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Food, Soil Conservation, and Pest Management

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Title: Food, Soil Conservation, and Pest Management


1
Chapter 13
  • Food, Soil Conservation, and Pest Management

2
Soil- A renewable resource if maintained properly.
  • Soil make-up
  • How soil is formed
  • Eroded rock
  • Mineral nutrients
  • Decaying organic matter
  • Water
  • Air
  • Microorganisms
  • Weathering
  • Physical
  • Wind, water, moving plates
  • Chemical
  • acids
  • Biological
  • Lichens, roots

3
Why is soil so important?
  • Nutrients needed by plants are in soil
  • Nutrients by humans are then taken up by plants
    or animals that get them from the soil
  • Water purifier
  • Removes carbon from the atmosphere and stores it
    as carbon compounds

4
Soil Layers
  • Soil horizons are viewed through a soil profile
  • O horizon surface litter
  • A horizon topsoil and humus (partially
    decomposed plants and animals and clay, silt, and
    sand)
  • B horizon subsoil
  • C horizon parent rock
  • Bedrock

5
(No Transcript)
6
Soil profiles in different biomes
7
Which biome(s) is most often converted to
cropland?
  • Why do you think this is the case?

8
Water movement through soil
  • Infiltration- Waters natural movement down
    through soil dissolving minerals and organic
    matter and carrying them lower as it moves-
    leaching

9
Soil properties
  • Soil is composed of
  • Clay- smallest particle size
  • Silt- medium
  • Sand- larger
  • Loam is the best for plants. An even mixture of
    all three.

10
Textural Triangle
11
Soil properties continued
  • Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the
    void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material, and is
    a fraction of the volume of voids over the total
    volume, between 01, or as a percentage between
    0100.
  • How much space is available to hold water.

12
Which picture is more likely made up of a soil
like gravel? Sand?
13
What is permeability?
  • http//techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module06/Permeabilit
    y.htm

14
How do porosity and permeability of soil relate?
  • LAB!

15
The relationship between Porosity and Permeability
  • In some soils porosity and permeability have a
    direct relationship, as you have more pores water
    can flow through easier.
  • In some soils porosity and permeability have an
    indirect relationship, as you have more pores
    there are more places for water to get trapped
    thus decreasing the permeability.
  • It depends on medium type and compaction of the
    medium.

16
Core Case Study What is Golden Rice?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vsbxA4WlkUP8

17
FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION
  • Global food production has stayed ahead of
    population growth. However
  • One of six people in developing countries cannot
    grow or buy the food they need.
  • Others cannot meet their basic energy needs
    (undernutrition / hunger) or protein and key
    nutrients (malnutrition).

18
Food Challenges for the FUTURE
  • 1)poverty
  • 2)making and moving enough food to sustain a
    growing population
  • 3)doing so sustainably (not degrading soil and
    water)
  • Use of fossil fuels in farming
  • Wastes from plants and animals
  • Erosion of the soil
  • Degradation of the minerals and vitamins from the
    soil
  • Polluting water by increasing fertilizer run-off,
    animal waste run-off

19
FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION
  • Food security means that every person in a given
    area has daily access to enough nutritious food
    to have an active and healthy life.
  • Need large amounts of macronutrients (protein,
    carbohydrates, and fats).
  • Need smaller amounts of micronutrients (vitamins
    such as A,C, and E).
  • Food Security Act of 1985- subsidy for taking
    highly eroded land and planting it with grasses
    to restore soil.

20
FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION
  • One in three people has a deficiency of one or
    more vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin A,
    iodine (causes goiter - enlargement of thyroid
    gland), and iron (causes anemia).
  • Measles and diarrhea kill many children in
    developing countries.

Figure 13-2
21
War and Corruption leading to Hunger
  • Starving children collecting ants to eat in
    famine-stricken Sudan, Africa which has been
    involved in civil war since 1983.
  • Money spent on weapons, manpower used for
    fighting, no stability, land maintained by rich
    only.

Figure 13-3
22
Hunger from war
  • http//www.youtube.com/user/WorldConcernVideos?vq
    6gYK7474sEfeaturepyv

23
Solutions Reducing Childhood Deaths from Hunger
and Malnutrition
  • There are several ways to reduce childhood deaths
    from nutrition-related causes
  • Immunize children.
  • Encourage breast-feeding.
  • Prevent dehydration from diarrhea.
  • Prevent blindness from vitamin A deficiency.
  • Provide family planning.
  • Increase education for women.

24
Overnutrition Eating Too Much
  • Over nutrition and lack of exercise can lead to
    reduced life quality, poor health, and premature
    death. ? The same problems undernourished people
    face.
  • A 2005 Boston University study found that about
    60 of American adults are overweight and 33 are
    obese (totaling 93).
  • Americans spend 42 billion per year trying to
    lose weight.
  • 24 billion per year is needed to eliminate world
    hunger.

25
FOOD PRODUCTION
  • Croplands- grains, 77 of food on 11 of land
  • 50 of most peoples diet is based on grains
  • Rangelands- meat and cattle, 16 of food on 29
    of land
  • Oceanic Fisheries and aquaculture- fish, 7 of
    food

26
Industrial Food Production High Input
Monocultures
  • About 80 of the worlds food supply is produced
    by industrialized agriculture.
  • Uses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water,
    commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce
    monocultures.
  • Greenhouses are increasingly being used taking up
    natural flow of land. (can cause erosion issues)
  • Plantations are being used in tropics for cash
    crops such as coffee, sugarcane, bananas.

27

Plantation agriculture
Industrialized agriculture
Intensive traditional ag.
Shifting cultivation
No agriculture
Nomadic herding
Fig. 13-4, p. 275
28
Industrial Food Production
  • Livestock production in developed countries is
    industrialized
  • Feedlots are used to fatten up cattle before
    slaughter.
  • Most pigs and chickens live in densely populated
    pens or cages.
  • Most livestock are fed grain grown on cropland.
  • Systems use a lot of energy and water and produce
    huge amounts of animal waste. Lots of methane
    released (GHG).

29
What is the Japan-syndrome?
  • Industrialization? Less people farming? more
    /person ? more meat wanted by people that now
    have more money? more grain needed to feed
    animals? less land to grow grain because more
    land needed for urbanization and livestock

30
Problems with sustainably growing enough food to
sustain growing population
  • Soil erosion and depletion of minerals
  • Water depletion and pollution from runoff
  • Overgrazing
  • Overfishing
  • Increased fuel costs
  • Increased atmospheric temperatures
  • ALL LEAD TO BIODIVERSITY LOSS DUE TO HABITAT LOSS
    AND RESOURCE DEGRADATION

31
Natural Capital
Croplands
Ecological Services
Economic Services
Help maintain water flow and soil infiltration
Food crops
Provide partial erosion protection
Fiber crops
Can build soil organic matter
Crop genetic resources
Store atmospheric carbon
Jobs
Provide wildlife habitat for some species
Fig. 13-6, p. 276
32
Is food production in the US efficient?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Food production doubled with no increase in land
    use since 1950.
  • Mostly due to genetic engineering
  • Net Energy Loss- 10 units of nonrenewable fossil
    fuels used to get 1 unit of food.

33
Traditional Agriculture Low Input
Polycultureincreasing crop yields
  • Many farmers in developing countries use
    low-input agriculture to grow a variety of crops
    on each plot of land, interplanting, through
  • Polyvarietal cultivation planting several
    genetic varieties of the same crop.
  • Intercropping two or more different crops grown
    at the same time in a plot. Ex. Grain that uses
    Nitrogen and legume that puts it back into the
    soil.

34
  • Agroforestry crops and trees are grown together.
    Trees provide shade and lower transpiration rate.
  • Polyculture different plants are planted
    together and they mature at different times.
    Keeps ground covered with plants and reduces
    erosion.

35
Traditional Agriculture Low Input Polyculture
  • Research has shown that, on average, low input
    polyculture produces higher yields than
    high-input monoculture.
  • Keeps soil fertile, helps with water purification.

Figure 13-8
36
SOIL EROSION AND DEGRADATION
  • Soil erosion lowers soil fertility and can
    overload nearby bodies of water with eroded
    sediment.
  • Sheet erosion surface water or wind peel off
    thin layers of soil.
  • Rill erosion fast-flowing little rivulets of
    surface water make small channels.
  • Gully erosion fast-flowing water join together
    to cut wider and deeper ditches or gullies.

37
Soil erosion problems and solutions
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vQT7hklD2l2M

38
Desertification Degrading Drylands
  • About one-third of the worlds land has lost some
    of its productivity because of drought and human
    activities that reduce or degrade topsoil.
  • Chinas dustbowl

Figure 13-12
39
Salinization and Waterlogging
  • Repeated irrigation can reduce crop yields by
    causing salt buildup in the soil and waterlogging
    of crop plants.

Figure 13-13
40

Solutions
Soil Salinization
Cleanup
Prevention
Reduce irrigation
Flush soil (expensive and wastes water)
Stop growing crops for 25 years
Switch to salt-tolerant crops (such as barley,
cotton, sugarbeet)
Install underground drainage systems (expensive)
Fig. 13-15, p. 281
41
Salinization and Waterlogging of Soils A
Downside of Irrigation
  • Example of high evaporation, poor drainage, and
    severe salinization.
  • White alkaline salts have displaced crops.

Figure 13-14
42
INCREASE SOIL QUALITY AND CROP YIELDS BY
  • Modern farm machinery can plant crops without
    disturbing soil (no-till and minimum tillage).
  • Conservation-tillage farming
  • Increases crop yield.
  • Raises soil carbon content.
  • Lowers water use.
  • Lowers pesticides.
  • Uses less tractor fuel.
  • Downside-expensive machinery

43
INCREASE SOIL QUALITY AND CROP YIELDS BY
  • Fertilizers can help restore soil nutrients, but
    runoff of inorganic fertilizers can cause water
    pollution.
  • Organic fertilizers from plant and animal
    (fresh, manure, or compost) materials.
  • Commercial inorganic fertilizers Active
    ingredients contain nitrogen, phosphorous, and
    potassium and other trace nutrients.
  • PLANT COVER CROPS
  • WINDBREAKS, ROTATE CROPS

44
What is the green revolution?
  • High input agriculture and produces more food per
    unit of land.
  • Use of pesticides
  • Use of irrigation
  • Use of fertilizers
  • Growing monocultures of genetically engineered
    plants
  • Keep ground covered all year long with different
    plants

45
THE GREEN REVOLUTION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  • Lack of water, high costs for small farmers, and
    physical limits to increasing crop yields hinder
    expansion of the green revolution.
  • Since 1978 the amount of irrigated land per
    person has declined due to
  • Depletion of underground water supplies.
  • Inefficient irrigation methods.
  • Salt build-up.
  • Cost of irrigating crops.

46

Biodiversity Loss
Soil
Air Pollution
Human Health
Water
Loss and degradation of grasslands, forests, and
wetlands
Erosion
Water waste
Nitrates in drinking water
Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use
Loss of fertility
Aquifer depletion
Pesticide residues in drinking water, food, and
air
Salinization
Increased runoff and flooding from cleared land
Other air pollutants from fossil fuel use
Waterlogging
Desertification
Fish kills from pesticide runoff
Sediment pollution from erosion
Contamination of drinking and swimming water with
disease organisms from livestock wastes
Greenhouse gas emissions of nitrous oxide from
use of inorganic fertilizers
Fish kills from pesticide runoff
Killing wild predators to protect livestock
Surface and groundwater pollution from pesticides
and fertilizers
Belching of the greenhouse gas methane by cattle
Loss of genetic diversity of wild crop strains
replaced by monoculture strains
Bacterial contamination of meat
Overfertilization of lakes and rivers from runoff
of fertilizers, livestock wastes, and food
processing wastes
Pollution from pesticide sprays
Fig. 13-18, p. 285
47
The Ideal Pesticide
  • The ideal pest-killing chemical has these
    qualities
  • Kill only target pest.
  • Not cause genetic resistance in the target
    organism.
  • Disappear or break down into harmless chemicals
    after doing its job.
  • Be more cost-effective than doing nothing.

48
Pesticide Protection Laws in the U.S.
  • Government regulation has banned a number of
    harmful pesticides (DDT).
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the
    Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food
    and Drug Administration (FDA) regulate the sales
    of pesticides under the Federal Insecticide,
    Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

49
PROTECTING FOOD RESOURCES PEST MANAGEMENT
  • Advantages and disadvantages of conventional
    chemical pesticides.

Figure 13-28
50
Integrated Pest Management
  • Using a combination of BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, AND
    PHYSICAL pest management.
  • Lower the use of pesticides
  • Reduce pest populations

51
BIOLOGICAL METHODS
  • Introduce predators
  • Create habitats for predators
  • Introduce parasites
  • Introduce disease-carrying bacteria
  • Introduce sterile males to lower reproductive
    success
  • Genetically modified plants that resist pests

52
CHEMICAL METHODS
  • Use pheromones to attract pests to traps
  • Spray crops with hot water to scald pests
  • Use less persistent pesticides
  • Spray crops with soap solution

53
PHYSICAL METHODS
  • Noise to repel pests
  • Physical barriers
  • Statues, scarecrows, etc.

54
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Results of 22 year study comparing organic and
    conventional farming.

Figure 13-34
55

What Can You Do?
Reducing Exposure to Pesticides
Grow some of your food using organic methods.
Buy organic food.
Wash and scrub all fresh fruits, vegetables,
and wild foods you pick.
Eat less or no meat.
Trim the fat from meat.
Fig. 13-30, p. 299
56
THE GENE REVOLUTION
  • Selective Breeding (Take along time, only mix
    similar species, not long before pests wipe out)
  • Artificial selection is breeding two similar
    organisms such as two types of corn or tomatoes
    to improve the quality of the food.
  • Cross breeding is breeding two different species.
  • Genetic engineering FASTER!!

57
What is gene splicing and how does it lead to
recombinant DNA?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vuQ9M-r1dXcE

58
Mixing Genes
  • Genetic engineering involves splicing a gene from
    one species and transplanting the DNA into
    another species.

Figure 13-19
59
THE GENE REVOLUTION
  • GMOs could be grown to help reduce malnutrition,
    reduce use of large amounts of inorganic
    fertilizers, use less water, grow faster and
    larger, etc.

Figure 13-20
60
Problems with the gene revolution
  • Controversy has arisen over the use of
    genetically modified food (GMF).
  • We know too little about the long-term potential
    harm to human and ecosystem health.
  • Controversy over legal ownership of genetically
    modified crop varieties and whether GMFs should
    be labeled.
  • Could create herbicide resistant plants
  • Could create new allergies
  • Should a seed company have the legal right to sue
    a farmer for using a second year seed?

61
  • Can GM foods save the world?

62
PRODUCING MORE MEAT
  • About half of the worlds meat is produced by
    livestock grazing on grass.
  • The other half is produced under factory-like
    conditions (feedlots).
  • Densely packed livestock are fed grain or fish
    meal.
  • Antibiotic injections, hormone injections
  • Why would eating more farm raised fish and
    chicken reduce environmental affects?
  • Which animals convert grain to biomass faster?
    Food Chain!!

63
Trade-Offs
Animal Feedlots
Advantages
Disadvantages
Increased meat production
Need large inputs of grain, fish meal, water, and
fossil fuels
Higher profits
Concentrate animal wastes that can pollute water
Less land use
Reduced overgrazing
Reduced soil erosion
Antibiotics can increase genetic resistance to
microbes in humans
Help protect biodiversity
Fig. 13-21, p. 289
64
CATCHING AND RAISING MORE FISH AND SHELLFISH
  • Government subsidies given to the fishing
    industry are a major cause of overfishing.
  • Subsidies are not taken away because fishing
    industry would suffer and many would lose jobs.
  • Redirect money toward new jobs in fishing
    industry.
  • Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)- sustainable
    fishing seal
  • 3 ways to sustain fisheries
  • Quotas
  • Reserves
  • Regulating gear and methods
  • Limiting the number of fishing boats

65
Aquaculture Aquatic Feedlots
  • Raising large numbers of fish and shellfish in
    ponds and cages is worlds fastest growing type
    of food production.
  • Fish farming involves cultivating fish in a
    controlled environment and harvesting them in
    captivity.
  • Fish ranching involves growing specific species
    that live part of their lives in freshwater and
    part in saltwater.
  • Fish are held for the first few years, released,
    and then harvested when they return to spawn.

66
Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture species Seaweeds, mussels, oysters,
    mollusks, shrimp, salmon, trout, catfish
  • For aquaculture to be profitable it must be
    marketable, inexpensive to raise, efficient at
    converting feed to biomass, grow quickly, and
    disease resistant
  • Downsides it takes away natural habitats, water
    wastes, accidental release of non-native species,
    transmission of diseases into the wild

67

Trade-Offs
Aquaculture
Advantages
Disadvantages
High efficiency
Needs large inputs of land, feed, and water
High yield in small volume of water
Large waste output
Destroys mangrove forests and estuaries
Can reduce overharvesting of conventional
fisheries
Uses grain to feed some species
Low fuel use
Dense populations vulnerable to disease
High profits
Tanks too contaminated to use after about 5 years
Profits not tied to price of oil
Fig. 13-24, p. 292
68
Government Policies and Food Production
  • Governments use three main approaches to
    influence food production
  • Control prices to keep prices artificially low.
  • Provide subsidies to keep farmers in business.
  • Let the marketplace decide rather that
    implementing price controls.

69
Solutions Steps Toward More Sustainable Food
Production
  • We can increase food security by slowing
    populations growth, sharply reducing poverty, and
    slowing environmental degradation of the worlds
    soils and croplands.
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