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Northern Renaissance Art

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Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Not an offshoot of Italian art. But, Italian influence was strong. Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders Differences Italy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Northern Renaissance Art


1
The Northern Renaissance Art
2
Renaissance Art in Northern Europe
  • Not an offshoot of Italian art.
  • But, Italian influence was strong.
  • Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders
  • Differences
  • Italy ? inspired by humanism, emphasis on values
    of classical antiquity.
  • Northern Europe ? religious reform, return to
    Christian values, revolt against Church authority
  • More princes kings were patrons of artists.
  • Italy wealthy merchant, banker class were patrons

3
Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art
  • Attention to details
  • Realism and naturalism (less emphasis on the
    classical ideal)
  • Landscapes
  • Middle-class and peasant life
  • Detailed domestic interiors
  • Portraits

4
Flemish Realism
5
Jan van Eyck (1395 1441)
  • Courtly and aristocratic work.
  • The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin, 1435.
  • The globe held by the Christ child symbolizes his
    power over the universe
  • Notice the richness of the clothing
  • He wants to be seen as important
  • Holy Conversation mortals and heavenly
    figures placed together

6
Van Eyck -Adoration of the Lamb, Ghent
Altarpiece, 1432
Sacrificial Lamb (offering of something of high
value to gain Gods favor) Worshippers come from
4 corners of the universe Holy city in the
horizon
7
Van Eyck ? The Crucifixion The Last
Judgment ? 1420-1425
8
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding
Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
9
Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini His Wife
Dog symbolizes fidelity Statue of St. Margaret,
patron saint of childbirth All-seeing eye of God
symbolized by mirror Broom represents
domesticity a womans lot Even thought this is
a wedding portrait, women were often times
painted in a pregnant pose
10
Rogier van der Weyden (1399-1464)
The Deposition 1435 Marys pose mimics her
sons to show her suffering Notice the
skull
11
van der Weydens Deposition (details)
12
Quentin Massys (1465-1530)
  • Humanist
  • Example of extreme Realism
  • The Ugly Duchess
  • She truly suffered from a disease the enlarged,
    misshaped the bones

13
Massys The Moneylender His Wife, 1514
Moral tale condemning avarice She reads the a
book of prayers while he counts money. Is she
distracted from a holy task or is she too
interested in worldly possessions? The snuffed
candle symbolizes how we all face death The
fruit symbolized the Garden of Eden scene of
original sin
14
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15
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16
France
17
Renaissance Art in France
  • Italian influence began with the French invasions
    of the Italian peninsula that began in 1494.
  • Royal patron Francis I.
  • Encouraged humanistic learning
  • Invited da Vinci to France
  • Collected paintings by the Italian greats
    Titian, Raphael, and Michelangelo

18
Jean Clouet Portrait of Francis I, 1525
19
The School of Fontainebleau
  • Centered at Palace at Fontainebleau.
  • Decorated the Royal Palace, 1530s - 1560s
  • Offshoot of Mannerism
  • Elongated
  • Refined elegance
  • Crowded compositions
  • Allegories, symbolism.

20
Palace of Fontainebleau
21
Germain Pilon (1525-1590)
  • The Deposition of Christ
  • Bronze, 1580-1585.

22
Germany
23
Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553)
  • Court painter 1505-1553
  • Realism
  • Excelled in portraits
  • Martin Luther

24
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Old Man with a Young Woman
Amorous Old Woman with a Young Man
25
Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528)
  • Converted to Lutheranism.
  • Sympathized with peasants
  • Intense and painful emotion
  • The Mocking of Christ, 1503
  • Christ beat by ugly, fiendish men
  • Chiaroscuro

26
Matthias Grünewalds The Crucifixion, 1502
Portrays horrific scene Christs body
disfigured, distorted Suffering reflected in
those who witness this scene
27
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528)
  • German
  • Patron is HREmperor
  • Self-conscious individualism
  • Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.

28
Dürer Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500
29
Dürer The Last Supper woodcut, 1510
30
Fall of Man (Adam and Eve)
Artist Albrecht Dürer Artist's Lifespan 1471-1528 Title Fall of Man (Adam and Eve) Date 1504
Fall of Man (Adam and Eve)
Artist Albrecht Dürer Artist's Lifespan 1471-1528 Title Fall of Man (Adam and Eve) Date 1504
Fall of Man (Adam and Eve)
Artist Albrecht Dürer Artist's Lifespan 1471-1528 Title Fall of Man (Adam and Eve) Date 1504
Fall of Man (Adam and Eve) 1504
Symmetrical, idealized pose 4 animals 4
negative temperaments These were unleashed were
activated when Adam and Eve were forced out of
the garden
31
Durer The Triumphal Arch, 1515-1517
32
The Triumphal Arch, details
33
Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse woodcut,
1498
34
Who are the Four Horsemen?
  • Plague
  • War
  • Famine
  • Death

35
England
36
Hans Holbein, the Younger (1497-1543)
  • German, but did most of his work in England.
  • Friend of Erasmus
  • Erasmus Writing, 1523 ?
  • Henry VIII was his patron from 1536.
  • Portraitist noted for
  • Objectivity, detachment.
  • Doesnt conceal anything

37
Artist to the Tudors
Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI
(above), 1543.
38
Holbeins, The Ambassadors, 1533
2 Globes terrestrial, celestial Scientific
equipment Religious booklets Secular and
clerical clothing Does it unify the secular and
religious worlds? The skull represents
mortality
???
39
Multiple Perspectives
40
England Emphasis on Architecture
Hardwick Hall, designed by Robert Smythson in the
1590s, for the Duchess of Shrewsbury more
medieval in style.
41
Burghley House for William Cecil
The largest and grandest house of the early
Elizabethan era.
42
The Low Countries
43
Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516)
  • Pessimist
  • Lurid imagination.
  • Fanciful monsters, apparitions.
  • No Italian strategies
  • His figures are flat.
  • Perspective is ignored.

44
Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthy
Delights 1500 Perils of lifes temptations Man
acting with Free Will no evidence of God
45
Image on right is 3rd in series Gods
vengeance, eternal damnation
46
Hieronymus Bosch The Cure of Folly 1478-1480 Sk
epticism Doctor extracting ignorance while
Church figures look on
47
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569)
  • Humanist
  • Interested in vice and follies.
  • A master of landscapes not a portraitist.
  • People in his works often have round, simple
    faces.
  • Expressionless, mindless, and sometimes
    malicious.
  • They are types, rather than individuals.
  • Their purpose is to convey a message.

48
Bruegels, Tower of Babel, 1563
49
Bruegels, Mad Meg, 1562
50
Bruegels, The Beggars, 1568
Satire Fox tales refer to carnival atmosphere
making light of misfortune Represent various
classes on road to ruin paper crown for a king,
red Bishops crown, beret for working class
51
Peasant Wedding
52
Bruegels, Parable of the Blind Leading the
Blind, 1568
53
Bruegels, Niederlandisch Proverbs, 1559
54
Bruegels, The Triumph of Death, 1562
55
Bruegels, Hunters in the Snow, 1565
56
Bruegels, Winter Scene, 1565
57
Bruegels, The Harvesters, 1565
58
Spain
59
Domenikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco)
  • The most important Spanish artist of this period
    was Greek El Greco
  • 1541 1614
  • Distortion, elongation, lurid atmosphere
  • Agitated, flickering light.
  • No rules of perspective
  • Brilliant color.
  • Same time as Spanish Counter-Reformation

60
El Greco Christ in Agony on the Cross 1600-1614
61
El Greco Portrait of a Cardinal 1600
62
El Greco The View of Toledo 1597-1599
63
Conclusions
  • Art of Northern Europe in the 16th century was
    complex
  • Northern Renaissance ended with a Mannerist
    phase, representing the social and political
    upheaval of the time
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