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Socialization

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Socialization Chapter 4 The first part of our lives is ruined by our parents and the second half by our children.--Clarence Darrow Resocialization Most effective when ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Socialization


1
Socialization
  • Chapter 4
  • The first part of our lives is ruined by our
    parents
  • and the second half by our children.--Clarence
    Darrow

2
The Role of Socialization
  • Socialization-learning the attitudes, values and
    actions appropriate to individuals as members of
    a particular culture.
  • Personality- the sum total of behaviors,
    attitudes, beliefs, and values that are
    characteristic of an individual
  • No two individuals have exactly the same
    personalities
  • Continue to develop throughout their lifetime

3
How do you become you?
4
Heredity is vital to development
  • How to study?.Twins!
  • Preliminary results lean to both heredity and
    environment
  • One study of identical twins reared apart found
  • 1. Both chain smoked the same brand
  • 2. Chewed their fingernails
  • 3. Same model blue Chevrolet
  • 4. Same dogs names
  • Differences between twins
  • Attitudes, values, friends, drinking habits
  • Similarities between twins
  • Temperaments, voice patterns, nervous habits

5
Perhaps both?
  • Most sociologists believe that personality and
    social behavior result from a combination of
    heredity and environmental factors.
  • Almost every example given can be attributed to
    both forms of personality development.

6
What traits can be both Nature and Nurture?
  • Personalities
  • Athleticism
  • Competition
  • Religion
  • Slavery
  • WHAT ELSE?

7
Personality Development
CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
8
Personality Development
  • HEREDITY
  • BIRTH ORDER
  • Provides biological needs
  • Places limits on what is possible but does not
    determine behavior
  • Aptitudes capacity to learn a particular body of
    knowledge
  • Inherited aptitudes can be encouraged or
    discouraged by parents
  • Children with siblings often have a different
    view of the world than do only children
  • Influences personality development
  • First born- achievement oriented and responsible
    conservative in thinking
  • Last born- better in social relationships,
    affectionate, friendly risk-takers, intellectual
    and social rebels

9
Personality Development
  • PARENTS
  • CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Influenced by characteristics of your parents
    affected by
  • Age of parents
  • Differences between parents
  • Education
  • Religion
  • Economic Status
  • Cultural heritage
  • Occupation
  • Cultures give rise to model personalities that
    are typical and valued by members of society
    affected by
  • Gender
  • Subcultural differences

10
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11
THINK PAIR SHARE
  • Write down 5 positive things about yourself
  • 1-
  • 2-
  • 3-
  • 4-
  • 5-
  • Are these products of sociobiology or
    socialization?

12
  • What would happen if a child was reared in total
    isolation? How would they develop a
    personality?

13
Isabelle
  • First six years, lived in almost total seclusion
  • Little contact with people, exception was her
    mother, who could neither speak nor hear
  • Isabelles mothers parents were deeply ashamed
    of the illegitimate birth kept her hidden away
  • Isabelle her mother escaped
  • Ohio authorities discovered her in 1938 age 6

14
Isabelle
  • Isabelle could not speak made croaking sounds
    communicated with simple gestures
  • Strong fear of people
  • Reacted like a wild animal when confronted with
    an unfamiliar person
  • Scored infant level on maturity tests at 6 yrs.

15
Isabelle
  • Researchers developed a systematic training
    program to help Isabelle adapt to life
  • After a few days- she made her first attempt to
    verbalize
  • After two months, she could pass the maturity
    tests at a 6 yr. old level
  • After 9 months-identify words and speak in
    sentences
  • At 14 years in school, well adjusted in the 6th
    grade

16
Genie
  • In 1970, L.A. social workers become aware of a 13
    year old girl who had been neglected and abused
  • Spent most of her life isolated and in a closet-
    caged like an animal
  • Physically and cognitively impaired
  • Team started to work with her to try to recover
    what had been lost
  • Genies linguistic abilities were severely and
    irreversibly restrictedmental retardation.

17
Different ideas of SELF
  • Locke
  • Cooley
  • Mead
  • Piaget
  • Freud

18
Lockes Tabula Rasa
  • Born as a clean slate
  • Personalities are developed through experience
  • Anyone can be socialized to become a member of a
    given society despite biological influences

19
Charles Horton Cooleys Looking Glass Self
  • The self is the product of our interactions with
    other people
  • Process of developing a self-identity
  • 1. Imagine how we present ourselves to
    others-relatives, friends, strangers
  • 2. Imagine how others evaluate us-attractive,
    shy, intelligent, strange
  • 3. We develop some sort of feeling about
    ourselves-such as respect or shame

20
Cooleys Looking Glass Self
  • Individuals imagination of how others view him
    or her has an effect
  • Can develop self identities based on incorrect
    perceptions
  • Example Incorrect reaction to a teachers
    criticism Student thinks teacher views him as
    stupid - misconception converted into negative
    self-identity
  • 1. The teacher criticized me
  • 2. The teacher must think Im stupid
  • 3. Therefore, I am stupid

21
George Herbert Meads Stages of the Self
  • Studied the Self
  • Developed a useful model of how the self
    emerges
  • Role-Taking
  • 3 distinct stages...

22
1. Preparatory Stage
  • Children imitate the people around them
  • Example bang on wood if parent doing carpentry,
    throw a ball if older sibling is doing the same
  • As they grow older-they become more familiar with
    using symbols
  • Gestures, objects, language that form the basis
    for communication

23
2. Play Stage
  • Child is able to understand other peoples
    actions
  • Child becomes able to pretend that they are other
    people (dress up, play school, etc.)
  • Role taking
  • Process of mentally assuming the perspective of
    another

24
3. Game Stage
  • Begins around 8 or 9 years old
  • Child starts to consider several tasks or
    relationships simultaneously
  • Able to understand their social position and the
    social position of those around them
  • Ex. Aware of other students in a classroom
    setting
  • Generalized Others- Childs awareness of
    attitudes, viewpoints and expectations of a
    society
  • A child will learn courtesy is not to please a
    parent, but is a widespread social value endorsed
    by parents, teachers, friends and religious
    leaders

25
Meads Theory of the Self
  • When born, the self is a privileged, central
    position
  • Children tend assume the focus is on them and
    find it difficult to understand others points of
    view Egocentric
  • As we develop, this fades but never completely
    disappears
  • Significant others those people who are most
    important to the development of the self

26
Jean Piagets Theory of the Self
  • There are four stages in the development of
    childrens thought processes
  • 1. Sensorimotor - Young children use their
    senses to make discoveries-by touch they discover
    their hands are part of themselves
  • 2. Preoperational Children use words and
    symbols to distinguish objects and ideas
  • 3. Concrete operational Children engage in
    more logical thinking
  • 4. Formal operational - Adolescents are capable
    of sophisticated abstract thought and deal with
    ideas and values in a logical way

27
Sigmund Freuds Theory of the Self
  • 3 parts to the Conscious Self
  • 1. Id
  • What you WANT to do
  • Acts on Pleasure Principle demands instant
    gratification
  • Pays no attention to the laws or needs of others
  • The Id is inborn infant needs
  • The id a primitive part of the personality that
    pursues only pleasure and instant gratification.

28
Sigmund Freuds Theory of the Self
  • 2. Superego
  • What you SHOULD do
  • Defines and tells us what society says we should
    do
  • Acts on Reality Principle
  • The superego contains our social conscience and
    through the experience of guilt and anxiety when
    we do something wrong, it guides us towards
    socially acceptable behavior.

29
Sigmund Freuds Theory of the Self
  • 3. Ego
  • What you WILL do
  • Satisfies the id, but understands we cannot
    always get what we want
  • The ego that part of the personality that is
    aware of reality and is in contact with the
    outside world. It is the part that considers the
    consequences of an action and deals with the
    demands of the id and superego.

30
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31
Anticipatory Socialization
  • Anticipatory Socialization the processes of
    socialization in which a person rehearses for
    future positions, occupations, social
    relationships
  • The culture functions better if the norms,
    values, behavior is associated with the social
    position before actually assuming that status
  • Example Families with a family business child
    begins learning process at an early age

32
Anticipatory Socialization
  • In India, the families of Snakers
    (snake-charmers) introduce their children to it
    at the age of 5
  • Boys learn how to catch snakes and the habits of
    the different species
  • Matter of intense pride when a boy follows in his
    father and grandfathers footsteps

33
Resocialization
  • Discard former behavior patterns and accept new
    ones
  • Commonly occurs where there is an external effort
    to change a person
  • Reform schools
  • Therapy groups
  • Prisons
  • Religious conversion settings

34
Resocialization
  • Most effective when it occurs within the total
    institution - regulate all aspects of a persons
    life under a single authority
  • Total Institutions-prisons, military, mental
    hospitals, convents

35
Total Institution
  • Totally cut off from rest of society - Goffman
  • Four Common Traits
  • 1. All aspects of life are conducted in the same
    place under the control of the single authority
  • 2. Any activities conducted are in the company
    of others in the same circumstances
  • 3. The authorities devise rules and schedule
    activities without consulting participants
  • 4. All aspects of life are designed to
    fulfill the purpose of the organization
  • ALL INDIVIDUALITY IS LOST !

36
Degradation Ceremony
  • When entering prison-stripped of jewelry,
    clothing, personal possessions
  • Personal name is taken away and given number
  • Individual becomes secondary and invisible

37
Agents of Socialization
  • 1. Family - Teach gender roles and expectations
  • Primary agents of socialization
  • 2. School - Conflict theorists contend that
    schools foster competition through rewards and
    punishment - someone learning a skill may feel
    stupid because they do not learn it fast enough
  • 3. Peer Group - Teenagers imitate their friends
    - ease transition to adulthood
  • 4. Mass Media and Technology
  • 32 under 7 have their own TVs
  • 53 of children 12-18 have their own TVs
  • Television promotes the values of a given
    society Europe vs. U.S.
  • 5. Workplace - Behave appropriately in an
    occupation
  • 6. The State - Individual as a citizen

38
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39
The Societal View of BeautyTHINK PAIR SHARE
  • What is your view of beauty?
  • Boys list the attributes of a girl that makes her
    beautiful. Keep it clean!
  • Girls do the same for boys. Keep it clean!
  • Discussion-
  • 1. How do the boys view of beauty differ from
    the girls?
  • 2. Do you think the roles society has taught
    you play a part in your responses?
  • 3. What is our societal view of beauty?
  • 4. Do you make an attempt to conform to the
    societal view?
  • 5. What was the societal view of beauty in the
    past?
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