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Wildlife Policy

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Wildlife Policy Wildlife Commodification (Fishing, Hunting, Nature) Ivory billed woodpeckers, Flying Asian carp, & Biotechnology Ambivalence Who is in charge? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wildlife Policy


1
Wildlife Policy
  • Wildlife Commodification (Fishing, Hunting,
    Nature)
  • Ivory billed woodpeckers, Flying Asian carp,
    Biotechnology

2
Ambivalence
  • Who is in charge?
  • What are we talking about?
  • Where are they(?) located?
  • How do we treat them?
  • Wildlife owned by the state in its sovereign
    capacity "in trust for the public
  • Personal property - when killed, also pets,
    vermin
  • A Guide to the Laws and Treaties of the United
    States for Protecting Migratory Birds (US Fish
    Wildlife Service)
  • Importation of Pets and other animals into the
    United States (Center for Disease Control)

3
Spectrum of Ambivalence
  • Individuals ----- Species (Populations) --------
    Assemblages
  • Domesticated Feral Commensals
    ---------------------- Wild
  • Urban ---------- Agricultural --------- Forestry
    ----- Wilderness
  • Hunting/Fishing -------------------------------
    Livestock
  • Zoos
  • Research animals
  • New Life Forms
  • Game - non-game - fur-bearing - threatened or
    endangered - exotic or invasive

4
Legal/Ethical Rights of Non-Humans
  • Animal Rights (Wikipedia)
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
  • Animal Rights (Gary L. Francione, Rutgers
    University)
  • Should trees have standing? Christopher Stone
  • A Wilderness Bill of Rights William O Douglas
  • John F. Reiger, American Sportsmen and the
    Origins of Conservation (Univ. of Okla. Press ed.
    1986)
  • George Bird Grinnell Charles Sheldon eds
    Hunting and Conservation (New York Arno Press
    1970)
  • The Commodification of Wildlife in Yellowstone
    National Park (Shannon Bowen)
  • Commodification of Nature (Wildwilderness.org)
  • Commodifying what nature? Noel Castree

5
Ownership of Nature
  • Thomas A. Lund, British Wildlife Law Before the
    American Revolution Lessons From The Past, 74
    MICH. L. REV. 49, 53-55 (1975)
  • Thomas A. Lund, Early American Wildlife Law, 51
    N.Y.U. L. REV. 703, 719 (1976)
  • James A. Tober Who Owns the Wildlife? (1981)
  • Who owns the animals? (Montanans for Multiple
    Use)
  • Who owns wildlife? (Paul Matthews)
  • Who owns the seeds? (Wildlifegardeners.org)

6
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7
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8
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9
A Production Spectrum
10
Land Water Base for Wildlife
  • Public
  • Federal
  • State
  • Local Government county, municipality
  • Private
  • Individual
  • Corporations
  • Public
  • Private
  • Nonprofit

11
USDA Forest Service
12
  • Public Land
  • National Parks
  • State Public Lands (Minnesota Department of
    Natural Resources)
  • Regional Parks (Metropolitan Council)
  • County Lands (Dakota County)
  • Private Land - preserve areas and regulate
    activities
  • Agriculture
  • Forests
  • Special prairie remnants, wetlands, golf
    courses, vacant land, urban areas

13
US Department of the Interior
  • Bureau of Land Management - 261 million surface
    acres
  • National Park System - 83.6 million acres (4.3
    million acres privately owned)
  • Maps of Parks Monuments (University of Texas)
  • Public Use Statistics
  • Fish Wildlife Service 93 million acres

14
USDA
  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service -
    species
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service - habitats
  • United States  Minnesota
  • Cultivated 20.6
    42.0                    
  • Grass    26.9                9.2
  • Forests    33.0               26.7
  • Other     19.9               21.1

15
Some Sort of an Organizing Theme
  • Commerce clause
  • Treaty making power
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Property Clause
  • Hunting Fishing
  • Patenting lifeforms

16
Federal Policy
  • Title 16 United States Code Conservation
  • Federal Wildlife Law of the 20th Century (Center
    for Wildlife Law)
  • Animal Welfare Act (National Agricultural
    Library)
  • Animal and Veterinary (Federal Drug
    Administration
  • Title 50 Code of Federal Regulations Wildlife and
    Fisheries
  • U.S. Fish Wildlife Service
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA)
  • Marine Mammal Commission
  • Center for Wildlife Law (University of New
    Mexico)
  • Fish, Game Wildlife Law (Megalaw.com)

17
Other Federal Agencies
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • Bureau of Land Management
  • USDA Natural Resources and Environment
  • US Botanic Garden
  • US Army Corps of Engineers
  • Council on Environmental Quality
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Forest Service
  • Marine Mammal Commission
  • National Park Service
  • National Science Foundation

18
Land Use in the United States
19
WetlandsSolid Waste Agency of Northern Cook
County v US Army Corps of Engineers
20
Migration Between Jurisdictions
  • A Guide to the Laws and Treaties of the United
    States for Protecting Migratory Birds (US Fish
    Wildlife Service)
  • Animal Importation (Center for Disease Control)
  • Invasive species (National Agricultural Library)
  • Invasive species (Fish and Wildlife Service)
  • Invasive Species (Union of Concerned Scientists)
  • Invasive.org
  • Invasive Species in the Great Lakes
  • Court will not hear case to close locks (The
    Badger Herald

21
Endangered Species Program (US Fish Wildlife
Service)
  • Statutory Law (16 USC 1531 et seq)
  • Administrative Law (50 CFR 17)
  • Case Law (Hill v Tennessee Valley Authority 437
    US 153, 1978)
  • The Endangered Species Act (FindLaw)

22
American Alligator
  • American Alligator (National Parks Conservation
    Association)
  • American Alligator (US Fish Wildlife Service)

23
Timber Wolf
  • Timber Wolf Information Network
  • Timber Wolf in Wisconsin
  • Timber Wolf in Minnesota
  • Timber Wolf in Michigan
  • Timber Wolf (Fish and Wildlife Service)
  • Wolf Recovery, Political Ecology and Endangered
    Species (The Independent Institute)

24
America's National Wildlife Refuge System
25
National Wildlife Refuge System (Fish and
Wildlife Service)
  • 542 national wildlife refuges, at least one in
    every state
  • Includes over 93 million acres of land
  • Most national wildlife refuges are strategically
    located along the major bird migration corridors,
  • Hundreds are home to endangered species, while
    others host big game - caribou, buffalo, deer,
    and elk
  • History of the NWR System (Fish and Wildlife
    Service)
  • History of the National Wildlife Refuge System
    (Wikipedia)

26
Region 3 Midwest - National Wildlife Refuges
  • Agassiz
  • Big Stone
  • Crane Meadows
  • Glacial Ridge
  • Hamden Slough
  • Mille Lacs
  • Minnesota Valley
  • Northern Tallgrass Prairie
  • Rice Lake
  • Rydell
  • Sherburne
  • Tamarac
  • Upper Mississippi

27
Region 3 Midwest Wetland Management Districts
  • Detroit Lakes
  • Fergus Falls
  • Litchfield
  • Morris
  • Windom

28
Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife Fish
Refuge
  • Established 1924
  • 16 USC 721 et seq
  • Approx. 240,000 acres
  • Refuge covers 261 miles of the Mississippi River
    Valley from Wabasha, Minn., to Rock Island, Ill.,
    and is divided into four districts
  • The refuge includes land owned by both the U.S.
    Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps
    of Engineers in 19 counties across four states

29
Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge
30
Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge
  • October 8, 1976, P.L. 94-466 90 Stat. 1992
  • June 25, 1984, P.L. 98-32798 Stat. 270
  • Oct. 7 1998 H.R.4729 Minnesota Valley National
    Wildlife Refuge Protection Act of 1998
  • March 25 1999 H.R.1284 Minnesota Valley National
    Wildlife Refuge Protection Act of 1999
  • Wikipedia
  • Refuge Planning
  • Environmental Assessment (EPA)
  • Friends of the Minnesota Valley

31
Minnesota
  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
  • Scientific Natural Areas
  • Private Lands Program
  • Minnesota Endangered Species Program
  • Minnesota Department of Agriculture

32
Environmental Nonprofits
  • Natural Resources Defense Council
  • Resources for the Future
  • Environmental Defense Fund
  • Worldwatch Institute
  • American Farmland Trust
  • National Wildlife Federation
  • Izaak Walton League
  • Sierra Club
  • The Wilderness Society
  • Union of Concerned Scientists

33
Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980)
  • Breaking the Law of Life (Resurgence)
  • Lifeform Patenting
  • Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms (Human
    Genome Project)
  • Liability and Labeling of Genetically Modified
    Organisms
  • Genetically Modified Organisms (Aglaw)
  • Genetics Society of America, Statement on
    Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified
    Organisms Overview Biotechnology An Overview
  • GM Organisms (New Scientist)
  • GMOs at the FAO
  • Dolly the Sheep
  • Life Form Patenting and Family-Scale Agriculture
    Implications and Recommendations (Center for
    Rural Affairs)
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