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Chapter 1: The Sports Medicine Team


Chapter 1: The Sports Medicine Team Sports Medicine Where Have We Been? Where Are We Now? Where Are We Going? Where Have We Been? Trainers associated with Greek ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: The Sports Medicine Team

Chapter 1 The Sports Medicine Team

Sports Medicine
  • Where Have We Been?
  • Where Are We Now?
  • Where Are We Going?

Where Have We Been?
  • Trainers associated with Greek Roman Periods.
  • Increase in sports activities during the
  • Late 19th century ATs involved with
    intercollegiate athletics in the US.
  • Rub downs, home remedies, lack of technical
  • After WWI ATs viewed as specialized in
    preventing and managing athletic injuries.
  • 1950 NATA (National Athletic Trainers
    Association) founded in Kansas City
  • 1980s Athletic Training Program content for
    bachelors degree.
  • 1980s development of NATABOC for board
    certification, ATCs.
  • Recognized by the AMA as an allied health care

Where Are We Now?
  • 40 of ATCs work outside of school athletic
  • 2004 End of internship programs
  • ATCs regulated and licensed healthcare providers
  • ATCs provide the same or better outcomes as
    others, including PTs.
  • ATCs demonstrate high patient satisfaction

Where Are We Going?
  • 2010 21,525 projected ATC jobs
  • 2015 25,400 projected ATC jobs
  • Continued research to develop new techniques for
    injury prevention, management, and

Whats the Difference?
  • Athletic First Responder
  • Certified in CPR/First Aid
  • Completes 40 hours of continuing education each
    year in injury prevention/management
  • May have additional certifications/degrees in the
    field of sports medicine/athletic training
  • Certified Athletic Trainer
  • Holds a degree in Sports Medicine/Athletic
  • Certified by the NATABOC (exam)
  • (National Athletic Training Association Board of
  • Licensed in the State for which they work

Sports Medicine
Human Performance
Injury Management
Practice of Medicine
Exercise Physiology
Sports Physical Therapy
Sport Psychology
Athletic Training
Sports Nutrition
Sports Massage
Goals of Professional Sports Medicine
  • Develop professional standards code of ethics
  • Exchange of professional knowledge, stimulate
    research, promote critical thinking.
  • Ability to work as a group with a singleness of
    purpose to achieve objectives that could not be
    accomplished separately.

The Players on the Sports Medicine Team
  • Physicians
  • Dentist
  • Podiatrist
  • Nurse
  • Physicians Assistant
  • Physical Therapist
  • Athletic Trainer
  • Adult First Responders
  • Massage Therapist
  • Exercise Physiologist
  • Biomechanist
  • Nutritionist
  • Sport Psychologist
  • Coaches
  • Strength Conditioning Specialist
  • Social Worker

The Primary Players on the Sports Medicine Team


Athletic Trainer
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
  • Patterned after FIMS (Umbrella Organization)
  • Interested in the study of all aspects of sports
  • Membership individuals in the medical field,
    and those interested in sports medicine
  • 18,000 members

Sports Physical Therapy Section of APTA
  • Promotes the role of the sports physical
    therapist to other health professionals
  • Supports research to further establish the
    scientific basis for sports physical therapy
  • Offers certification as a sports physical
    therapist (SCS)
  • Approximately 9,000 members
  • Many sports physical therapists are also
    certified athletic trainers

National Athletic Trainers Association(NATA)
  • To enhance the quality of health care for
    athletes and those engaged in physical activity,
    and to advance the profession of athletic
    training through education and research in the
    prevention, evaluation, management and
    rehabilitation of injuries
  • The NATA now has 28,000 members

AMA Recognition of Athletic Training
  • June 1991- AMA officially recognized athletic
    training as an allied health profession
  • Committee on Allied Health Education and
    Accreditation (CAHEA) was charged with
    responsibility of developing essentials and
    guidelines for academic programs to use in
    preparation of individuals for entry into
    profession through the Joint Review Committee on
    Athletic Training (JRC-AT)

AMA Recognition of Athletic Training
  • June 1994-CAHEA dissolved and replaced
    immediately by Commission on Accreditation of
    Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)
  • Recognized as an accreditation agency for allied
    health education programs by the U.S. Department
    of Education
  • Entry level college and university athletic
    training education programs at both undergraduate
    and graduate levels are now accredited by CAAHEP

National Athletic Trainers AssociationBoard of
Certification (NATABOC)
  • In 1999 the NATABOC completed the latest Role
    Delineation Study, which redefined the profession
    of athletic training
  • Study designed to examine the primary tasks
    performed by the entry level athletic trainer and
    the knowledge and skills required to perform each

Athletic Training Educational Competencies (1999)
  • Twelve Content Areas
  • Acute care of injury and illness
  • Assessment and evaluation
  • General medical conditions and disabilities
  • Health care administration
  • Nutritional aspects of injury and illnesses
  • Pathology of illness and injuries

Athletic Training Educational Competencies (1999)
  • Pharmacological aspects of injury and illnesses
  • Professional development and responsibility
  • Psychosocial intervention and referral
  • Risk management and injury prevention
  • Therapeutic exercise
  • Therapeutic modalities

Certification Requirements
  • Candidates for certification must meet NATABOC
    established requirements
  • For students graduating in 2003 and beyond,
    NATABOC no longer requires clinical hours
  • CAAHEP accredited programs must develop and
    implement a clinical instruction plan according
    to 2001 Standards and Guidelines to ensure that
    students meet all AT educational competencies and
    clinical proficiencies in academic courses with
    measurable outcomes

Certification Requirements
  • Accreditation process will be concerned with the
    quality of experiences and student outcomes and
    knowledge rather the number of hours accrued
  • As of January, 2004 the internship route to
    certification will no longer be accepted
  • All candidates for certification will have to
    meet CAAHEP requirements
  • Successful completion of all parts of the
    certification exam will earn the credential of

CAAHEP Accredited Programs
  • Currently 134 institutions offer entry level
    athletic training education programs accredited
    by CAAHEP
  • 174 are in the process of seeking CAAHEP
  • 13 graduate programs in athletic training
    approved by the Education Council
    Post-Certification Graduate Education Committee

Employment Settings for Athletic Trainers
  • Secondary Schools
  • 1995 NATA adopted a position statement supporting
    hiring athletic trainers in secondary schools
  • 1998 AMA adopted policy calling for ATCs to be
    employed in all high school athletic programs
  • 30,000 public high schools in U.S.
  • Between 20-25 of high schools have ATCs
  • School Districts
  • ATC floats between several schools in same

Employment Settings for Athletic Trainers
  • College and Universities
  • Number of ATCs varies considerably
  • Extent of coverage varies
  • 2000 Task Force published Recommendations and
    Guidelines for Appropriate Medical Coverage for
    Intercollegiate Athletics
  • Based on a mathematical model created by a number
    of variables
  • Professional Teams
  • 5 of employed ATCs

Employment Settings for Athletic Trainers
  • Sports Medicine Clinics
  • The largest of employed ATCs found in this
  • Work in the clinic in AM and in high school in PM
  • Industrial and Corporate Settings
  • ATCs oversee fitness, injury rehabilitation, and
    work-hardening programs
  • Understanding of workplace ergonomics is

State Regulation of the Athletic Trainer
  • During the early-1970s NATA realized the
    necessity of obtaining some type of official
    recognition by other medical allied health
    organizations of the athletic trainer as a health
    care professional
  • Laws and statutes specifically governing the
    practice of athletic training were nonexistent in
    virtually every state

State Regulation of the Athletic Trainer
  • Athletic trainers in many individual states
    organized efforts to secure recognition by
    seeking some type of regulation of the athletic
    trainer by state licensing agencies
  • To date 40 of the 50 states have enacted some
    type of regulatory statute governing the practice
    of athletic training
  • Rules and regulations governing the practice of
    athletic training vary tremendously from state to

State Regulation of the Athletic Trainer
  • Regulation may be in the form of
  • Licensure
  • Limits practice of athletic training to those who
    have met minimal requirements established by a
    state licensing board
  • Limits the number of individuals who can perform
    functions related to athletic training as
    dictated by the practice act
  • Most restrictive of all forms of regulation

State Regulation of the Athletic Trainer
  • Certification
  • Does not restrict using the title of athletic
    trainer to those certified by the state
  • Can restrict performance of athletic training
    functions to only those individuals who are
  • Registration
  • Before an individual can practice athletic
    training he or she must register in that state

List of Regulated StatesL Licensure C
Certification R Registration
  • Alabama (L) Kansas (R) North Carolina (L)
  • Arkansas (L) Kentucky (C) North Dakota (L)
  • Arizona (E) Louisiana (C) Ohio (L)
  • Colorado (E) Massachusetts (L) Oklahoma
  • Connecticut (E) Maine (L) Oregon (R)
  • Delaware (L) Minnesota (R) Pennsylvania (C)
  • Florida (L) Mississippi (L) Rhode Island (L)
  • Georgia (L) Missouri (R) South Carolina (C)
  • Hawaii (E) Nebraska (L) South Dakota (L)
  • Idaho (R) New Hampshire (C) Tennessee (C)
  • Illinois (L) New Jersey (R) Texas (L)
  • Indiana (L) New Mexico (L) Vermont (C)
  • Iowa (L) New York (C) Virginia (C)
  • Wisconsin (C)

Reimbursement for Athletic Training Services
  • During the past 40 years the insurance industry
    has undergone a significant evolutionary process
  • Health care reform initiated in the 1990s has
    focused on the concept of managed care in which
    costs of a health care providers medical care are
    closely monitored and scrutinized by insurance
  • Managed care involves a prearranged system for
    delivering health care that is designed to
    control cost while continuing to provide quality

Reimbursement for Athletic Training Services
  • Third-party reimbursement - primary mechanism of
    payment for medical services in the United States
  • Health care professionals are reimbursed by the
    policy holder's insurance company for services
  • To cut pay-out costs, many insurance companies
    limit where and how often an individual can go
    for care and what services will be paid for

Athletic Trainer vs. Physical Therapist Wars
  • It is not unusual to find a physical therapist
    interested in sports and athletics working toward
    certification as an athletic trainer
  • A certified athletic trainer interested in
    working with patients outside of the athletic
    population may work toward licensure as a
    physical therapist

Athletic Trainer vs. Physical Therapist Wars
  • Historically, the relationship between athletic
    trainers and physical therapists has been less
    than cooperative
  • There has been failure to clarify the roles of
    each group in injury rehabilitation
  • Academic preparation is similar
  • Individual who holds a dual credential is more

Future Directions
  • Increase effort to enhance visibility
  • By making themselves available for local and
    community meetings to discuss athletic health
  • Through research efforts and scholarly
  • Continue reorganize and refine educational
    programs for student athletic trainers
  • Continue to seek and strengthen state regulation
    of the practice of athletic training

Future Directions
  • Increase efforts to create job opportunities
    particularly in secondary schools, colleges and
    universities, and corporate and industrial
  • Increase effort in seeking third-party
    reimbursement for services provided
  • Continue efforts in injury prevention and in
    providing appropriate, high-quality health care