Humans are essentially good
  • Motivated toward self-actualization
  • Maslow--Hierarchy of Needs
  • Carl RogersUnconditional Positive RegardSelf
  • Holism (considers whole person like Gestalt
  • Phenomenological--everyones individual frame of
    reference/point of view

10
Biological
  • Hans Eysenck--personality structure as a hierachy
    of traits
  • Three high order traits (Extraversion,
    neuroticism and psychoticism)

11
Trait Theorists
  • Gordon Allport--
  • Personal traits (dispositions)--concrete, easily
    recognized,consistencies in our behavior
  • Common traits (culturally)--liberal/conservative
  • Central traits (building blocks)--5 to 10

12
Allport (continued)
  • Secondary traits(preferences, attitudes)
  • Cardinal traits (define life)Mother
    Theresa--religious service
  • Allport was so right about so many things that
    his ideas have simply passed on into the spirit
    of the times. Influenced many others.
  • Humanist????

13
Other Trait Theorists...
  • Sheldon--Body types (endomorph, ectomorph and
    mesomorph)
  • Big Five Personality Factors (Emotional
    Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness,
    Conscientiousness)
  • Cattell--16 traits

14
Sheldon
  • Ectomorph - EndodermThis is known to develop
    into the digestive tact which consists of the
    intestine, stomach. Heart lungs etc. this
    somatotype is also the innermost layer of the
    embryo. The personality traits associated with
    the endoderm body type is tolerance, love,
    comfort. In a word all the emotions that have to
    deal with a great deal of affection. The body
    type is considered to be fat and can easily be
    overweight. The love for people and the intimate
    relationship with food is also another trait of
    this personality.
  • Mesomorph - MesodermThis is the middle layer
    which in turn develops into the muscle, blood
    vessels, bone etc. In terms of body shape with
    this type of somatotype, Sheldon concluded that
    the physic of this body is all about muscle.
    These are well defined muscle tones. In terms of
    personality this relates to very energetic,
    courageous, active, aggressive, etc. all this can
    be seen as the personality of the Alpha male.
  • Endomorph - EctodermThis is naturally the last
    layer. It has its association or develops are
    that it forms the nervous system, skin and hair.
    These are people that are considered to be
    underweight because they are so slim. They are
    often the intelligent nerds and their personality
    traits are that highly self-aware therefore they
    are also very sensitive with an air of an
    artistic nature to them. In a way they are
    societys introverts because of their shy and
    timid nature.

15
Personality tests
  • Objective Tests
  • MMPI
  • Myers-Briggs
  • Keirsey-Bates
  • www.allhealth.com
  • Http//keirsey.com
  • Projective tests
  • Rorschach
  • TAT (Murray)

16
General Personality Information
17
Issues in Personality Theories
Free will or determinism Master of our fate, or victim to destiny?
Nature or Nurture Inherited or shaped by environment
Past, present or future When is personality developed? What influences are there based on our past, present and future experiences?
18
Issues in Personality Theories
Uniqueness or universality Are there patterns or are we all individually unique?
Equilibrium or growth? Is our goal to reduce tension or are we motivated by need to reach our potential?
Optimism or Pessimism Are humans basically good or evil?
19
  • Psychosexual
  • Stages of
  • Development

20
Stages of Development
  • Freud believed that personality is formed during
    childhood.
  • Our past childhood experiences are powerful
    influences on our present personalities

21
  • The stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and
    Genital) represent patterns of gratifying our
    basic needs and satisfying our drive for physical
    pleasure
  • Insufficient or excess gratification during any
    stage could cause a person to reflect the stage
    throughout life.

22
Stages
Oral (0-18 mo.) Pleasure center is mouth sucking, chewing, biting.
Anal (18 mo-36 mo) focus on gaining control, bowel and bladder elimination retention as form of control.
Phallic (3-6 yr) Pleasure zone is in the genitals, focus on coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Latency (6-puberty) Repressed sexual feelings
Genital (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests
23
Stage Issues
  • During the Phallic Stage, The Oedipus complex
    occurs due to boys feelings of guilt for love of
    mother and fear of castration.
  • During Oral Stage, deprivation or overindulgence
    may result in adult oral fixations or have
    dependence issues

24
  • If Anal Stage is not resolved, may result in an
    anal expulsive (messy, unorganized) or anal
    retentive (controlled compulsively neat)
    personality

25
  • Elements
  • of
  • Personality

26
THE ICEBERG CORRELATION
Id - Pleasure Principle
Ego - Reality Principle
Super Ego - Moral Principle
27
Elements of the Personality
  • ID
  • Unconcious energy
  • Basic drives
  • Immediate gratification
  • Pleasure Principle
  • Instinctual/biological
  • Libidinal Energy

28
Elements of the Personality
  • EGO
  • Partially conscious
  • Cope with real world
  • Gratifies ID in realistic ways
  • Reality Principle
  • Logical/Rational
  • Struggles to reconcile ID Superego

29
Elements of the Personality
  • SUPEREGO
  • Partially conscious
  • Ideal behavior
  • Moral Principle
  • Conscience

30
THE ICEBERG CORRELATION
the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden
Conscious Awareness small part above
surface (Preconscious)
Repression banishing unacceptable thoughts
passions to unconscious Dreams Slips
31
Expressions of the Unconscious
  • The work we choose
  • The beliefs we hold
  • Daily habits
  • Troubling symptoms
  • Jokes
  • Dreams
  • Slips of the tongue
  • Accidents

32
  • Psychoanalysis and
  • Freud

33
Freuds Psychoanalytical
  • Discovered the unconscious
  • Used hypnosis and then free association to unlock
    the unconscious
  • Three levels of the mind unconscious,
    preconscious, and conscious.
  • Freud believed we are most influenced by our
    unconscious.
  • Personality results from our efforts to resolve
    conflict between pleasure seeking impulses and
    internalized social restraints.

34
Psychoanalytic Personality Tests
  • Goal to tap into the unconscious.
  • Projective Tests user tells a story or gives a
    description based on an ambiguous stimulus.
  • Examples
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) share inner
    feelings through stories made up about ambiguous
    scenes.
  • Rorschach inkblot descriptions of inkblots
    reflect inner feelings and conflicts.
  • Criticisms
  • Reliability? NO Validity? NO
  • No universal scoring system or training system

35
Neo - Freudians
36
Neo - Freudians
  • Accepted Freuds basic ideas
  • Id, ego, superego.
  • Importance of conscious.
  • Shaping of personality during childhood.
  • Dynamics of anxiety defense mechanisms.
  • Differences
  • More emphasis on conscious.
  • Less emphasis on sexual motivations.
  • More emphasis on noble motives social
    interactions.

37
Neo - Freudians
  • Horney
  • Dependent childs sense of helplessness creates
    anxiety
  • Triggers desire for love security
  • Criticized Freuds gender bias

38
Neo - Freudians
  • Alder
  • Childhood social conflicts influence personality
    development
  • Inferiority complex

39
Neo - Freudians
  • Jung
  • More emphasis on unconscious than other neo
    Freudians
  • Unconscious contains more than just negative, but
    unrealized talents, gifts, creativities
    passions.
  • Believed in a Collective Unconscious Part of
    unconscious shared by all. Archetypes, the
    building blocks of the soul which are inherited
    and shared by all, live here.

40
Humanistic Perspective
  • Positive Approach
  • Sense of Self center of personality
  • Goal foster personal growth
  • Emphasis human potential
  • Self concept shapes personality

41
Maslow
  • The self actualized person
  • Self aware self accepting
  • Open spontaneous
  • Loving caring
  • Secure
  • Creates deep relationships
  • Is moved by personal peak experiences
  • Has the courage to be unpopular

42
Carl Rogers
  • A growth promoting climate
  • Genuineness openness
  • Acceptance unconditional positive regard
  • Empathy sharing our feelings and
    reflecting our meanings
  • Positive self concept occurs when
  • IDEAL self ACTUAL self

43
Self-Esteem
  • People with higher
  • self-esteem typically
  • have lt sleepless nights
  • lt likely to conform under pressure or use drugs
  • more persistent at difficult tasks
  • ltshy lonely

44
Criticisms of Humanistic Approach
  • Concepts vague and subjective
  • Individualism can lead to self indulgence,
    selfishness, arrogance pride.
  • Ignores our human capacity for evil.

45
Social Cognitive Perspective
  • Applies principles of learning, thinking social
    influence
  • Emphasizes importance of external events and how
    we interpret them.
  • Emphasizes our sense of personal control

46
Reciprocal Determinism
  • Bandura process of interacting with our
    environment
  • 1. Different people choose different
    environments
  • 2. Different people interpret react
    differently to situations events.
  • 3. Our personalities create situations to which
    we react. Ex self fulfilling prophesy,
    expectations.

47
Who controls your world?
  • Do you see yourself as controlling of, or
    controlled by your environment?
  • External locus of control perception that
    outside factors determine ones fate.
  • Internal locus of control perception that one
    has more control over own fate. Typically these
    people achieve more in schools, act more
    independently, are less depressed, in better
    health and cope with stress better.

48
Learned Helplessness
  • Those who feel helpless oppressed often view
    control as external.
  • When traumatic events occur and people feel as if
    they have no control, they often learn
    helplessness, which can generalize to other
    situations.

49
Criticism
  • Too much focus on situations, not enough focus on
    persons inner traits
  • SCs argue that our traits emotions shine
    through in our reactions responses.

50
Trait Perspective
  • Describes Personality based on
  • Characteristic Behaviors
  • Conscious Motives
  • Describes, doesnt explain
  • Basically a classification system

51
Trait Tests
  • Myers Briggs Test - Based on Jungs personality
    types
  • Extravert vs. Intravert
  • Thinking vs. Feeling
  • Judging vs. Perceiving
  • Sensing vs. Intuitive

52
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  • Objective, normed personality inventory with
    validity scales for faking lying.
  • 10 scales
  • 1. Hypochondriasis 6. Schizophrenia
  • 2. Depression 7. Hypomania
  • 3. Social Introversion 8. Hysteria
  • 4. Psychopathic Deviancy 9. Paranoia
  • 4. Masculinity/Femininity 10. Psychasthenia

53
Biology Personality
  • Low brain arousal results in more extraversion
  • Overactive Autonomic Nervous System results in a
    more emotionally unstable personality
  • Inactive frontal lobe area results in a more
    extraverted personality
  • Genetics influence personality

54
Trait Perspective Criticism
  • Person-situation controversy Do traits persist
    over time and across situations?
  • Are behaviors consistent from one situation to
    the next?
  • Does trait perspective result in labeling
    pigeonholing?
  • Trait Perspective actually attempts to predict
    AVERAGE behavior over many situations to
    determine personality.
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