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Adult Learning Theory


Adult Learning Theory A compilation of the best in: Brain Theory Types of Intelligence Learning Styles Teaching Strategies Self Assessment In any new situation or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adult Learning Theory

Adult Learning Theory
No Two Are Alike
  • A compilation of the best in
  • Brain Theory
  • Types of Intelligence
  • Learning Styles
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Self Assessment

In any new situation or experience, the brain
asks two questions
  • I wonder what this is about?
  • How can I use it?

Principle 1 Each Brain Is Unique
  • Teaching Implication 20 students, 20 different
  • Teaching strategy Provide instruction that
    allows all students to express and practice
    visual, tactile, and/or auditory learning

Principle 2 Emotions Are Critical To Learning
  • Teaching Implication You cannot separate
    emotions from learning.
  • The affective (feelings) and cognitive thinking)
    domains are linked.
  • What we learn is influenced and organized by
    feelings and attitudes. Fear, threat, shame,
    stress are not effective teaching tools.
  • Teaching Strategy A safe, supportive, creative
    learning environment is KEY!

Principal 3 Learning Engages The Entire
  • Teaching Implication learning is as natural as
  • It is possible to inhibit limit learning or
    facilitate learning.
  • Anything that effects our physical functioning
    affects our capacity to learn.
  • What we fuel the body with influences our
    capacity to learn.
  • How we burn that fuel also influences our
    capacity to learn. Good nutrition, Regular
    meals, Exercise, Reducing stress,
  • Restful sleep, Play and Relaxation
  • all improve the ability to learn
  • Teaching Strategy Create an environment that
    supports the body.
  • Use specific techniques, such a deep breathing to
    calm focus, or marching in place to activate
    integrate, guided imagery to set intention

Principle 4 The Brain Is Curious
  • It needs to Know. Naming and Meaning Provide
  • Teaching Implication The search for meaning is
    innate. The brain is a parallel processor. It
    registers the familiar and simultaneously looks
    for the novel.
  • Teaching Strategy
  • Provide a safe and creative learning environment
    that is stable and consistent as this provides
  • Incorporate opportunity for discovery, challenge
    and novelty.

Principle 5 The Brain Is a Pattern Makerit
searches for and organizes information into
  • Teaching Implication Learners are patterning
    all the time.
  • You cannot stop the process.HOWEVER
  • Teaching Strategy You can influence the
    direction of the patterning by giving the
    students the opportunity to link prior knowledge
    and experience to the material to make the
    information more meaningful, useful and
    personally relevant.

Principle 6 The Brain Is A Parallel Processor
  • The brain ceaselessly performs many functions
    simultaneously 24/7
  • The Brain Is Control Central
  • Thoughts, emotions, imagination, predisposition,
    memory, movement, function all operate
  • Teaching Implication No one method, techniques
    or strategy can encompass the variations of the
  • Teaching Strategy What To Do?
  • Invite
  • Orchestrate
  • Facilitate
  • Coach--Mentor

Principle 7 The Brain is Sectional, Integrated,
Separate but Related.
  • The Brain Processes Parts and Wholes
  • Teaching Implication
  • Learning is cumulative and developmental.
  • Parts and wholes are conceptually interactive.
  • They derive meaning from each other.
  • Teaching Strategy Link students prior knowledge
    and experience to learning objectives.

Principle 8 We Have two types of memory that
serve Learning.
  • A spatial system, which is the working memory.
  • A rote system for procedural learning
  • Teaching Implication Over emphasize on the
    memorization and recall of unconnected facts is
    an efficient use of the brain. Memorization
    without application inhibits understanding and
    the development of critical thinking skills.
  • Teaching Strategy Practice instructional
    strategies, which foster the students assessment,
    development, retention and application of new

Principle 9 The Brain Understands And
Remembers Best When Facts And Skills Are
Embedded In Natural Spatial Memory, The Working
  • Teaching Implication Successful learning
    depends on using all the senses auditory,
    visual, kinesthetic, olfactory and immersing the
    learner in a multitude of complex and interactive
  • Teaching Strategy Use lots of relevant real
    life references that your students can relate to.
    Link an activity to the learning by
    incorporating metaphors, role-play, music, visual
    imagery, poetry, drawing and/or collage.

Principle 10 Learning Is Enhanced By Challenge
And Inhibited By Threat.
  • Teaching Implication
  • When the brain perceives threat, it
    downshifts, causing portions of the brain to
    function below par.
  • This downshift creates a feeling of
    helplessness, narrowing of focus, loss of
    concentration, and less flexibility within the
  • Teaching Strategy
  • Provide a consistent, supportive, non-threatening
    environment that is conducive to learning.
  • Use praise, thanks, support, recognition and more

Dales Cone Of LearningExperience and Learning
We Tend to Remember 10 of what we read 20 of
what we hear 30 of what we see hear 70 of
what we say 90 of what we say do
Our Level of Involvement Verbal
receiving Visual Receiving Receiving
Participating Doing
P a s s i v e
A c t i v e
Learning Modalities
  • A learning modality is a mode, manner or
    channel through which is information is
    inputted, recorded, stored and accessed in the
    brain. i.e. visually, auditorally, tactually
    and/or kinesthetically.

VISUAL See, Look, View,
  • Watch, Observe.
  • Do you see what I mean? What it looks like
    to me is Look at it
    this way

AUDITORY Hear, Listen, Sound.
  • Do you hear what I am saying? Let me put it a
    different way.You are not hearing me.

  • Touch Feel/ Do, Movement, Act.
  • I need to get a handle on things.Let me show
    you. Give me a hand, will you? Let me do
    it. Can I try my hand at it?

The Visual Learner
  • Right Brain Dominate
  • An Introvert
  • The Reader
  • Prefers to learn by reading, not listening.
  • Reads during free time reading material always
  • Magazine subscriptions, book clubs.
  • Prefers new information in print.
  • Studies by reviewing notes or
  • skimming text.
  • Excellent recall of material that has been read.
  • Good at homework assignments.
  • Prefers to study alone.
  • Remembers addresses or phone numbers better if
    they see it in writing.
  • Likes to work on puzzles workbooks.
  • Left Brain Dominate
  • An Extrovert
  • The Observer
  • Scans everything. Wants to see things enjoys
    visual stimuli.
  • Stores visual images-and good at recalling visual
  • Enjoys shapes, colors, patterns, maps, pictures,
    and diagrams.
  • Can recall words after seeing them a few times.
  • Does not enjoy lectures.
  • Daydreams A word, sound, smell causes vivid
    recall mental
  • wandering.
  • Can vividly describe the details of a scene/
    event they observed.

The Auditory Learner
  • Left Brain DOMINATE
  • An Introvert
  • The Listener
  • Prefers lectures to reading assignments.
  • Good at remembering verbal instructions/directions
    -even it they are
  • written down.
  • Likes to listen to stories, poems, music and
  • Seldom takes notes or writes things down.
  • Often repeats what has just been said.
  • Talks to self, thinks aloud.
  • Often move lips while reading.
  • Likes out music.
  • Likes to study with a background noise TV,
    radio, and music.
  • Usually has a good ear for music.
  • Likes live music, concerts, and plays.
  • Right Brain DOMINATE
  • An Extrovert
  • The Talker
  • The Interactive Learner
  • Prefers to discuss ideas concepts.
  • Often repeats or re-states, aloud what has been
  • Asks immediately after assignment given, What is
    the assignment?
  • Remembers an address or phone number by saying it
  • Often needs to think aloud-thoughts must be
  • Needs a chance to reflect.
  • Likes brainstorming.
  • Likes to perform... stage, skits, role-playing,
    charades, plays, drama, and musicals.
  • Likes social activities, parties.

The Tactile-Kinesthetic Learner
  • Left Brain Dominate
  • An Introvert
  • Tactile-Touching
  • A toucher, hugger.
  • In touch with self feelings.
  • Needs to touch, handle, and manipulate materials,
    objects especially while learning/studying.
  • Good at drawing designs.
  • Often doodles while listening.
  • Often hugs self while listening or
    concentratingstrokes hands, arms or
  • clothing. Rocks, sways, "motors".
  • Likes computers.
  • Stands close during conversations.
  • Right Brain Dominate
  • An Extrovert
  • Kinesthetic
  • Body Centered/Movement
  • The Doer.
  • Needs to get up and move around in order to
    process information.
  • Reads using their finger to follow the line.
  • Talks with whole body, uses hands, animated.
  • Good a reading body language.
  • Likes performing, charades, acting.
  • Good at activities skills that are body
    centered sports, mechanics, using tools.
  • Often into physical activity hiking, jogging,
  • Do not like a desk job.
  • Learns through movement.

Four Cognitive Levels Of Association
  • Concretethe actual cup the EXPERIENCE of the
    actual object known as a cup.
  • Three dimensional picture
  • Symbol
  • Word.Cup
  • TEACHING MOMENT When presenting a concept or
    idea consider the metaphors, analogies, examples
    and comparisons you use.
  • For the concept to take hold in the mind of the
    student, they need to have a point of reference
    that is based in experience.
  • You cannot teach a concept if there is no
    experience associated with the ideas.
  • There needs to be an experience stored in the

The Four Phases of the Learning Process
INPUT Decoding Taking In Information ORGANIZE Encoding Making sense of the information. Comprehending. STORE Remembering Long term memory RETRIEVE Using Recalling, Doing, Performing, Reflecting
The Four Phases of the Learning Process
Learning Modality Input Organize Store Retrieve
V I S U A L Reads information.,Observes.,Visualizes scenes, people, and objects.,Reads outlines or takes notes.,Underline, use a highlighter.,Color code important points Use graphics or charts to remember sequence and important points.,Use mind map.,Outline.,Identify/write main idea. ,List main points. Review material notes.,Hook information to,previously stored / learned information.,Written rehearsal.,Color code important points.,Develop graphics charts.,Answer How would I use this information? Use Mnemonics.,Prepare a written report.,Take a written exam.,Visualize first, then write or explain.,Look for the patterns.,For spelling, write the word to see if it looks correct. ,Use the same style to recall as in rehearsal and/or studying.
The Four Phases of the Learning Process
Learning Modality Input Organize Store Retrieve
A U D I T O R Y Use cooperative learning activities.,Read aloud and sub vocalizes.,Repeat (either aloud or sub vocalize).,Restate.,Listen to lecture. Tapes or videos.,Discussions.,Use listening music.,Create oral mnemonics. Restate/repeat incoming information to self.,Review information in sequential order. Discuss.,Cooperative learning activities/strategies.,Self talk.,Create oral mnemonics. Use music rhythm.,Oral rehearsal.,Listen, repeatedly to previously taped information.,Orally recall hook new information into stored information.,Orally tell how information might be used.,Create oral mnemonics.,Create a verse, rap, poem, and chant.,Answer how would I use this information? Give an oral presentation.,Tell role-play to demonstrate lesson/task/situation. ,Discussion activities.,Talk through to self to retrieve information and talk self through the task.,Repeat mnemonics.,Sing, chant, rap, verse, poem.,
The Four Phases of the Learning Process
Learning Modality Input Organize Store Retrieve
K I N E S T E T I C Handle/ manipulate objects while reading, listening, observing. Move, walk, fidget/motor while reading, doing, listening.,Observe/participate in a demonstration.,Take breaks (get up if necessary move) at least every 15 minutes. ,Copy, trace, design. Act, role-play, walk through the task /lesson. Write/design or physically model.,Take a break to move/walk/reflect.,Use notes/flash cards, sentence strips, fill in the blanks.,Cut paste technique for linking information. ,Role-play walk through, model the task or lesson information. Use variety or tactile or movement activities.,Repeat/rehearse,Copy/write/re-do at least three times.,Apply use the information through role-play.,Use visual tactile tics to identify task with touching or looking at pre-selected objects. ,Hook new information into stored information. Use a variety of same techniques to retrieve as used to input store information.,Write, draw, collage, and design.,Use graphics/designs.,Manipulate objects/stroking to recall information.,Role play, model, talk,,Mnemonics.,Use demonstrations, build a model, and use body language. ,Use color-coded flash /note cards.
Teaching Tips Meeting the Needs of Adult
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Setting The Stage
  • Provide consistent structure and orderliness.
  • Employ organizational patterns that signal class
    has started.
  • Provide specific, concrete, and understandable
  • Have a lesson plan prepared.
  • Be prepared to present instructions both orally
    and in writing.
  • Have materials organized.

Plan Instructional Strategies what strategies
will you use to
INPUT Decoding Taking In Information ORGANIZE Encoding Making sense of the information. Comprehending. STORE Remembering Long term memory RETRIEVE Using Recalling, Doing, Performing, Reflecting
Step One and Two of Five Step Process Model of
InstructionSequencing Organizing Information
  • Provide an anticipatory set that is linked to the
    lesson object and engages all students.
  • Link students prior knowledge, learning and/or
    experience to the lesson objective.
  • Break down lesson objective in a sequential
  • Make a clear transition from lesson objective to
    instructional step of presenting the material,
    (see in putting).

Presenting Material InstructionStep Three of the
Five- Step Process Model of Instruction
  • Have material presentation timed so to insure
    adequate time for instruction that ADDRESSES ALL
    learning styles.
  • Link students prior knowledge, experience and or
    learning to the material being presented.
  • relate material to everyday situations when
  • Make it concrete, (remember the CUP). Link to
  • Checking for understanding includes more than
    asking questions and students giving the right
  • Provide opportunity to link to abstract and
    reflective learning.
  • Allow students to ascribe personal meaning. Why
    is this useful for them to know? What is the pay
  • Be aware of your students responses and reactions
    to your pace style of instruction.
  • Are students sleeping, disinterested, side
    talking, bored, restless, drawing, reading
    something else?

Be prepared to adjust your pace and style to fit
student needs.
  • Could This Be You ?
  • Are you talking too much?
  • Are you using yourself as a point of reference?
  • Are you telling too much of your story?
  • Are you telling your students how to do it based
    on your experience/learning style/preference?

And if you are, then expect that they will make
every effort
  • To get you off topic off the lesson plan.
  • To you tune out.
  • To look for ways to prove you wrong.
  • To want to argue/debate/discuss your story and
  • Tell you why what you are telling them will not
    work for them.
  • Ask your advice. Set you up.
  • Run the class.

What To Do?
  • Complete a lesson plan, stick with the lesson
    plan. Use a variety of instructional techniques,
    cooperative learning strategies, multi media
    presentations, adjust and pace your presentation.

Instructional Materials
  • Provide handouts/worksheets that easy to read.
  • Distribute them throughout the lesson, pacing
    your flow
  • of reading, instructional or worksheet
  • Do Not Give Out All
  • The Resource Sheets, WORKSHEETS, Workbooks At
  • It is too distracting, too over-whelming.
  • Students will start looking at them, filling them
    out, asking questions.
  • Keep them interested in what is coming next.

  • Use a variety of instructional materials
    techniques to accommodate all learners.
  • Use multi-sensory strategies to reach students
    with varied learning styles.
  • Provide opportunities or touching, handling,
    acting, role-playing, repeating, writing.
  • Use visual aids video, graphs, pictures, charts,

Help students to visualize material. The more
the students can visualize and hear what is
presented, the better the material will be
  • Use film, videos, charts, graphs, and
  • flip charts, pictures, the board, write on it,
    draw on it.
  • music, poetry, word games.

Learning Strategies
  • Students learn how to learn.
  • Use such transferable learning strategies as
    listening, para-phrasing SQ3R (survey, question,
    read, and recite review.)
  • note-taking methods.
  • memory strategies.
  • Sentence combining.
  • Word association.

Provide adults with problem solving strategies to
increase task performance
  • listening
  • questioning
  • attending to skills, (concentrating on the task)
  • self-monitoring to ascertain where there is a
    break down in understanding.

Use teaching strategies to enhance the storage of
  • categorize the information by function, size
  • comparing new information with known information,
  • organizing the information by distinguishing what
    is important from what is less important.
  • Use mapping, clustering.

Use teaching strategies to enhance memory
  • visual imagery
  • clustering or chunking information into units
  • color coding
  • mapping, and
  • verbally rehearsing information
  • practice

Use teaching strategies to aid in the retrieval
of information
  • association
  • mnemonics
  • imagery, and
  • setting ideas to music/rapping, rhyming

Provide opportunities for students to practice
skills in multiple settings with a variety of
materials, since many of our students lack the
ability to quickly generalize and apply skills
Accommodating Modifications
  • Make sure lesson plan timing allows for task
  • Pair senior students with new students.
  • Pair low level readers with better readers.
  • Have test material read to student.
  • Keep worksheets and/or tests do-able.
  • Encourage students to write on every other line.
  • Encourage students to high light.
  • Allow adequate time for students to copy material
    from the board or video.
  • Have key concepts posted about the room or on
    flip charts.

Seven Different TYPES OF Intelligence_________

Seven Different Ways Of Knowing
Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence
  • Deals with words and language both written and

Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence
  • Deals with recognizing tonal patterns, sounds,
    rhythms and beats.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence
  • Relies on sense of sight and ability to
    visualize includes ability to create mental
  • Can layer images in the mind, make them three

Intrapersonal Intelligence
  • Relates to self-knowledge.
  • Relates to ability to self-reflect.
  • Metacognition Deeper meaning.
  • Awareness of internal states of being.

Body-Kinesthetic Intelligence
  • Relates to physical movement, coordination.
  • Brain and body connection integrated.
  • Uses brains motor cortex, which controls bodily

Interpersonal Intelligence
  • Has to do with person-to- person relationships
    and communication.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
  • Deals with inductive and deductive thinking,
    reasoning, numbers and abstract patterns
    sometimes called scientific thinking.

  • Intelligence is not governed by what you know.
    Intelligence is determined through a more
    inclusive range of abilities including how you
    know and what you learn easily such as
    information, talents and/or skills that you have
    a knack for acquiring and excelling in.