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Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction

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Title: Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction


1
Universal Design for Learning Differentiated
Instruction

2
Last Week Diverse Learners
3
Differentiated Instruction
  • No two students are alike.
  • No two students learn in the identical way.
  • An enriched environment for one student is not
    necessarily enriched for another.
  • In the classroom we should teach students to
    think for themselves.

4
Differentiated Instruction
  • Although essential curricula goals may be similar
    for all students, methodologies employed in a
    classroom must be varied to suit to the
    individual needs of all students
  • Learning must be differentiated to be effective.

5
Differentiated Instruction
  • Differentiating instruction means creating
    multiple paths so that students of different
    abilities, interest or learning needs experience
    equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop
    and present concepts as a part of the daily
    learning process.
  • It allows students to take greater responsibility
    and ownership for their own learning, and
    provides opportunities for peer teaching and
    cooperative learning.

6
Three Characteristics of Differentiated
Instruction

7
Differentiated Instruction
  • Several elements and materials are used to
    support instructional content.
  • These include acts, concepts, generalizations or
    principles, attitudes, and skills. The variation
    seen in a differentiated classroom is most
    frequently in the manner in which students gain
    access to important learning. Access to the
    content is seen as key.

8
Differentiated Instruction
  • Align tasks and objectives to learning goals.
  • Designers of differentiated instruction view the
    alignment of tasks with instructional goals and
    objectives as essential. Goals are most
    frequently assessed by many state-level,
    high-stakes tests and frequently administered
    standardized measures. Objectives are frequently
    written in incremental steps resulting in a
    continuum of skills-building tasks. An
    objectives-driven menu makes it easier to find
    the next instructional step for learners entering
    at varying levels.

9
Differentiated Instruction
  • Instruction is concept-focused and
    principle-driven.
  • The instructional concepts should be broad-based,
    not focused on minute details or unlimited facts.
    Teachers must focus on the concepts, principles
    and skills that students should learn. The
    content of instruction should address the same
    concepts with all students, but the degree of
    complexity should be adjusted to suit diverse
    learners.

10
Approaches to Differentiated Instruction

11
Differentiated Instruction
12
Differentiated Instruction
  • Differentiation can occur in four ways
  • the content,
  • process,
  • product or
  • environment in the classroom

13
1. Differentiating the Content
  • Differentiating content (or topic) requires that
    students are pre-tested so the teacher can
    identify the students who do not require direct
    instruction.
  • Students demonstrating understanding of the
    concept can skip the instruction step and proceed
    to apply the concepts to the task of solving a
    problem.

14
2. Differentiating the Process
  • Differentiating the processes (or activities)
    means varying learning activities or strategies
    to provide appropriate methods for students to
    explore the concepts.
  • It is important to give students alternative
    paths to manipulate the ideas embedded within the
    concept.

15
2. Differentiating the Process
  • Learners are expected to interact and work in
    groups. Teachers may have whole-class
    introductory discussions followed by work in
    groups.
  • These groups must change members as for different
    evaluations and projects.

16
3. Differentiating the Product
  • Differentiating the product means varying the
    complexity of the product. Students do
    assignments to demonstrate mastery of the
    concepts.
  • Weaker students may have reduced performance
    expectations, while advanced students may be
    asked to produce work that requires more complex
    or more advanced thinking.

17
3. Differentiating the Product
  • Items to which students respond may be
    differentiated so that different students can
    demonstrate or express their knowledge and
    understanding in different ways.
  • A well-designed student product allows varied
    means of expression and alternative procedures
    and offers varying degrees of difficulty, types
    of evaluation, and scoring.

18
4. Differentiating the Environment
  • Through Accommodating Individual Learning
    Preferences
  • There has been a great deal of work on learning
    styles over the last 2 decades.

19
"You might belong in Gryffindor, Where dwell the
brave at heart, There daring, nerve, and
chivalry Set Gryffindors apart
"You belong in Hufflepuff, Where they are just
and loyal, Those patient Hufflepuffs are true
And unafraid to toil"
"Here in wise old Ravenclaw, If you've a
ready mind, Those of wit and learning, Will
always find their kind."
"Here you are in Slytherin, Where you'll make
your real friends, Those cunning folk use any
means To achieve their ends."
20
4. Differentiating the Environment
  • Dunn and Dunn focuses on manipulating the school
    environment
  • Howard Gardner identifies individual talents or
    aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories.
  • Based on Jungs work, the MBTI and Kiersey
    focuses on understanding how people's personality
    affects the way they interact personally, and how
    this affects the way individuals respond to each
    other within the learning environment

21
Dunn and Dunn
22
Multiple Intelligences
23
V.A.R.K.
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Read/Write
  • Kinaesthetic

V
A
K
R
24
Jungs Model
Sensing
Feeling
Thinking
Judgement
Perception
Perception
Intuiting
Carry out different teaching for different
students - Ancient Chinese Proverb
25
Introduction to Type Theory
  • Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung developed a theory
    early in the 20th century to describe basic
    individual preferences and explain similarities
    and differences between people
  • Main postulate of the theory is that people have
    inborn behavioral tendencies and preferences
  • Your natural response in daily situations
  • Used when we are generally not stressed and feel
    competent, and energetic
  • Could be defined as those behaviors you often
    dont notice

26
Development of the MBTI Instrument
  • Jungs theory important but inaccessible to the
    general population
  • Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs
    (mother-daughter team) expanded on Jungs work by
    developing an instrument to help people identify
    their preferences
  • The MBTI tool is an indicator of personality type
    (i.e. innate preferences) that has proven to be
    remarkably reliable and valid
  • Represents the result of over 50 years of
    research
  • Is used globally in both education and corporate
    settings over 2 million people each year

27
Development of the MBTI
  • Self-reported and nonjudgmental psychological
    instrument categorizing people
  • Based on mental preferences
  • We develop strength, skills, and abilities with
    one hand and underdevelop the other, but we still
    use both hands
  • We have dominant personality traits and auxiliary
    traits which surface under certain conditions
  • Normative data set

28
Framework of the MBTI
  • Mental processes
  • Perceptions
  • Judgments
  • Mental orientations
  • Energy orientation
  • Outer world orientation

29
Mental Processes
  • Perceptions
  • How you perceive your surroundings
  • Sensing (S)
  • Rely on actual data
  • Gather information through the five senses
  • Pay attention to details
  • Intuition (N)
  • Rely on inspiration
  • Gather information through sixth sense
  • Look at the big picture

30
Mental Processes
  • Judgments
  • The basis for decision making
  • Thinking (T)
  • Base decisions on logic and principles
  • Objectivity
  • Feeling (F)
  • Base decisions on human values and harmonious
    relationships
  • Subjectivity

31
Mental Orientations
  • Energy orientation
  • Where you get your energy
  • Introversion (I)
  • Energy directed inward
  • Prefer concepts and ideas
  • Think before speaking
  • Extraversion (E)
  • Energy directed outward
  • Prefer to interact with people and things
  • Speak before thinking

32
Mental Orientations
  • Outer world orientation
  • The lifestyle used to deal with your environment,
    i.e., most often used mental preference
  • Judging (J)
  • Decisiveness, closure
  • Value task or project completion
  • Perceiving (P)
  • Curiosity, flexibility
  • Value starting a task or project

33
Four MBTI Dichotomies
Extraversion Introversion E - I Dichotomy Where do you prefer to focus your attention and get your energy?
Sensing Intuition S - N Dichotomy How do you prefer to take in information?
Thinking Feeling T - F Dichotomy How do you make decisions?
Judging Perceiving J - P Dichotomy How do you deal with the outer world?
34
Interpretation of MBTI
  • I/E, S/N, T/F, J/P
  • 16 possible types
  • Relation to
  • Cognitive ability or general intelligence
  • Other personality characteristics
  • Communication style

35
Communication Using Type
  • Basic compatibility
  • Focus on style recognition and understanding
  • Appropriate response the key
  • Avoid stereotypes
  • Appreciate the uniqueness of each person

36
Decision-Making Using Type
  • Recognize how group members may complement or
    contrast each other
  • On the other hand, watch out for groupthink!
  • Focus on respectful debate and compromise
  • Appreciate the unique value of each persons
    viewpoint and input

37
Occupational Trends by Type
38
Ability rather than disability
  • Teachers who focus on students learning styles
    tend to forget about the disabilities.
  • They group students according to learning
    preference rather than disability.

39
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43
Using the de Bono 6-Hats Technique as a Learning
Styles Model
44
Topics
  • Six-Hats Technique
  • Six-Hats as a Learning Styles Model
  • Hexagrid
  • Similarities
  • Conclusions

45
Six-Hats Technique

46
Using 6-Hats as a Learning Styles Model
  • de Bono says often and clearly that the 6-Hats is
    not a learning styles model
  • Previous attempts have been made to make it so,
    which have concentrated on classifying learners
    as either wearers of one single hat or as
    having a primary and a secondary hat
  • This gross approach to cataloguing learners is
    antithetical to the central premise of the 6-Hats
  • Our approach has his approval

47
White Hat

White Hat (Logical) The White Hat is the
logical approach to learning, which is similar to
the logical dimension of any number of learning
styles models. For example, the Thinking
dimension of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the
Quadrant A dimension of the Herrmann Brain
Dominance Indicator, the Assimilators of the Kolb
Model, and the Logical-Mathematical intelligence
of Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences.
White Hat learners are therefore logical and
analytical, they like the facts, figures and
theories, and tend to be objective about ideas.
Ideally they like to do independent research,
read books, and compile facts and figures. They
usually work best alone and are generally very
strong at academic subjects.
48
Yellow Hat

Yellow Hat (Positive) The Yellow Hat is the
optimistic approach, this dimension describes
learners who are upbeat and positive, like the
Participant dimension of the Grasha- Riechmann
Model. Yellow Hat learners are upbeat and
optimistic, and try to find the positive side to
all situations. They enjoy learning real-world
examples, are group-orientated and very
supportive of other members of the group. They
like practical subjects and demonstrations.
49
Black Hat

Black Hat (Negative) The Black Hat is the
so-called negative approach, but is better
described as the cautious or practical approach.
It is equivalent the practical dimension in a
number of models, for example, the Quadrant B
dimension of the Herrmann Brain Dominance
Indicator, Pragmatists in the Honey-Mumford
Model, but most particularly it is like the
Concrete Sequential learners of the Gregorc
Model. Black Hat learners are cautious and
practical, and they worry that the costs will
outweigh the benefits of their decisions. They
enjoy learning from real-world examples and like
to work in groups to help them explore ideas.
They like practical subjects and demonstrations.
50
Green Hat

Green Hat (Creative) The Green Hat is the
creative approach, this dimension describes
learners who are creative and think laterally. It
is equivalent to the creative dimension in a
number of models, for example, the Quadrant D
dimension of the Herrmann Brain Dominance
Indicator, Divergers in the Kolb Model, and Type
4 (Dynamic Learners) in the 4MAT Model. Green
Hat learners are creative and innovative in their
approach to learning, they enjoy puzzles and
problem-solving exercises. They like to think
outside the box and will keep seeking
alternative solutions to problems and should
therefore be challenged with practical exercises
that require many points-of-view to fully solve.
51
Red Hat

Red Hat (Emotional) The Red Hat is the
emotional approach, this dimension describes
people who are in touch with their feelings and
with themselves, like the Intrapersonal
intelligence of Howard Gardners Multiple
Intelligences. Red Hat learners are emotional
and instinctive, they love to debate and discuss
ideas. They are in touch with their feelings and
care a lot about their own environments. They
like to participate in lectures, love working in
groups and are very strong at practical subjects.
52
Blue Hat
Blue Hat (Facilitator) The Blue Hat is the
facilitating approach, this dimension describes
the learners who are holists and natural leaders.
It is like the Interpersonal intelligence of
Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences. The
Blue hat learners are holistic in their approach,
can be very effective leaders, but need lots of
thinking time to help them ensure they have
thought things out fully. They prefer lectures or
exercises where a clear overview is given, can
have a strong visual preference, and tend to be
very rule-orientated.
53
Questionnaire
  • Particularly for the non-verbal students in this
    study, two key decisions were taken,
  • the questions were kept relatively
    straightforward
  • the number of questions was kept to a minimum.

54

Red Hat
White Hat
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
Black Hat
Blue Hat
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
Yellow Hat
Green Hat
55
Red Hat
White Hat
Black Hat
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
Green Hat
56
Red Hat
White Hat
Black Hat
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
Green Hat
57
Some Heuristics for forming teams
  • Only one learner with strength in the blue hat to
    avoid conflict between multiple leaders.
  • As many learners with strengths in green hat as
    possible, to ensure high creatively.
  • An equal number of yellow hat as black hat
    learners, to balance the positive with the
    negative.
  • An equal number of white hat as red hat learners,
    to balance the logical with the emotional.
  • Considering that black hat thinking is heavily
    emphasised by Western thinkers (de Bono 00, p.
    xii) and comes most naturally to us, as an
    alternative to point (c) it may be worth
    considering having a few more yellow hats than
    black hats. Clearly it may not always be possible
    to have all of these criteria

58
A new Model ?

59
Logical Analytical
Structured Practical
Imaginative Holistic
Intrapersonal Discussion
60
Black Hat
White Hat
Logical Analytical
Structured Practical
Green Hat
Red Hat
Imaginative Holistic
Intrapersonal Discussion
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
61
Black Hat
Structured Practical
White Hat
Green Hat
Red Hat
Imaginative Holistic
Intrapersonal Discussion
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
62
Black Hat
White Hat
Green Hat
Red Hat
Imaginative Holistic
Intrapersonal Discussion
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
63
Black Hat
White Hat
Red Hat
Intrapersonal Discussion
Green Hat
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
64
Black Hat
White Hat
Green Hat
Red Hat
Yellow Hat
Blue Hat
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