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Literary Elements

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Title: Literary Elements


1
Literary Elements
  • Note Card
  • Student Project

2
Note Card Order
  1. Diction
  2. Details
  3. Style
  4. Imagery
  5. Figurative Language
  6. Syntax
  7. Connotation
  8. Metaphor
  9. Denotation
  10. Tone
  11. Extended Metaphor
  12. Implied Metaphor
  13. Metonymy

3
Note Card Order Cont.
  1. Paradox
  2. Apostrophe
  3. Oxymoron
  4. Personification
  5. Pun
  6. Synedoche
  7. Assonance
  8. Simile
  9. Sound Devices
  10. Consonance
  11. Alliteration
  12. Meter
  13. Onomatopoeia

4
Note Card Order Cont.
  1. Rhyme
  2. Rhyme Scheme
  3. Iambic Rhythm
  4. Archetype
  5. Archetypal Setting
  6. Archetypal Character
  7. Heroic Journey (an Archetype)
  8. Characters
  9. Protagonist
  10. Antagonist
  11. Flat Character
  12. Round Character
  13. Static Character
  14. Dynamic Character

5
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Plot
  2. Freytags Pyramid
  3. Exposition
  4. Inciting Incident
  5. Rising Action
  6. Climax
  7. Falling Action
  8. Denouement
  9. Conflict
  10. Man vs. Man
  11. Man vs. Self
  12. Man vs. Nature
  13. Man vs. Society
  14. Man vs. Machine

6
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Man vs. Supernatural
  2. Epiphany
  3. Foil
  4. Stock
  5. Dialect
  6. Euphemism
  7. Idiom
  8. Mood
  9. Flashback
  10. Foreshadow
  11. Suspense
  12. Point of View
  13. Omniscient Point of View
  14. Limited Point of View

7
Note Cards cont.
  1. Rhetorical Shift
  2. Setting
  3. Theme
  4. Allusion
  5. Antithesis
  6. Argumentation/Persuasive
  7. Narrative Writing
  8. Expository Writing
  9. Descriptive Writing
  10. Analysis (Analytical) Writing
  11. Induction
  12. Deduction
  13. Emotional
  14. Ethical

8
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Logical
  2. Classification
  3. Comparison
  4. Contrast
  5. Characterization
  6. Direct Characterization
  7. Indirect Characterization
  8. Hyperbole
  9. Irony
  10. Dramatic Irony
  11. Situational Irony
  12. Verbal Irony
  13. Sarcasm
  14. Motif

9
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Satire
  2. Symbolism
  3. Understatement
  4. Literary Forms
  5. Catharsis
  6. Hamartia
  7. Hubris
  8. Recognition
  9. Reversal
  10. Parts of Speech
  11. Noun
  12. Pronoun
  13. Verb
  14. Adjective

10
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Adverb
  2. Preposition
  3. Interjection
  4. Conjunction
  5. Grammar Terms
  6. Declarative Sentence
  7. Imperative Sentence
  8. Interrogative Sentence
  9. Exclamatory Sentence
  10. Antithetical Sentence
  11. Balanced Sentence
  12. Simple Sentence
  13. Compound Sentence
  14. Complex Sentence
  15. Compound-Complex Sentence

11
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Loose/Cumulative Sentence
  2. Periodic Sentence
  3. Syntax Techniques
  4. Juxtaposition
  5. Natural Sentence Order
  6. Asyndeton
  7. Ellipsis
  8. Parallel Structure
  9. Polysyndeton
  10. Repetition
  11. Anadiplosis
  12. Anaphora
  13. Epanalepsis
  14. Epistrophe

12
Note Cards Cont.
  1. Antimetabole
  2. Inverted Sentence Order
  3. Rhetorical Question
  4. Rhetorical Fragment
  5. Synesthesia

13
Style
  • The way a person writes. (The way they arrange
    their words, sentences, and etc.)
  • EXAMPLES Prelutsky always rhymes every 2nd and
    4th line.

14
Diction
  • Effective and Unique Word Choice
  • EXAMPLES
  • about the rims
  • garments black as pitch
  • hurtles by

15
Imagery
  • Words used to create images by appealing to our
    five senses sight, sound, touch, taste, smell
  • Examples
  • twisted toes sight
  • piercing screech sound
  • queen of doom touch
  • bitter sweet taste
  • unbathed bodies smell

16
Details
  • Specific and descriptive information
  • Examples
  • The grass is green. This describes what
    specific color the grass is.
  • ten twisted toes This describes how many toes
    and what they specifically look like.

17
Figurative Language
  • Also called Figures of Speech
  • Describes one thing in terms of something else
  • Stating a comparison of two unlike things and the
    meaning is still understood
  • Examples
  • Its raining cats and dogs. Metaphor
  • Its raining like cats and dogs. Simile
  • The chair tripped the boy. Personification

18
Syntax
  • Sentence Structure
  • The way sentences are arranged and formed.
  • The way they are put together grammatically.
  • Examples
  • The clean clothes are in the box.
  • In the box are the clean clothes.
  • The clothes, in the box, are clean.
  • (Each sentence above has the same meaning, but
    each sentence is arranged different, and the
    focus of the sentence shifts with each variation.)

19
Denotation
  • The dictionary definition of a word
  • What the word means
  • Example
  • Chair- something made to sit in.

20
Connotation
  • The feelings/emotions associated with a word.
  • The feelings and attitude of a word.
  • Examples
  • She is mad. (not as severe as angry)
  • She is angry. (not as severe as infuriated)
  • She is infuriated. (really, really, mad)
  • All 3 words mean upset, but each are at a
    different level of upset.

21
Tone
  • The authors attitude toward what he has written
  • The way the author feels about the subject
  • Example
  • In the poem The Witch, Jack Prelutsky despises
    the witch.

22
Metaphor
  • A comparison of 2 unlike things not using like or
    as
  • Stating/implying that a thing is something it is
    not, but the meaning is understood
  • Examples
  • He touched her liquid hair.
  • She is a bookworm.
  • He is a beast.

23
Extended Metaphor
  • It is a comparison of two unlike things that
    continues for several lines or sentences.
  • A metaphor that continues more than one line.
  • Example Bronte describes Bertha by comparing
    her to parts of animals for many sentences. He
    does this by drawing out the animal comparison to
    make sure that the reader understands that he
    really thinks that she behaves as an animal.

24
Implied Metaphor
  • A comparison that is not directly stated, but the
    two things being compared are understood.
  • Example
  • Its raining cats and dogs.
  • It does not directly state that rain drops are
    cats and dogs, but we know that raindrops are
    being compared to cats and dogs.

25
Apostrophe
  • Form of personification in which the absent,
    dead, or inanimate are spoke to as if alive and
    present.
  • Examples
  • Where for art thou Romeo?
  • You stupid book!

26
Metonymy
  • a thing or concept is not called by its own name,
    but by the name of something intimately
    associated with that thing or concept. (Meaning
    is clearly understood.)
  • Examples
  • The White House has called a press conference.
    (White Housepresident)
  • Were not letting a skirt into our all-boys club.
    (skirt girl)

27
Oxymoron
  • Form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite
    terms into a single unusual expression.
  • Example
  • After fighting with my boyfriend, our good-bye
    was bittersweet.
  • When it gets to that last mile, your muscles hurt
    so good.

28
Paradox
  • Occurs when the elements of a statement
    contradict each other it appears illogical, but
    it actually makes sense even if it may sound or
    seem absurd.
  • Examples
  • I see, said the blind man.
  • All progress depends on the unreasonable man.
  • What doesnt kill you makes you stronger.

29
Personification
  • Type of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or
    abstract ideas human characteristics
  • Giving human qualities to things not human
  • Example
  • The trees speak to me.
  • The dog told a story with its sad eyes.
  • The waves were reaching for our boats sail.

30
Pun
  • A play on words that are similar in sound but
    have sharply different meaning.
  • Example
  • JANE EYRE Eyre is pronounced err, air, or
    heirwhich plays on who her character really
    isin the novel she makes mistakes, has her head
    in the clouds, and inherits a fortune.
  • Is that beetle bugging you?

31
Simile
  • Comparison of 2 different things or ideas using
    the words like or as
  • Example
  • Life is like a box of chocolates.
  • She is as graceful as a swan.

32
Synedoche
  • Form of metaphor where a part is used to signify
    the whole thing (the special for the general or
    the general for the special, as in ten sail for
    ten ships.)
  • Examples
  • All hands on deck. (hands members of the crew)
  • Canada played U.S. in the Olympic Hockey Finals.
    (CanadaCanadian team USAmerican team)

33
Sound Devices
  • Stylistic techniques that show meaning through
    sound
  • Examples rhyme, assonance, consonance, and
    alliteration

34
Assonance
  • Repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words
  • Example
  • The Witch doom and broom

35
Consonance
  • Repetition of consonant sound in the middle or at
    the end of words
  • Example
  • Rain descends I lay my head on the cold drenched
    ground

36
Alliteration
  • Repetition of beginning consonant sounds in words
    close to each other
  • Example
  • Carl climbed the cart carefully.

37
Meter
  • The patterned arrangement of syllables by the
    stress and length of each syllable
  • Example

38
Onomatopoeia
  • Words that mimic the sounds they describe
  • Example hiss, buzz, bang, moo

39
Rhyme
  • Repetition of sounds in 2 or more words or
    phrases that are located close to each other
  • Example The Witch
  • Line 2 pitch
  • Line 4 witch

40
Rhyme Scheme
  • The pattern of end rhymes in a poem
  • Example
  • a flight
  • b pitch
  • c broom
  • b witch

41
Iambic Rhythm
  • The natural rhythm of the English Language
  • Creates a smooth flowing feel
  • Stress-unstress alternating pattern similar to a
    heartbeat

42
Archetype
  • A character, action or situation that is a
    pattern of human life occurring over and over
    again in literature
  • Example
  • On a quest
  • Good versus evil
  • Damsel in distress

43
Archetypal Setting
  • A repetitive setting repeated throughout
    literature
  • Example
  • The desert symbolizes spiritual sterility and
    barrenness because it lacks personal comforts and
    the necessities of life

44
Archetypal Character
  • Repetition of a type of character in literature
    that contains a universal human experience.
  • Example
  • the hag
  • the naïve young man

45
Heroic Journey
  • Beginning as an underdog, but still able to
    overcome all odds and become victorious
  • Example Cinderella, Odysseus

46
Characters
  • People or animals who are part of a literary work
  • Example
  • The Wolf in Little Red Riding Hood
  • Little Red Riding Hood
  • The Witch in the poem The Witch

47
Protagonist
  • The central character of a drama, novel, short
    story, or narrative poem
  • Example Cinderella, Little Red Riding Hood

48
Antagonist
  • The opponent of the protagonist
  • Example
  • Evil Step Mother, The Wolf

49
Flat Character
  • Emphasizing a single important trait of a
    character
  • Not a well-developed character. (In film, similar
    to a movie extra.)
  • Example

50
Round Character
  • Well developed character.
  • Focus is on several aspects of the character, not
    just one thing
  • Example

51
Static Character
  • A character that does not change over the story,
    poem, short story or passage.
  • Things will happen to them, but they wont learn
    their lesson or adapt to their environment
  • Example Pinnochiountil the end of the story,
    this puppet wont stop lyingnot matter the
    consequences

52
Dynamic Character
  • A character that changes and adapts because of
    what happens to him/her and changes to fit the
    environment
  • Example
  • In Out of the Dust, the main character loses her
    mother, despises her father, and is surrounded by
    dust. Instead of staying a victim, she becomes
    responsible and recovers from losing her mother.
    She learns to respect her father and her
    environment.

53
PLOT
  • Sequence of events in a story
  • The order of events in a story

54
Freytags Pyramid
  • Diagram that describes a typical pattern of a
    literary work
  • Has
  • Exposition
  • Inciting Incident
  • Rising Action
  • Climax
  • Falling Action
  • Denouement

55
Exposition
  • Groundwork for novel set
  • Setting Introduced
  • Relationship between characters introduced
  • Situation prior to the conflict is introduced

56
Inciting Incident
  • This is the event that interrupts the
    harmony/peace of the situation or characters
  • A Conflict is introduced

57
Rising Action
  • When the plot begins to escalatethe tension or
    events keep risingit is building everything up
    to the climax of the conflict

58
Climax
  • Pivotal point of the novel
  • Conflict eruptsproblem explodes

59
Falling Action
  • Events that occur immediately after the climax
  • These events give hints toward the revealing of
    the solution

60
Denouement
  • Problem set up by the inciting incident is
    finally resolvedunraveled and a conclusion of
    some sort is reached

61
Conflict
  • The problem of the story thematic problem
  • Man vs. Man
  • Man vs. Self
  • Man vs. Nature
  • Man vs. Society
  • Man vs. Machine
  • Man vs. Supernatural

62
Man vs. Man
  • Conflict where man is against man or woman
    against woman or woman against man and etc.
  • Person against another person

63
Man vs. Self
  • Conflict where man is against himselfbattling
    doubt or his own failures and etc.
  • An internal battle within a character

64
Man vs. Nature
  • Conflict where is against nature animals,
    weather, environmental conflicts
  • Conflict against the forces of nature

65
Man vs. Society
  • Conflict where man is against the norms of
    society
  • Example Martin Luther King and equality
    (society felt that blacks and whites should be
    separated, but he fought against those beliefs to
    help achieve equality for all)

66
Man vs. Machine
  • Conflict where man is battling against
    machinessuch as robots and etc.

67
Man vs. Supernatural
  • Conflict where man is against God (or gods) and
    higher powers

68
Epiphany
  • A sudden awakening where the character moves from
    ignorance and innocence to knowledge and
    experiencethe light comes on and they finally
    know the truth
  • Example

69
Foil
  • A character that is used to show the qualities of
    a major characterthis character is limited in
    appearance of the story.
  • For Example A rude student busts into a
    classroom where Caitlyn is quietly doing her
    workshe doesnt even look up to see him. The
    rude student leaves just as quickly, but we know
    as the audience what a determined and dedicated
    student Caitlyn is.

70
Stock
  • A flat character in a standard role with standard
    traits.
  • Example
  • In Cinderellayou have the stock character of the
    step mother, and the stock characters of the step
    sisters.

71
Dialect
  • The speech of a particular region or group that
    differs from the standard speech.
  • Example
  • If she bent one o the handsomest, shes noan
    faal and varry good-natured an I his een shes
    fair beautiful, onybody may see that

72
Euphemism
  • Using words that are less expressive or direct so
    as to not be distasteful or offensive
  • Example
  • Instead of saying bumyou say unemployed.

73
Idiom
  • An accepted phrase or expression having a meaning
    different from the literal meaning (varies from
    culture to culture)
  • Example
  • I was beside myself.
  • You cant be beside yourself, but you know that
    it means that I was really upset.

74
Mood
  • The emotional atmosphere in a literary work
  • Example atmosphere in The Witch is spooky.

75
Flashback
  • A scene that interrupts the action of a work so
    that the reader can see a previous event
  • Going from the present (mentally) to the past

76
Foreshadow
  • Use of hints and clues in a narrative to suggest
    a future action

77
Suspense
  • Quality of a literary work that makes the reader
    or audience uncertain or tense about the outcome
    of events

78
Point of View
  • Perspective from which a narrative is told
  • Can also mean the bias of the person or thing
    through whose eyes the reader experiences the
    action
  • 1st I,we
  • 2nd you
  • 3rd he,she,it,they,them
  • Omniscient
  • Limited

79
Omniscient Point of View
  • Where all characters and audience are fully aware
    of all of the events
  • Often referred to as the God POV

80
Limited Point of View
  • Where a character or the audience has a limited
    understanding of the situation
  • Position of an observer

81
Rhetorical Shift
  • A change or movement results from an epiphany,
    realization/insight gained by a character, or the
    reader.

82
Setting
  • Time, place, environment where the work takes
    place

83
Theme
  • The universal truth (love, anger, dealing with
    loss and etc.) that is apparent and focused on
    throughout the entire worknot just one
    paragraphthat is called the main idea.

84
Allusion
  • A reference to a mythological, literary or
    historical person, place or thing.
  • For example if you are reading a book and it
    refers or hints at one of the gods such as
    Zeus, Poseidon and etc. then that is one example
    allusion.

85
Antithesis
  • Is a contrast or opposition.
  • For Example
  • Two characters in a novel have complete opposite
    personalities. One aggressive and outgoing while
    the other is shy and timidthis type of character
    development is antithesis.

86
Argumentation/Persuasive
  • Purpose of the writing is to convince or persuade
    an audience.
  • The process used to persuade is by proving or
    refuting a point of view or issue.

87
Induction
  • Type of persuasion where the author moves from
    particular things (specific ones (that one
    chicken) to general things (things grouped
    together farm animals)

88
Deduction
  • Type of method to persuade where the author moves
    from the general discussion to specific details.
    This is the opposite form from Induction.

89
Emotional
  • Type of persuasion where the author tries to
    convince the audience to agree by appealing to
    their heart

90
Ethical
  • Type of persuasive technique where the author
    tries to convince the audience by showing that
    what he has to say is believable because the
    author is credible.

91
Logical
  • Type of persuasion where the author convinces the
    author through intellectual brainthinking
    means.seeing the reasoning behind his/her
    position

92
Classification
  • Type of writing style that is traditional in
    thinking
  • It identifies the subject as part of a larger
    group with shared features
  • Example Ask a student about teachersone will
    classify them as goodwhile the others will
    classify them as badcollectively they are
    classified the same(categorized the same as if
    teachers were one uniformed person)

93
Comparison
  • Process of pointing out how something is similar
    (like) something else to show the subject/topic
    more clearly

94
Contrast
  • Process of pointing out how something is
    different than something else to show the
    subject/topic more clearly

95
Characterization
  • Act of creating or developing a character
    throughout a literary work

96
Direct Characterization
  • Developing a character by stating directly the
    characters traits
  • Example John is mean.

97
Indirect Characterization
  • A characters traits are revealed through his/her
    actions, words, feelings, thoughts
  • Traits are not directly stated by the author
  • Example John kicked the dog, through his toy
    over the fence, and tormented the dog daily.
  • BasicallyJohn is badbut it doesnt say it
    directly, but the reader fully understands his
    character.

98
Hyperbole
  • A deliberate over exaggeration
  • I feel 100 years old.

99
Irony
  • Irony is an implied discrepancy between what is
    said and what is meant.Three kinds of irony
  • 1. verbal irony is when an author says one thing
    and means something else.2. dramatic irony is
    when an audience perceives something that a
    character in the literature does not know.3.
    irony of situation is a discrepency between the
    expected result and actual results.

100
Dramatic Irony
  • dramatic irony is when an audience perceives
    something that a character in the literature does
    not know.

101
Situational Irony
  • irony of situation is a discrepency between the
    expected result and actual results.

102
Verbal Irony
  • verbal irony is when an author says one thing and
    means something else.
  • the use of words to express something other than
    and especially the opposite of the literal
    meaning

103
Sarcasm
  • Verbal irony in which a person appears to be
    praising something but is actually insulting it.
    The remark may also be taunting.

104
Motif
  • A pattern or strand of imagery or symbolism in a
    work of literature
  • Example fire is the motif for Fahrenheit 451
  • _Example you pick one

105
Satire
  • Use of devices like irony, understatement, and
    exaggeration to highlight a human folly (flaw) or
    a societal problem. The purpose of satire is to
    bring the flaw to the attention of the reader in
    order that it may be addressed, remedied, or
    eradicated.

106
Symbolism
  • The use of an object, person, place, or action
    that not only has a meaning in itself but also
    stands for something larger than itself, such as
    a quality, attitude, belief or value

107
Understatement
  • The opposite of hyperbole it is a kind of irony
    that deliberately represents something as being
    much less than it really is

108
  • LITERARY FORMS

109
CATHARSIS
  • Release of emotion (pity and fear) from the
    audiences view point (perspective)
  • Example In Antigone, the audience will feel
    pity for the tragic deaths and at the same time
    fear for themselves because if it could happen to
    that character then it might could happen to you

110
HAMARTIA
  • It is the tragic flaw that leads to the tragic
    heros downfall
  • Example In Odyssey, Odysseus holds himself
    equal to gods and it is this belief that makes
    him not be able to return home for years

111
HUBRIS
  • Is arrogance before the gods
  • It is when someone feels that they are so great
    and are even better than gods that this pride and
    arrogance causes their downfall

112
RECOGNITION
  • This occurs right at the moment that the tragic
    hero (typically from Mythology) realizes what his
    tragic flaw is and realizes why he must die

113
REVERSAL
  • Is when the opposite of what the hero intends
    to happen occurs.
  • The hero intends to defeat the enemy, but instead
    is defeated by the enemy.

114
  • PARTS OF SPEECH

115
NOUN
  • PERSON, PLACE, THING, OR IDEA/CONCEPT
  • EXAMPLES GIVE ONE OF EACH

116
PRONOUN
  • TAKES THE PLACE OF A NOUN
  • EXAMPLE
  • FIRST PERSON LIST
  • SECOND PERSON LIST
  • THIRD PERSON LIST

117
VERB
  • CREATES THE ACTION OF THE SENTENCECAN SOMETIMES
    BE LINKING TO THE ACTION
  • EXAMPLES LIST 2 ACTION, 1 BE VERB AND 1
    LINKING VERB

118
ADJECTIVE
  • DESCRIBES A NOUN OR PRONOUN
  • EXAMPLES LIST 3 AND ADD THE NOUN IT
    MODIFIESUNDERLINE THE ADJECTIVE
  • THE GIANT CAT JUMPED.

119
ADVERB
  • DESCRIBES/MODIFIES A VERB, ADJECTIVE OR ANOTHER
    ADVERB
  • EXAMPLES ONE MODIFYING EACH OF THE ABOVE AND
    UNDERLINE THE ADVERB
  • She quickly ran.
  • The great big cow jumped.
  • She real quickly ran.

120
PREPOSITION
  • ADDING CLARITY TO LOCATION IT MUST MAKE SENSE BY
    FILLING IN THIS PHRASE
  • ______________ THE BOX
  • ANDIT ALWAYS IS FOLLOWED BY A NOUN WHICH IS
    CALLED THE OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION.

121
INTERJECTION
  • A STATEMENT OF EXCITEMENT
  • EXAMPLE WOW! OUCH!
  • GIVE 2 MORE EXAMPLES

122
CONJUNCTION
  • JOINS THINGS IN GRAMMAR TOGETHER
  • THE CAT AND DOG FOUGHT.
  • LIST 5 CONJUNCTIONS

123
  • GRAMMAR TERMS

124
DECLARATIVE SENTENCE
  • THIS TYPE OF SENTENCE DECLARES INFORMATION.
  • IT GIVES INFORMATION AND IS INFORMING THE READER
  • WRITE ONE DECLARATIVE SENTENCE

125
IMPERATIVE SENTENCE
  • IT IS A COMMAND SENTENCE. IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT
    YOU DO IT NOW.
  • STOP RUNNING IN THE HALL.
  • GIVE ONE MORE IMPERATIVE SENTENCE EXAMPLE

126
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE
  • IT IS A QUESTION AND MUST BE ASKING SOMETHING AND
    HAVE A QUESTION MARK AT THE END FOR PUNCTUATION.
  • WRITE ONE INTERROGATIVE

127
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE
  • A SENTENCE THAT EXCLAIMS SOMETHING AND MUST HAVE
    AN EXPLANATION POINT!
  • WRITE ONE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

128
ANTITHETICAL SENTENCE
  • CONTAINS TWO STATEMENTS THAT ARE OPPOSITE BUT
    BALANCED
  • WILL PROVIDE EXAMPLES LATER. JUST WRITE THE
    ABOVE DEFINITION FOR NOW

129
BALANCED SENTENCE
  • THE PHRASES OR CLAUSES BALANCE EACH OTHER BY
    FOLLOWING THE SAME STRUCTURE
  • I CAME I SAW I CONQUERED.

130
SIMPLE SENTENCE
  • CONTAINS ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE IT HAS ONE
    COMPLETE THOUGHT.
  • WRITE ONE SIMPLE SENTENCE

131
COMPOUND SENTENCE
  • TWO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES JOINED BY A SEMICOLON ()
    OR BY A CONJUNCTION
  • (REMEMBER 2 COMPLETE THOUGHTSCAR WRECK
    DISCUSSION)

132
COMPLEX SENTENCE
  • CONTAINS ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE AND ONE OR MORE
    SUBORDINATE DEPENDANT CLAUSES. THIS IS WHERE
    SEVERAL THOUGHTS ARE JOINED TOGETHER AND AT LEAST
    ONE CAN STAND BY ITSELF, WHILE AT LEAST ONE CANT
    STAND ALONE.
  • WRITE A COMPLEX SENTENCE.

133
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
  • CONTAINS 2 OR MORE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES (LIKE THE
    COMPOUND SENTENCE) AND AT LEAST ONE DEPENDENT
    CLAUSE. IT HAS 2 COMPLETE THOUGHTS AND ONE
    PARTIAL THOUGHT ALL IN ONE SENTENCE.
  • WRITE ONE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE

134
LOOSE/CUMULATIVE SENTENCE
  • MAIN CLAUSE IS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SENTENCE
  • EXAMPLE A RUDE NOISE ERUPTED IN THE CAR FROM
    GARRET.

135
PERIODIC SENTENCE
  • THE MAIN CLAUSE IS AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE
  • IN THE CAR, GARRET RELEASED A RUDE NOISE.

136
Syntax Techniques
137
Juxtaposition
  • Where normally unassociated ideas, words, or
    phrases are place next to one another, often
    creating an effect of surprise and wit.
  • Example will be given later in the year from a
    source we read in class

138
Natural Sentence Order
  • Basically, the natural order of language/speech
    The subject comes before the predicate (verb).
  • No Example This is just F.Y.I.

139
Asyndeton
  • A deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series
    of related clausesits purpose is to speed the
    pace of the sentence.
  • Example Her relatives encouraged me
    competitors piqued me she allured me a marriage
    was achieved almost before I knew where I was.
    (from novel Jane Eyre)
  • This use of asyndeton represents the whirlwind
    that this character felt.

140
Ellipsis
  • The deliberate omission of a word or words that
    are readily implied by the context it creates an
    elegant or daring economy of words

141
Parallel Structure
  • Similarities in structure of a sentence, phrases,
    words, or clauses
  • Example the burden carried, the want provided,
    the will granted
  • Grammatical structure is the same article,
    subject, verb

142
Polysyndeton
  • The deliberate use of many conjunctions for
    special emphasis
  • Purpose is to highlight quantity or mass of
    detail or to create a flowing, continuous
    sentence patternit SLOWS the pace of the
    sentence
  • Example I had school rules, and school duties,
    and school habits, and school notions, and school
    faces, and school preferences.

143
Repetition
  • Words, sounds and ideas are used more than once
    to enhance rhythm and to create emphasis
  • Example all his sisters proudness, all his
    mothers aversion, all his servants

144
Anadiplosis
  • The repetition of the last word in one clause at
    the beginning of the following clause (it ties
    sentence to its surrounding)
  • Example She had great passion. This passion
    professed to return.

145
Anaphora
  • Is the repetition of the same word or group of
    words at the beginning of successive clauses it
    helps to establish a strong rhythm and produces a
    powerful emotional effect.
  • Example What a great nose! What a great mouth!
    What great eyes!

146
Epanalepsis
  • The repetition at the end of a clause of the word
    that occurred at the beginning of the clause
  • It tends to make the sentence or clause in which
    it occurs stand apart from its surroundings
  • Example Breakfast was over, and none had
    breakfasted

147
Epistrophe
  • Is the repetition of the same word or group of
    words at the ends of successive clauses it sets
    up a pronounced rhythm and gains a special
    emphasis both by repeating the word and by
    putting the word in the final position
  • Example Genius is self-conscience I cannot
    tell whether she was a genius, but she was
    self-conscience-remarkable self-conscious indeed.

148
Antimetabole
  • Reversal sentence strategy in which the
    arrangement of ideas in the second clause is a
    reversal of the first it adds power through its
    inversion repetition
  • Example And if God had gifted me with some
    beauty and much wealth, I should have made it as
    hard for you to leave me, as it is now for me to
    leave you

149
Inverted Order of a Sentence
  • Involves constructing a sentence so the predicate
    comes before the subject
  • Long did the hours seem while I waited the
    departure of the company.
  • Attention is on LONG before stating what actually
    seemed Longthe hours.

150
Rhetorical Question
  • Is a question that requires no answer. It is
    used to draw attention to a point
  • Do you REALLY want me to Answer that?

151
Rhetorical Fragment
  • A sentence fragment used deliberately for a
    persuasive purpose or to create a desired effect.
  • Example How dare I? Because it is the truth.

152
Synesthesia
  • A condition in which one type of stimulation
    evokes the sensation of another, as when the
    hearing of a sound produces the visualization of
    a color. (noun)
  • The description of one kind of sense impression
    by using words that normally describe another.
    (adjective)
  • Example smell --gt taste a sour smell vision
    --gt touch humid green hearing --gt taste the
    bitter chuckles hearing --gt touch a sharp crack
    hearing --gt touch a heavy explosion
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