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Hazardous Materials Awareness

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Solid at a temperature at or above 240 C (464 F) HazMat Vs. Other Emergencies Identify differences between hazardous materials incidents and other emergencies. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hazardous Materials Awareness


1
Hazardous Materials Awareness
Welcome to
2
ATTAINMENT STANDARD
  • Without reference, determine the general
    principles of a First Responder at the Awareness
    Level with at least 80 accuracy.

3
INTRODUCTION
  • First Responders at the Awareness Level shall be
    trained to meet all competencies of NFPA 472
    Chapter 2 (1997 Edition).

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INTRODUCTION
  • Shall receive additional training to meet
    applicable requirements of the
  • U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA)

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DEFINITION
  • Persons who, in the normal course of their
    duties, could be the first on scene of an
    emergency involving hazardous materials.
  • Expected to recognize the presence of hazardous
    materials, protect themselves, call for trained
    personnel, and secure the area.

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GOAL
  • The goal of the first responder working toward
    the awareness level shall be to obtain competency
    in the knowledge and skills necessary to perform
    the following tasks safely

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GOALANALYZE THE INCIDENT
  • Determine the hazardous materials present and
    basic response information by completing the
    following tasks
  • 1 Detect the presence of HazMats
  • 2 Survey from a safe distance
  • 3 Collect information from the North
    American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG)

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GOALIMPLEMENT ACTIONS
  • Consistent with the Local Emergency Response Plan
    (LERP), the organizations Standard Operating
    Procedures (SOP), and the current edition of the
    NAERG by completing the following tasks
  • 1 Initiate protective actions.
  • 2 Initiate the notification process.

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ANALYZING THE INCIDENT
  • Given various facility and/or transportation
    situations or both, with and without hazardous
    materials present, identify principles of
    analyzing a hazardous materials response at the
    awareness level with at least 80 accuracy.

10
DEFINITIONS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS DANGEROUS
GOODS
  • Identify the definitions of hazardous
    materials (Dangerous Goods in Canada).

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11
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS (DOT)
  • Definition The U.S. Department of
    Transportation (DOT), a hazardous material is
    one that falls within 11 hazard classes some of
    those which have subcategories known as
    divisions.

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS (DOT)
  • Additionally, DOT states that Hazardous
    materials pose an unreasonable risk to the health
    and safety of operating or emergency personnel,
    the public, and/or the environment if it is not
    properly controlled during handling, storage,
    manufacture, processing, packaging, use,
    disposal, or transportation.

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HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (EPA)
  • Definition Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    term for chemicals that, if released into the
    environment above a certain amount, must be
    reported, and, depending on the threat to the
    environment, federal involvement in handling the
    incident can be authorized.

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EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (EPA)
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals that must be
    reported to the appropriate authorities if
    released above the threshold reporting quantity.

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TOXIC CHEMICALS (EPA)
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals whose total
    emissions or release must be reported annually by
    owners and operators of certain facilities that
    manufacture, process, or otherwise use a listed
    toxic chemical.

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HAZARDOUS WASTES (EPA)
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals that are
    regulated under the Resource, Conservation, and
    Recovery Act.

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HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS (OSHA)
  • Definition Occupational Safety Health Act
    (OSHA) term that denotes any chemical that would
    be a risk to employees if exposed in the work
    place.

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HIGHLY HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
  • Definition OSHA term that denotes any chemical
    that would posses toxic, reactive, flammable or
    explosive properties.

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DANGEROUS GOODS (Canada)
  • Definition All hazardous materials are called
    dangerous goods in Canadian Transportation.

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DOT HAZARD CLASSES DIVISIONS
  • Identify DOT Hazard classes and divisions of
    hazardous materials and identify common examples
    of materials in each hazard class or division.

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Primary Hazardsof DOT Classes Divisions
  • Identify the primary hazards associated with each
    of the DOT hazard classes and divisions of
    hazardous materials by hazard class or division.

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Placards Labels
  • Identify U.S. and Canadian placards and labels
    that indicate hazardous materials.

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Classes Divisions
  • The DOT has classified hazardous materials
    according to their primary danger and assigned
    standardized symbols to identify the classes.

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CLASSES DIVISIONS
  • Materials are grouped by their major hazardous
    characteristic and many materials will have other
    hazards as well.
  • Example A material may be poisonous,
    corrosive, and flammable but will only be grouped
    with whichever is considered the worst.

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Class 1 (Explosives)
  • Major Hazard Explosion
  • Any substance or article, including a device,
    that is designed to function by explosion
    (i.e...... an extremely rapid release of gas and
    heat) or that, by chemical reaction with itself,
    is able to function by explosion.

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
26
Divisions
  • DOT has divided Class 1 hazards fall into 6
    divisions.

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
27
Class 1.1
  • Mass explosion that affects almost the entire
    load

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Class 1.2
  • Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard

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Class 1.3
  • Fire hazard and either a minor blast or minor
    projection hazard

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Class 1.4
  • Presents a minor explosion hazard

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Class 1.5
  • Very insensitive explosives with mass explosion
    hazard

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Class 1.6
  • Extremely insensitive explosives

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Class 2 - Compressed Gases
  • Major Hazard BLEVE
  • Sub Hazards
  • Flammable
  • Oxidizer
  • Poisonous
  • Nonflammable
  • Divided into 3 divisions

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
34
Class 2.1 Flammable Gases
  • A material that is a gas at 68º F or less at
    14.7 psi or has a boiling point of 68º degrees or
    less at 14.7 psi.
  • Ignitable at 14.7 psi in a mixture of 13 or less
    by volume with air
  • Has a flammable range of at least 12 regardless
    of the lower limit.

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Class 2.2 Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous Gases
  • Any material or mixture that exerts an absolute
    pressure of 41 psia at 68º F.
  • Compressed gases, including liquefied gas,
    pressurized cryogenic gas, and compressed gas in
    solution.

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Class 2.3 Poisonous Gas
  • Vaporize easily and very dangerous to life, even
    in small amounts.
  • Known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a
    hazard to health during transportation.
  • Presumed to be toxic because of laboratory
    testing.

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Hazard Zones Associatedwith Division 2.3
  • Utilizes LC-50 (Lethal Concentration 50)
  • Concentration of a material, expressed as parts
    per million which kills half of the lab animals
    in a given length of time.
  • Significant in determining the toxicity of a
    material the lower the value, the more toxic the
    substance.

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2.4 Corrosive Gas (Canada)
  • Gases which have a corrosive hazard
  • (Canadian transportation only)

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Class 3 Flammable Liquids
  • Major Hazard Burns readily
  • Flammable and Combustible liquids

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Flammable Liquids
  • Any liquid having a flash point (FP) of not more
    than 141 degrees F.
  • Three divisions
  • 3.1 - FP lt 0 degrees F
  • 3.2 - FP 0 to lt 73 degrees F
  • 3.3 - FP 73 to lt 141 degrees F

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Combustible Liquid
  • Any liquid that does not meet the definition of
    any other hazard class and has a flash point
    above 141 degrees F and below 200 degrees F.
  • NOTE A flammable liquid with a flash point at
    or above 100 degrees that does not meet the
    definition of any other hazard class except 9,
    may be reclassified as combustible.

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Class 4 (Flammable Solids)
  • Major Hazard Rapid combustion with a liberation
    of mass quantities of smoke (toxic).
  • Divided into 3 divisions
  • 4.1 Flamable Solids
  • 4.2 Spontaneously Combustible
  • 4.3 Dangerous When Wet

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4.1 Flammable Solids
  • Three types
  • Wetted explosives
  • Self-reactive materials
  • Readily combustible solids

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Wetted Explosives
  • Explosives wetted with sufficient water, alcohol,
    or a plasticizer to suppress explosive properties.

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Self-Reactive Materials
  • Materials that are liable to undergo, at normal
    or elevated temperatures, a strongly exothermic
    decomposition.

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Readily Combustible Solids
  • Solids that may cause a fire through friction and
    metal powders that can be ignited.

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4.2 Spontaneously Combustible Materials
  • Pyrophoric Materials
  • A liquid or solid that, even in small quantities
    and without an external ignition source, can
    ignite within 5 minutes after coming in contact
    with air.

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4.2 Spontaneously Combustible Materials
  • Self-heating material
  • A material that, when in contact with air and
    without an energy supply, is liable to self-heat.

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4.3 Dangerous When Wet Materials
  • Material that, by contact with water is liable to
    become spontaneously flammable or to give off
    flammable or toxic gas at a rate of greater than
    1 l/kg of the material, per hour.

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Class 5 (Oxidizers)
  • 2 Divisions
  • Major Hazard 5.1
  • Supports combustion and intensifies fire.
  • Major Hazard 5.2
  • Unstable/reactive explosives

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5.1 Oxidizers
  • Materials that may, generally by yielding oxygen,
    cause or enhance the combustion of other
    materials.

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5.2 Organic Peroxides
  • Any organic compound containing oxygen in the
    bivalent O-O structure that may be considered a
    derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or
    more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by
    organic radicals.
  • Organic peroxides have been further broken down
    into types a-g(worst to least hazardous).

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Class 6 Poisons
  • 2 Divisions
  • NOTE Poisonous gases are Class 2 Division 3
  • 6.1 Poisonous Material
  • Major Hazard Toxicity
  • 6.2 Infectious Substances
  • Major Hazard Infectious

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6.1 Poisonous Materials
  • A material, other than a gas, that is either
    known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a
    hazard to health during transportation, or in the
    absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is
    presumed to be toxic to humans, including
    irritating materials that cause irritation.

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6.2 Infectious Substances
  • A viable microorganism, or its toxin, that causes
    disease in humans or animals.
  • Infectious substance and etiologic agents are the
    same.
  • No Placards (labels only)

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Class 7 Radioactive
  • Major Hazard Radioactive poisonous burns
  • Definition Materials having a specific activity
    greater than 0.002 microcurie per gram.

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Class 8 Corrosives
  • Major Hazard burns/emulsification skin damage.
  • Definition - A liquid or solid that causes
    visible or irreversible alterations in human skin
    tissue at the site of contact, or a liquid that
    has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum.

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Class 9 Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials
  • A material that presents a hazard during
    transport, but that is not included in another
    hazard class

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Class 9
  • Division 9.1 - Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
    (Canada)
  • Division 9.2 - Environmentally Hazardous
    Substances (Canada)
  • Division 9.3 - Dangerous Wastes (Canada)

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Other Regulated Materials (ORM-D)
  • A material that presents a limited hazard during
    transportation due to its
  • Form
  • Quantity
  • Packaging
  • No Placards (labels only)

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Forbidden Materials
  • Materials prohibited from being offered or
    accepted for transportation. Does not apply if
    the materials are diluted, stabilized, or
    incorporated in devices. There is no placard for
    these items since they aren't transported.

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Marine Pollutant
  • Is a material that has an adverse effect on
    aquatic life.

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Elevated Temperature Material
  • Is a material that, when offered for
    transportation in a bulk packaging, meets one of
    the following conditions
  • Liquid at or above 100ºC (212ºF)
  • Liquid with a flash point at or above 37.8ºC
    (100ºF) that is intentionally heated and is
    transported at or above its flash point.
  • Solid at a temperature at or above 240ºC (464ºF)

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64
HazMat Vs. Other Emergencies
  • Identify differences between hazardous materials
    incidents and other emergencies.
  • Potential for large scale harm
  • Specialized training required

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Locations of Hazardous Materials
  • Identify typical occupancies and locations in the
    community where hazardous materials are
    manufactured, transported, stored, used, or
    disposed of.
  • Warehouses Laboratories
  • Tank Farms Truck Terminals
  • Weapons Depots Flight Line
  • Hospitals Maintenance Facilities

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Locations of Hazardous Materials
  • Personnel developing the pre-incident plans
    should seek assistance from the facility manager
    in identifying hazardous materials locations and
    recording them on the plan in a way that will be
    useful to the first-arriving companies.

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Locations of Hazardous Materials
  • Hazardous materials that are manufactured,
    stored, processed, or used at a particular site
    are NOT subject to regulations affecting
    transported materials.

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Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Area
Front of Pool Supply Store
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
69
Container Shapes
  • Identify typical container shapes that may
    indicate hazardous materials.
  • Radioactive
  • ? Protective overpacks
  • ? Casks

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72
Container Shapes
  • Pressurized products
  • Cylinders
  • Rounded ends
  • Cryogenic cylinders (insulated)

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75
Container Shapes
  • Pressurized products (continued)
  • MC-331 pressure cargo tank trailer
  • Pressure tank car
  • Tube modules
  • Tube trailers
  • High pressure tube cars

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MC 331
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Pressure Rail Car
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82
Container Shapes
  • Cryogenics (a tank-within-a-tank)
  • MC-338
  • Cryogenic tank car

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MC 338
84
Cryogenic Rail Car
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87
Container Shapes
  • Corrosives
  • Carboys
  • MC-312

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MC 312
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91
Container Shapes
  • Flammable Liquids
  • - Drums
  • - Jerricans
  • - MC-306
  • - Non-pressure tank car
  • Dry Bulk

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MC 306
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96
Non Pressure Rail Car
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99
Hopper
100
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102
Facility Transportation Markings
  • Identify facility and transportation markings and
    colors that indicate hazardous materials.
  • Placards - Pipeline markings
  • NFPA 704 - Container markings
  • Military markings
  • Special hazard communication markings

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Markings Colors
  • Transportation markings and colors that indicate
    hazardous materials.
  • Placards
  • United Nations Class Number
  • Four digit identification number
  • Symbols and colors
  • Name of material

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UN/NA ID Numbers
  • UN Class numbers (bottom of placard)
  • Hazard class or ID numberon placard or orange
    panel
  • Symbols and colors
  • Name of material

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
105
Markings Colors
  • NFPA 704
  • Suggested method for identifying hazardous
    materials
  • Scale of 0-4 (4 being the worst hazard)
  • Used only for facilities when mandated by local
    ordinances

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Markings Colors
  • Military hazardous materials markings
  • Class 1, Division 1
  • Class 1, Division 2
  • Class 1, Division 3
  • Class 1, Division 4

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Class 1, Division 1
  • Materials that present a mass denotation hazard

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Class 1, Division 2
  • Presents an explosion with fragmentation hazard

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Class 1, Division 3
  • Materials with amass fire hazard

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Class 1, Division 4
  • Materials that present a moderate fire hazard

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Special Warnings
  • Chemical hazards

Highly Toxic
Harassing Agents
White Phosphorus Munitions
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Special Warnings
  • Apply No Water

Wear Protective Breathing Apparatus
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Markings Colors
  • Special hazard communication markings
  • Pipeline markers
  • Metal sign placed adjacent to a hazardous
    materials pipeline right of way.
  • Contains information about
  • product and signal word
  • ownership of the line
  • emergency telephone number

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
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115
Markings Colors
  • Container Markings
  • Markings on a container will provide some
    indication as to the type of product it holds

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NFPA 704 Marking System
  • Given an NFPA 704 marking, describe the
    significance of the colors, numbers, and special
    symbols.

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NFPA 704 Marking
  • Suggested method for identifying hazardous
    materials
  • Scale of 0-4 (4 being the worst hazard)
  • Used only for facilities when mandated by local
    ordinances

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NFPA 704 Colors Their Meanings
  • 1. Blue Health
  • 2. Red Flammability
  • 3. Yellow Reactivity
  • 4. White Special

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SPECIAL INFORMATION
Avoid Use of Water Oxidizer (OX) (OXY) Used by
some to indicate Alkaline materials Used by some
to indicate Acidic materials
W
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Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Identify where to find Material Safety Data
    Sheets (MSDS).
  • Why they are necessary
  • OSHA has required all establishments to keep on
    file an MSDS for each chemical stored or used on
    site

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Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Identify basic information on Material Safety
    Data Sheets (MSDS) that indicates hazardous
    materials.

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  • MSDS Sample Information

123
Shipping Papers
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
124
Shipping Papers
  • Identify entries on shipping papers that indicate
    the presence of hazardous materials.
  • - Proper shipping name
  • - Hazard class and division
  • - Product identification number
  • - STCC number
  • - CAS number (chemicals social security number)

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.9.3
126
Shipping Papers
  • Match the name of the shipping papers found in
    transportation (air, highway, rail, and water)
    with the mode of transportation.

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Shipping Papers
  • Identify the person responsible for having the
    shipping papers in each mode of transportation.

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Shipping Papers
  • Identify where the shipping papers are found in
    each mode of transportation.

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Shipping Papers
  • Identify where the papers can be found in an
    emergency in each mode of transportation.
  • Normal location
  • Highway
  • Rail
  • Water
  • Air

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Location of Shipping Papers Responsible Person
  • Highway - cab of vehicle - Driver
  • Rail - Engine or caboose - with conductor or
    engineer
  • Water - Wheelhouse or pipe-like container on a
    barge - Captain or master
  • Air - Cockpit/flight-deck or attached to package
    - pilot

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NFPA Objective 2-2.1.9.5
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10.4
131
Clues Used to IdentifyHazardous Materials
  • Identify examples of clues (other than
    occupancy/location, container shape,
    markings/colors, placards/labels, MSDS, and
    shipping papers) that use the senses of sight,
    sound, and odor to indicate hazardous materials.

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Limitations of Using Your Senses!
  • Describe limitations of using the senses in
    determining the presence or absence of hazardous
    materials.

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Targets of Criminal/Terrorist ActivityUsing
Hazardous Materials
  • Identify types of locations that could become
    targets for criminal or terrorist activity using
    hazardous materials.

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Criminal/Terrorist Activity Indicators
  • Identify at least 4 indicators of possible
    criminal or terrorist activity involving
    hazardous materials.

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Difficulties Determining Namesof Hazardous
Materials
  • Identify difficulties encountered in determining
    the specific names of hazardous materials in both
    facilities and transportation.
  • Facilities
  • Transportation

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Sources for Obtaining Namesof Hazardous Materials
  • Identify sources for obtaining the names of,
    UN\NA identification numbers for, or types of
    placard associated with hazardous materials in
    transportation.

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Obtaining Names of Productsin Facilities
  • Identify sources for obtaining names of hazardous
    materials in a facility.

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139
Protecting Yourself Others
  • Identify the basic precautions to be taken to
    protect themselves and others in a hazardous
    materials incident.

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Victim Medical Care
  • Identify the precautions necessary when providing
    emergency medical care to victims of hazardous
    material incidents.

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Ignition Sourcesat HazMat Incidents
  • Identify the typical ignition sources found at
    the scenes of hazardous materials incidents.

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Harmful Effectsof Hazardous Materials
  • Identify ways hazardous materials are harmful to
    people, the environment, and property at
    hazardous materials incidents.

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Routes of Entry
  • Identify general routes of entry for human
    exposure to hazardous materials.
  • Contact
  • Absorption
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion

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Collecting Information Initiating Response
Actions
  • Given the name, UN/NA identification number or
    type placard, a current copy of the North
    American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG) a
    local emergency response plan and standard
    operating procedures, and a facility or
    transportation scenario including hazardous
    materials, collect hazard information, initiate
    protective actions, and initiate the notification
    process within 60 minutes.

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Determine the AppropriateGuidebook Pages
  • Four digit ID (yellow pages)
  • Spelling of the product (blue pages)
  • Placards (table of placards)
  • Dealing with an unknown

147
Information Available
148
NAERG General Hazards
  • Identify the two general types of hazards found
    on each guide page.
  • Fire and Explosion Hazard
  • Health Hazard
  • P presents a polymerization hazard

149
NAERG Response Information
  • Given the identity of various hazardous materials
    (name, UN/NA identification number, or type
    placard), identify the following response
    information
  • Emergency actions from guide pages
  • Protective Clothing
  • Initial isolation protective action distances

150
NAERG Personnel Protective Clothing
  • Given the name of a hazardous material, identify
    the recommended personal protective clothing from
    the following list
  • Street clothing and work uniforms
  • Structural fire fighters protective clothing
  • Positive pressure SCBA
  • Chemical protective clothing and equipment.

151
Protective Actions
  • Identify the definitions for each of the
    following protective actions
  • Isolate hazard area and deny entry
  • Evacuate
  • Sheltering in-place protection

152
NAERG Protective Zone Shapes
  • Identify the shapes of recommended initial
    isolation and protective action zones.
  • Initial isolation zone is circular.
  • The protective action zone is a square shape.

153
Initial Isolation Zone and Protective Action Zone
PROTECTIVEACTION ZONE
1/2 DOWNWIND DISTANCE
INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE
Downwind Distance
1/2 DOWNWIND DISTANCE
INITIAL ISOLATION DISTANCE
154
Small Versus Large Spills
  • Describe the difference between small and large
    spills as found in the table of Initial Isolation
    and Protective Action Distances.
  • Small spill
  • Large spill

155
Small Spill
Large Spill
NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.4
156
Initial Protective Action Distances
  • Identify the circumstances under which the
    following distances are used at a hazardous
    materials incident
  • Table of initial isolation and protective action
    distances
  • Isolation distance in the numbered guides

157
Green Versus OrangeBordered Pages
  • Describe the difference between the isolation
    distances in the orange-bordered guide pages and
    the protective action distances in the
    green-boarded pages.
  • Green-bordered
  • Orange-boarded

158
Where is Your LERP SOPs?
  • Location of both the Local Emergency Response
    Plan (LERP) and the organizations Standard
    Operating Procedures (SOP).

159
Role of the Awareness LevelEmergency Responder
  • Guidelines are found in
  • The local emergency response plan.
  • The organizations standard operating procedures.
  • North American Emergency Response Guidebook

160
Techniques Usedto Isolate Deny Entry
  • Identify the techniques used to isolate the
    hazard area and deny entry to unauthorized
    persons at hazardous materials incidents.

161
Criminal/Terrorist Specific Actions
  • Identify the specific actions necessary when an
    incident is suspected to involve criminal or
    terrorist activity.

162
Initial Notification Procedures
  • Given either a facility or transportation
    scenario involving hazardous materials,
    regardless of the presence of criminal or
    terrorist activities, the first responder at the
    awareness level shall identify the appropriate
    initial notifications to be made and how to make
    them, consistent with the local emergency
    response plan or the organization's standard
    operating procedures.

163
Initial Notification Procedures
  • To make the appropriate notifications the
    awareness level responder must
  • Be familiar with the notification process
  • Rapidly set the proper notification process in
    motion

164
Final Exam
  • Administer the Awareness computer-based final
    exam on CerTest and the required performance test
    evaluations.
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