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Dementia

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A rare and fatal brain disease Aids related dementia Huntingtons Disease Alcohol related dementia Dementia Incidence Approximately 600,000 people in the UK have ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dementia


1
Dementia Managing incontinence and toileting
difficulties.
  • Maria Moor

2
What is dementia
  • Broad term used to describe the symptoms of a
    large group of illnesses that cause a progressive
    decline in a persons mental functioning
  • It is a permanent and progressive disease that
    eventually renders people incapable of looking
    after themselves.
  • It is not a normal part of aging (common after
    age of 65.

3
Symptoms
  • Begins with forgetfulness
  • Progresses to confusion and disorientation
  • Effects problem solving
  • Effects decision making
  • Personality changes, irritable , agitated ,
    depressed

4
Types Of Dementia
  • Alzheimer's disease - this causes up to 60 of
    cases of dementia. It is characterised by memory
    loss and difficulties with language in its early
    stages,
  • Vascular dementia - this is the consequence of
    strokes and/or insufficient blood flow to the
    brain and causes up to 20 of cases of dementia.
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies - this causes up to 15
    of dementia cases and is characterised by
    symptoms similar to Parkinson's Disease as well
    as hallucinations, and a tendency to fall.

5
Other types of dementia
  • Fronto temperal dementia ( group of dementias)
  • Creutzfeldt Jakob disease occurs in 1 in 1
    million. A rare and fatal brain disease
  • Aids related dementia
  • Huntingtons Disease
  • Alcohol related dementia

6
Dementia Incidence
  • Approximately 600,000 people in the UK have
    dementia. 5 of the total population aged 65 and
    over, rising to 20 of the population aged 80 and
    over.
  • Dementia can also occur before the age of 65
    there are about 17,000 people with dementia in
    younger age groups in the UK.

7
Incidence
  • Of the people with dementia, 154,000 live alone .
    It is estimated that by 2026 there will be
    840,000 people with dementia in the UK, rising to
    1.2 million by 2050. (Alzheimers Society 2011)

8
Treatment
  • There are no cures as yet
  • A group of drugs called acetyl cholinesterase
    inhibitors may slow the progression of
    Alzheimers dementia and Lewy Body dementia
  • Memantine, a glutamate blocker, may protect brain
    cells against damage.
  • In Vascular dementia drugs may be of use in
    slowing the damage to brain cells
  • Aspirin
  • Medication to control high blood pressure

9
Dementia and Incontinence
  • Incontinence is the loss of control of bladder
    and bowel
  • Incontinence occurs in people with dementia for
    many reasons
  • A decline in intellect and memory as a result of
    dementia can result in incontinence

10
Causes of Incontinence
  • Infection
  • Constipation
  • Medication
  • Physiological bladder and bowel problems
  • Prostate enlargement
  • Vaginal Prolapse

11
Other causes due to changes in persons ability
  • Inability to recognise toilet
  • Inability to find the toilet
  • Inability to recognise the need to go
  • Inability to use the toilet
  • Inability to communicate needs
  • Inability to formulate words
  • Mobility and Dexterity

12
Common occurring actions.
  • Parcelling (eg wrapping and concealing the
    evidence in drawers etc
  • Wetting or soiling clothes
  • Wetting or soiling the bed
  • Using an inappropriate receptacle
  • Smearing

13
Other causes
  • Depression
  • Fear
  • Embarrassment

14
Suggestions for managing toilet problems
  • Ensure the floor and toilet are of sharply
    contrasting colours.
  • Coax forward, help to aim. Sit down
  • Shiny floor can be perceived as wet
  • Use reflective tape to direct to the toilet
  • Night lights
  • Use pictures where possible
  • Personalised toilet routine,music,raised seat,
    grab rails

15
Use a raised Loo
16
Location of Toilets
17
Inconsiderate siting of commodes
18
Continued
  • Clothing. Simplify clothing. Elastic waistbands,
    Velcro.
  • Toilet. Music to calm them. Make sure toilet
    securely fastened. Raised loo seat. Grab bars.
  • Toilet routine.
  • Skin care. Prevent soreness

19
Continued
  • Intake. Adequate fluids. Reduce caffeine
  • High fibre diet
  • Prevent constipation
  • Exercise
  • Effective Communication

20
Changes in Communication
  • May have difficulty finding a word
  • They may not make sense
  • Cant understand what you are saying
  • May ignore you
  • Difficulty expressing emotion

21
Communication is key
  • Communication is made up of three parts-
  • 55 is body language
  • 38 is tone and pitch
  • 7 is the words we use

22
How we can help.
  • Use short simple words
  • Remain calm
  • Non verbal clues.
  • Do not rush them.
  • Give them plenty of time
  • Avoid competing noises
  • Consistent approach

23
Respect the patient
  • Losing control can be humiliating and
    embarrassing and care givers need to be sensitive
    to these feelings

24
  • Thank you
  • Any Questions?
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