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Sentence Boundaries 101

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... and we are expanding our offerings every year. ... RUN-ON SENTENCE Complex sentences use dependent words + after how till ( or 'til) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sentence Boundaries 101


1
Sentence Boundaries 101
2
CLAUSES
  • Any type of clause has
  • a SUBJECT does the action. It must be
  • person, place, or thing.
  • he Susan bus
  • she the class the school
  • a VERB is the action
  • sit read am
  • stand is goes

3
CLAUSES
  • Any type of clause has
  • _________________________
  • and
  • _________________________

4
There are 2 types of clauses
  • Independent Clause
  • Dependent Clause

5
  • An independent clause is a group of words that
    contains a subject and a verb, expressing a
    complete thought. It could stand alone as a
    complete sentence.

s
v
6
Independent Clause
7
An independent clause is the same thing as a
complete sentence.   Complete Sentence
Independent clause
                               
                               
8
A dependent clause is a group of words that
contains a subject and a verb, but it does not
express a complete thought. This happens when a
dependent word has attached itself to the clause.
dependent word
The teacher let class out early because the
students finished their homework.
9
Common Dependent Words
after how till ( or 'til)
although if unless
as inasmuch   until
as if in order that when
as long as lest whenever
as much as now that where
as soon as provided (that)   wherever
as though since while
because so that which
before than what
even if that whatever
even though    though who/ whoever
dependent word
10
Identify theDEPENDENT CLAUSES
When we went to Metropolitan Community
College, we loved English class.
Now that I know how to identify subjects and
verbs, I write confidently.
I think pickles are gross because I hate the
taste of vinegar.
11
The main subject and main verb of a sentence is
always in the INDEPENDENT CLAUSEbecauseit
is the part that is complete and it can stand on
its own.
12
Identify theMain Subject and Main Verb
When we went to Metropolitan Community
College, we loved English class.
Now that I know how to identify subjects and
verbs, I write confidently.
I think pickles are gross because I hate the
taste of vinegar.
13
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
They cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.
When it does, it is called a sentence fragment.
Because the students finished their
homework. When we went to Metropolitan
Community College.
14
  • PART 2

15
There are four kinds of sentences in the English
language.
Simple IC Our school offers many
programs. Compound IC IC Our school offers
many programs, and we are expanding our
offerings every year. Complex IC DC (one or
more) The student did poorly on the exam
because she didnt study. Because she
didnt study, the student did poorly on the
exam. Compound-Complex IC IC DC (one or
more) Our school offers many programs, and we
are expanding our offerings every year
despite competition from other institutions.




16
Compound Sentences
Main Subject Main Verb

Main Subject Main Verb
  • Use a comma AND a Coordinating Conjunction to
    combine them together
  • A Coordinating Conjunction is one of the FANBOYS

17
Compound sentences use coordinating conjunctions
FANBOYS
  • For
  • And
  • Nor
  • But
  • Or
  • Yet
  • So

Use one of these to make a compound sentence

18
MAKE THESE TWO I.C. INTO A COMPOUND SENTENCE
  • I didnt finish my homework.
  • I am skipping class today.

19
How many main subjects and verbs are there?
  • I didnt finish my homework, so I am skipping
    class today.

20
How many main subjects and verbs are there?
  • I didnt finish my homework, so I am skipping
    class today.

21
If you do not use a FANBOYS, then you have a run
on sentence, and you must separate them.
  • I didnt finish my homework I am skipping class
    today.

RUN-ON SENTENCE
22
Complex sentences use dependent words
after how till ( or 'til)
although if unless
as inasmuch   until
as if in order that when
as long as lest whenever
as much as now that where
as soon as provided (that)   wherever
as though since while
because so that which
before than what
even if that whatever
even though    though who/ whoever
Use one of these To make a Complex sentence

23
Complex sentences can be structured 2 ways
? If the dependent clause comes after the
independent clause, no comma is used.
IC DC We will discuss the matter further
when we meet next week.

? If the dependent clause comes before the
independent clause, a comma is
necessary.
DC IC When we meet next week, we will
discuss the matter further.

24
Is this a compound sentence or complex?
  • The student did poorly on the exam because she
    didnt study.

25
Is this a compound sentence or complex?
  • The student did poorly on the exam, yet she
    passed the class.

26
Compound-Complex Sentences
IC IC DC (one or more)
Our school offers many programs, and we are
expanding our offerings every year despite that
other schools compete with us.
2
1
3
27
Example Summary
  • Eating Chilli Peppers, is an essay by Jeremy
    MacClancy, author of a book on the culture of
    food. MacClancy describes why so many people eat
    chilli peppers and finds the food has more than
    one significance. Chillis are perhaps most well
    known for their wild flavor and burning
    sensation. In the same way, chillis are a source
    of entertainment. Thrill-seekers, for example,
    love the rush and excitement that chillis bring
    to their lives. However, MacClancy finds that
    chillies have more practical reasons as well.
    Historically, they have been used as a medical
    stimulant for curing ailments. Also, in some
    cultures, chillies are eaten to show courage or
    passion. Whatever the reason people eat them,
    MacClancy concludes that eating chilli peppers is
    not for the faint of heart be ready for a shock!

28
Reminders
  • Make sure to use attributive tags (Shenk argues)
    HE ARGUESwhat is HIS purpose??
  • Everything in the summary has to connect to his
    purpose/thesis. They shouldnt be random isolated
    sentences.
  • Use quotes around article titles and underline
    magazine, newspaper and book titles
  • 1st line should be fluid. Not the author is.the
    article title is
  • Refer to author by last name after you mention
    him/her for the first time.

29
  • PART 3
  • Semicolons

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  • Some of the most common stitches in embroidery
    are cross stitch where you stitch an x as one
    stitch to make a design out of a lot of xs, back
    stitch the outline of most standard embroidery
    patterns, and satin stitch where you fill in a
    whole area by starting at the top of desired area
    and make a stitch all the way to the bottom.

39
Correct or incorrect? Pg. 789
  • When too many people are driving in a hurry
    tempers can flare.

40
  • PART 4
  • Colons

41
Colons are used when.
  • Introducing a list or series
  • During 13 years in the White House, Franklin
    D. Roosevelt had three vice presidents Garner,
    Wallace, and Truman.

42
Colons are used when.
  • Introducing a list or series
  • During 13 years in the White House, Franklin
    D. Roosevelt had three vice presidents Garner,
    Wallace, and Truman.

43
Colons
  • To introduce an explanation, an example, or a
    summary
  • Princeton, New Jersey, is a hub of intellectual
    activity it is home to Princeton University, the
    institute for Advanced Study, and numerous
    research centers.

44
Colons
  • To introduce an explanation, an example, or a
    summary
  • Princeton, New Jersey, is a hub of intellectual
    activity it is home to Princeton University, the
    institute for Advanced Study, and numerous
    research centers.

45
Colons
  • To introduce a lengthy or heavily punctuated
    quotation
  • (more than two lines or contains two or more
    commas)
  • The instructions were confusing After
    adjusting toggles A, B, and C, connect bracket A
    to post A, bracket B to post B, and bracket C to
    post C, securing with clamps A, B, and C, as
    illustrated in figure 1.

46
Colons
  • To introduce a lengthy or heavily punctuated
    quotation
  • (more than two lines or contains two or more
    commas)
  • The instructions were confusing After
    adjusting toggles A, B, and C, connect bracket A
    to post A, bracket B to post B, and bracket C to
    post C, securing with clamps A, B, and C, as
    illustrated in figure 1.

47
Colons
  • Use colons in ratios
  • The bill was defeated by a margin of 21.
  • Use colons between titles and subtitles
  • American Sphinx The Character of Thomas
    Jefferson

48
Colons
  • So, colons should ALWAYS follow an independent
    clause.
  • Do not use a colon if you are already introducing
    your list with for example, including, is, and
    such as.

49
  • Style

50
Sentence Variety
  • Varying your sentence length is one of the most
    important things you should remember
  • Creates interest
  • Doesnt lull readers to sleep
  • Doesnt feel too childish or choppy
  • Coordination
  • Compounding

51
Coordination
  • Combine shorter sentences together using
  • Comma FANBOYS
  • Semicolon
  • Example
  • Asteroids are smaller than planets. Meteorites
    are smaller than asteroids.

52
Compounding
  • Putting subjects, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
    together in the same sentence if they relate to
    each other logically
  • Example
  • Since it was the end of the quarter, the
    students hoped the teacher wouldnt make them
    stay the whole class period. They hoped she
    wouldnt give them more homework.

53
Compounding
  • Putting subjects, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
    together in the same sentence if they relate to
    each other logically
  • Example
  • Since it was the end of the quarter, the
    students hoped the teacher wouldnt make them
    stay the whole class period or give them more
    homework.

54
  • Developing your Paragraphs

55
Make your writing specific
  • General More specific
    Specific
  • leader president Abraham
    Lincoln
  • automobile sports utility Ford
    Explorer
  • vehicle
  • television reality series
    Survivor
  • show
  • laws parental support Child
    support
  • laws

56
Make your writing concrete
  • Abstract Concrete
  • Joy Laughter
  • Hatred Sneering, cursing
  • Anger Shouting
  • Sadness
  • Embarrassment
  • Fear
  • Responsible

57
Make your writing concrete
  • Use the 5 senses
  • Provide a realistic account of how things look,
    sound, smell, taste and feel
  • Create a Concrete Image
  • Provide a mental picture that expresses an
    abstract
  • concept in concrete terms
  • Use Examples
  • Show what you mean

58
Explain what you mean
  • Dont just STATE your point MAKE your point

59
Conclusion ideas
  • Discuss broader implications
  • Offer a recommendation or make a call to action
  • Look ahead
  • Conclude with a fact, a quotation, an anecdote
    (story), or an example that emphasizes your
    thesis.
  • Remind readers of the relevance of the issue

60
Avoid
  • Directly restating your thesis word for word
  • Standard phrases like in conclusion and
    to sum up
  • Bringing up new points
  • Dont apologize for yourself, your work or your
    ideas

61
Phrases
  • ? A group of related words that lacks either a
    subject, a verb, or both.
  • ? Cannot stand alone as a sentence (when it does,
    it is a fragment)
  • ? Can appear at the beginning, end, or middle of
    a sentence
  • ? Help make your writing more detailed and
    interesting
  • ? Also can start with orange box words

62
Phrases can start with prepositional words
(direction word) pg. 734 in book
  • For adventures on a budget,
  • On the edge of a field
  • Down the hill

63
Phrases can start with ing form of verbPhrases
can start with ed d participle verb forms
Molded of clay A holding pattern Catching the
flu
64
Phrases can start with to verb
To become To do To sleep
65
Phrases can start with to verb
To become To do To sleep
66
Phrases
Notice that none of these have a subject AND verb
  • Startled by the alarm,
  • For adventures on a budget,
  • ,while not fun,
  • on the edge of a field
  • Down the hill

67
Phrase or Clause?
  • For example,
  • Until its almost impossible
  • Especially his rebounding ability
  • While I am at school
  • In the seventeenth century

68
Phrase or Clause?
  • I plan to transfer next semester
  • Students respond differently
  • Into the bowl
  • Water goes into the bowl
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