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Jimmy Carter


... Panama Canal Camp David Accords Iran-Hostage Crisis Slide 6 Ronald Reagan Reaganomics Peace through strength Soviet-Afghan War Slide 11 Iran Contra Affair ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter
  • 1976-1980

Department of Energy
  • New federal agency to encourage Americans to
    conserve oil and use more renewable energy

Panama Canal
  • 1903 US seized Panama Canal Zone
  • To show world US was no longer imperialist,
    Carter negotiated a new treaty with Panamanians
  • Dec 31, 1999 transfer of control to Panama
  • China has 25 year lease on canal

Camp David Accords
  • Historic peace treaty between Israel and Egypt
  • Israel withdraw from Sinai Peninsula
  • Egypt recognizes Israel and allows passage in
    Suez canal

Iran-Hostage Crisis
  • Since 1953- animosity towards US
  • Iranian Premier Mohammad Mossadeq was ousted from
    power by CIA replaced with Mohammad Reza Shah
  • Shah- negotiated oil deals with US
  • Introduced western influences
  • 1979- forced to flee
  • Carter promised Iran/Ayatollah Khomeini that the
    Shah would not be let in the US
  • Shah had heart problems
  • Asked US to allow him in for medical treatment
  • To Iranians, seemed that US again interfering
  • Could now set Shah up with more US power to
    invade Iran

  • Frustrations boiled over
  • November 1979 radicals seized US Embassy took
    63 Americans hostage
  • Carter worked to negotiate their release
  • Also tried rescue mission it failed 8 servicemen
  • 52 hostages held for 444 days
  • Not freed until Carter left office

Ronald Reagan
  • 1980-1988

  • Cutting taxes for corporations and wealthy
  • To avoid major deficit had to cut programs
  • Food stamp program
  • Medicare payments
  • Student loans
  • School lunch program
  • Could not balance budget gave up
  • Decided that cutting taxes and building up the
    military were most important
  • Created largest budget deficit in history

Peace through strength
  • No negotiations with Soviets
  • Huge military build-up
  • Soviet economy would collapse trying to keep up

Soviet-Afghan War
  • Dec 1979- USSR invaded Afghanistan to protect a
    pro-communist govt
  • Carter sent 30 billion in military aid
  • Reagan sent 570 million more
  • Trained guerrillas
  • Promised to help rebuild
  • Afghans saw war as fighting the Soviets for us
  • Very similar to Vietnam for USSR
  • Could not find enemy
  • Withdrew in 1988
  • Heavy toll on Soviet resources

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Iran Contra Affair
  • Sandinistas (pro-socialists) had overthrown
    pro-American dictator in 1979 in Nicaragua
  • US feared communist influence in Central America
  • Had begun secretly arming anti-communist
    guerrilla fighters (Contras) in Nicaragua
  • Congress found out and banned further aid
  • Aid continued secretly
  • To fund the rebels US sold weapons to Iran
    hoping to free American hostages in Middle East
    profits sent to contras
  • Nov 1986- Congress found out about these actions
  • Many testified to Congress about covering up
  • Raegan admitted knowing about sales to Iran, but
    not that went to Contras

Star Wars
  • Nickname given to Reagans Strategic Defense
    Initiative (SDI)
  • Military system that could intercept and destroy
    incoming missiles

Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Reforms to economy
  • INF Treaty
  • Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces
  • 1st treaty to call for destruction of nuclear

George H.W. Bush
  • 1989-1993

No New Taxes
  • Campaign Pledge

Berlin Wall
  • Comes down Nov. 9, 1989

Soviet Union Collapses
  • Gorbachev overthrown August 1991
  • Boris Yeltsin took control
  • Coup collapsed
  • Gorbachev took control again
  • Soviet Republics declared their independence from
  • Gorbachev announced end of USSR in Dec 1991
  • Most republics joined Russian Federation of

  • Persian Gulf War
  • August 2, 1990 Iraq/Saddam Hussein invaded
  • Claimed oil fields in Kuwait belonged to Iraq
  • US feared this would lead to invasion of Saudi
    Arabia (oil rich)

  • 5 months of talks/negotiations with United
  • UN demanded Iraq withdraw from Kuwait
  • Hussein Refused
  • Jan 16, 1991 devastating air assault

  • Feb 24, 1991 ground assault (largest tank battle
    since WWII)
  • US takes over 30,000 prisoners within hours

  • Feb 28, 1991 Hussein agrees to withdraw from
    Kuwait and to all UN inspections
  • War is over
  • UN Casualties less than 300
  • more than 100,000 Iraqis died
  • Bushs approval rating skyrockets
  • 89 ?

  • Raised taxes to stop growing deficit
  • Americans felt Bush lied approval rating drops
  • Election of 1992
  • Republicans Bush 37 of the vote
  • Democrats Clinton 43 of the vote
  • Independent Perot 19 of the vote
  • Split in Republican Vote
  • (1912)

Bill Clinton
  • 1993-2001

  • Economic successes
  • Highest economic growth in history
  • Unemployment an inflation fell to lowest levels
    in 40 years
  • Stock market took off
  • Crime rates fell

  • Foreign Efforts
  • Bosnia and Serbia ethnic cleansing
  • Bosnia 3 groups competing for power (Orthodox
    Christian Serbs, Catholic Croatians, and Bosnian
  • Serbs began to slaughter Muslims who would not
  • 100,000s killed
  • Clinton convinced NATO troops to move into the
    region to force negotiations
  • Dayton Accords peace treaty between 3 groups

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  • Serbia Small territory( Kosovos Albanians
    wanted independence)
  • Slobodan Milosevic (Serbian leader) ordered
    attacks/slaughter of Albanians
  • 100,000s killed
  • Clinton convinced NATO to send in troops
  • Milosevic removed his troops

  • Impeachment
  • Independent council Ken Starr was investigating a
    real-estate scandal Whitewater
  • Discovered Clinton had had an improper
    relationship with an intern and had lied about it
    under oath (perjury)

  • House of Representatives passed two articles of
  • One obstruction of justice
  • One perjury
  • Vote was split along party lines
  • Democrats felt republicans were on a witch hunt
  • Republicans argued that everyone should be held
  • Was not voted out of office
  • Mixed legacy strong economy under Clinton, but
    many felt he had disgraced the office

  • Election of 2000
  • Republicans George W. Bush 47.9
    of popular vote
  • Democrats Al Gore 48.4 of popular
  • Gore promised to continue economic success
  • Bush promised a return to dignity in the White
  • Both promised tax cuts and education reforms

  • FLORIDA unclear who had received the electoral
  • Florida had 25 votes, so whoever won Florida
    became president
  • Florida law required a recount b/c votes so close
  • Many ballots thrown out- computer could not read
  • Gore asked for a manual recount
  • CHADS make voting unclear
  • Florida Supreme Court allows continued recounts
    b/c of unclear results

  • Bush asks US Supreme Court to intervene
  • Bush v Gore
  • Supreme court argued that hand recounts violated
    equal protection clause of 14th amendment- not
    all votes counted the same way
  • Ruled 5-4 to stop counting Bush had 537 more
    votes than Gore in Florida
  • Bush was declared the winner
  • Gore conceded

George W. Bush
  • 2001-2009

  • September 11, 2001
  • Terrorists from Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia,
    trained by Osama bin Laden, flew 3 planes into
    the World Trade Centers and the Pentagon
  • A 4th plane crashed into a Pennsylvania field
  • Believed to have been headed to White House
  • Bin Laden had trained in Afghanistan in
    Soviet-Afghan war
  • Created Al-Qaeda (the base)
  • Organized extremists to launch attacks against
    Americans in the Middle East
  • Frustrations with America
  • Bases in Saudi Arabia
  • Support for Israel
  • Interference in Middle East

  • Defining point of Bush Presidency
  • Launches attack on Afghanistans ruling govt
    The Taliban
  • Taliban Extremist govt aiding Al Qaeda
  • October 7, 2001 US begins bombing targets in
  • Also dropped food and medical supplies to the
  • Taliban govt collapsed by December
  • US began setting up a new/democratic government
  • US still in Afghanistan
  • Taliban gaining ground currently

  • Axis of Evil Iraq, Iran, North Korea
  • Bush considered Iraq biggest threat
  • Believed Hussein was hiding WMDs
  • UN sent in weapons inspectors
  • Found nothing
  • Bush felt Hussein was hiding WMDs, was lying to
    world and defying UN
  • Invasion of Iraq March 20, 2003
  • May 1, 2003 Bush announced Mission
    Accomplished major fighting over, US would begin
    rebuilding Iraq
  • Still in Iraq today fighting

  • North Korea has nuclear weapons
  • Iran developing nuclear technology
  • Osama Bin Laden still free
  • Banking/Mortgage crisis
  • Uncertain legacy for George W. Bush

Barack Obama
  • 2009-present

Election of 2008
  •  Democrat
  • Barack Obama/Joe Biden
  • Republican
  • John McCain/Sarah Palin
  • Barack Obama 1st African American President in US

Presidency to this point
  • Banking/Mortgage Crisis
  • War over in Iraq
  • War still in Afghanistan
  • Health Care Reform
  • Osama Bin Laden killed
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