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AP United States History

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Title: AP United States History


1
AP United States History
  • Day 5
  • Bill of Rights to
  • War of 1812

2
Reading--Nash
  • Todays lecture Chapters 7-9
  • Next week Chapters 10-12 (mainly the age of
    Jackson, with more time the following week for
    the cultural/slavery notes)
  • Note We can not cover everything in the book
    due to time constraints. However, it is very
    important that you read ahead of the class, and
    in particular, notice the sections with documents
    and charts. This will help you prepare for the
    SAT/AP test!

3
Bill of Rights
  • Many people were concerned that the Constitution
    did not have a list of guaranteed rights.
  • They were afraid of abuse if the rights were not
    stated.
  • Proposed by James Madison due to conflicts
    between Federalists (wanted it passed) and
    Anti-Federalists (who thought it had too much
    power for the Federal Government) in 1787
  • Many leaders argued that the Constitution should
    not be passed due to not having these in them
  • Massachusetts Compromise of 1788 said that if
    they passed the Constitution, these must be
    included (New Hampshire, Virginia and New York
    had the same language) and suggested amendments
  • Adopted as a group in 1791
  • Influences 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights
    (George Mason), 1689 English Bill of Rights,
    natural rights in the Age of Enlightenment, 1215
    Magna Carta
  • 12 proposedonly 10 passed (the representation of
    House members never passed, and the 27th
    amendment passed 200 years later covered the
    other (which did not let Congress increase their
    own salaries until after the next election)

4
1st Amendment
  • Free exercise of religion/no state religion
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of the Press
  • Freedom of Asssembly
  • Right to Petition

5
2nd-5th Amendments
  • 2nd Right to keep and bear arms (weapons)
  • 3rd Protection from quartering of troops
  • 4th Protection from unreasonable search and
    seizure
  • 5th Right of due process (a Grand Jury must
    indict them and they must have a hearing), no
    double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime)
    allowed, no self-incrimination, and eniment
    domain protection (government can not take your
    land without paying you a fair value)

6
6th-8th Amendments
  • 6th All criminal trials can be by jury
  • Rights of the accused (speedy trial, right to
    counsel)
  • 7th All civil trials over 20 must have a jury
  • 8th Prohibits excessive bail (money required to
    get out of jail before trial), cruel and unusual
    punishment

7
9th-10th Amendments
  • 9th protection of rights not listed directly
  • 10th All powers not delegated to the federal
    government or the states belong to the people

8
A New Nation Trends and Themes
  • The U.S. government began to build and define
    itself under George Washingtons leadership.
  • The debates over ratification of the Constitution
    spawned the development of two separate political
    parties. New England Federalists supported a
    loose interpretation of the Constitution and a
    strong central government. Southern Republicans
    supported a strict interpretation of the
    Constitution and a more limited central
    government. Enmity between the two parties
    deepened, until the events of the War of 1812
    finally eliminated the Federalists as a
    significant political party.
  • The U.S. made a concerted effort to stay out of
    European entanglements and maintain neutrality
    during its effort to build its national
    infrastructure. Often, though, the U.S. was
    caught in a tug-of-war between Britain and
    France. Eventually, British aggression and
    Americas desire to increase its territory and
    prove itself as an international force led to the
    War of 1812.

9
Trends and Themes 2
  • After the war, the U.S. enjoyed a period of
    optimism and general cooperation under a single
    political party the Republicans. In this period,
    the U.S. asserted its dominance in the Western
    Hemisphere through the Monroe Doctrine.
  • Westward expansion began in earnest after the
    Louisiana Purchase. The sectional tensions
    created by expansion, made apparent in the
    Missouri Compromise, illustrated the increasing
    role slavery and regionalism would play in the
    politics of the nineteenth century.
  • Through various rulings, the Supreme Court
    established itself as a body able to declare acts
    of Congress unconstitutional and supportive of
    Federalist policies.

10
The First President
  • George Washington elected first president, with
    John Adams being the Vice President
  • Congress first met in New York City, March 1789
    (moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800)
  • Goals of Congress establish a judicial branch,
    develop executive branch, Bill of Rights
  • Congress worked on the bureaucracy and domestic
    policy, and Washington focused on finance,
    diplomacy and the military. (much less
    interaction than later presidents)
  • Unlike later presidents, he didnt speak much
    about policies, didnt suggest many laws, only
    vetoed two bills

11
Cabinet
  • The cabinet wasnt in the Constitution
  • Washington started off by making offices under
    him Secretary of State, Secretary of War,
    Secretary of the Treasury, Attorney General
    (later 15 positions)

12
Splits between Federalists and Anti-Federalists
  • In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed having the
    federal government pay war debts of the states
  • Southern states were against this because they
    paid off theirs early, while the Northern States
    did not
  • In order to sign off on this, they insisted on a
    southern capital city (Washington, D.C.)
  • National BankHamilton wanted a bank to store
    federal money, issue currency, make loans,
    regulate banks, and extend credit.
    Anti-federalists such as Thomas Jefferson thought
    this gave too much power to the government

13
Strict and Loose Constructionalists
  • Strict Believed that only what was explicitly
    mentioned was in the Constitution (i.e. the
    Charter isnt in the Constitution, so it cant
    happen)
  • Loose Believed that due to the elastic clause
    (Article 1, Section 8) that Congress had the
    power to make all laws which shall be necessary
    and proper
  • Bank was chartered in 1791

14
Tariff Issues
  • Hamilton wanted high tariffs to get money and to
    help industries develop
  • Jefferson/Madison opposed this, because
    industries would become too dependent on
    government aid (tariff did not pass in the end)

15
Political Parties--Republican
  • Republican Party started in 1793, when Jefferson
    resigned due to his opposition to Federalist
    decisions (Hamilton)
  • First opposition paper The National Gazette
  • Republicans won slight majority in 1794
  • Leaders Jefferson, Madison
  • Backed by the Western frontier, rural and farming
    South

16
Political Parties Federalists
  • Leaders Washington, Hamilton
  • Argued for a strong central government
  • Backed by Industry/Manufacturing in the Northeast

17
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
  • July 1794, Western Pennsylvania farmers had a
    violent rebellion over Hamiltons large excise
    tax on domestic whiskey
  • The putting down of this rebellion proved the
    central governments power and authority

18
Proclamation of American Neutrality, 1793
  • War between Britain/Spain and France
  • America refused to get involved
  • Offered some minor support to the French against
    Spanish in Florida and the Mississippi Valley
  • British army seized 250 vessels in response, 1794
  • Jays Treaty (1795) with Britain removed troops
    from the U.S., opened trade with British West
    Indies
  • Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795)negotiated by Thomas
    Pinckney with Spain, provided the U.S.
    Unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and
    removed Spanish troops from American land.

19
Washingtons Farewell
  • In 1796, set the two-term precedent (later made
    law with the 22nd amendment, 1951)
  • Farewell address Washington warned against
    parties, getting involved with wars with other
    countries, and concentrate on efficient
    government at home
  • He feared that special interest groups and
    foreign nations would dominate the two sides.

20
Essay Questions
  • 1. 1980 Exam (Question 4) "Between 1783 and 1800
    the new government of the United States faced the
    same political, economic, and constitutional
    issues that troubled the British government's
    relations with the colonies prior to the
    Revolution."
  • Assess the validity of this generalization.
  • 2. 1982 Exam (Question 2) "The American
    Revolution should really be called 'The British
    Revolution' because marked changes in British
    colonial policy were more responsible for the
    final political division than were American
    actions."
  • Assess the validity of this statement for the
    period 1763-1776.

21
Essay Questions 2
  • 3. 1985 Exam (DBQ minus documents) "From 1781 to
    1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the
    United States with an effective government"
  • Using your knowledge of the period, evaluate this
    statement
  • 4. 1989 Exam (Question 2) "In the two decades
    before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary
    War, a profound shift occurred in the way many
    Americans thought and felt about the British
    government and their colonial governments."
  • Assess the validity of this statement in view of
    the political and constitutional debates of these
    decades.
  • 5. 1991 Exam (Question 2) The Bill of Rights did
    not come from a desire to protect the liberties
    won in the American Revolution, but rather from a
    fear of the powers of the new federal
    government.
  • Assess the validity of this statement.

22
Essay 3
  • 6. 1996 Exam (Question 2) Analyze the degree to
    which the Articles of Confederation provided an
    effective form of government with respect to any
    TWO of the following.
  • Foreign relations
  • Economic conditions
  • Western lands
  • 7. 2004 Exam (Question 2) Analyze the impact of
    the American Revolution on both slavery and the
    status of women in the period from 1775-1800.
  • 8. 2006 Exam B (Question 2) "The United States
    Constitution of 1787 represented an economic and
    ideological victory for the traditional American
    political elite."Assess the validity of that
    statement for the period 1781 to 1789.

23
Essay 4
  • 9. 2008 Exam B (Question 2) Analyze the reasons
    for the Anti-Federalists' opposition to ratifying
    the Constitution.
  • 10. 2009 Exam (Question 2) Analyze the ways in
    which British imperial policies between 1763 and
    1776 intensified colonials resistance to British
    rule and their commitment to republican values.
  • 11. 2009 Exam B (Question 2) Analyze how the
    ideas and experiences of the revolutionary era
    influenced the principles embodied in the
    Articles of Confederation.

24
Western Expansion 1
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set forth rules and
    the process for expansion
  • New States Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792),
    Tennessee (1796)
  • Spain and Great Britain were against this, as
    they a) had land here, and b) wanted more land
  • Native Americans didnt like it either, and
    fought until 1794. They got massacred at the
    Battle of Fallen Timbers, which led to the Treaty
    of Greenville, which gave all of the Ohio
    territory to settlers (no Indians allowed)

25
Map Links for Study
  • http//www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/maps/maps.cfm
    has a very large collection of U.S. Historical
    Maps
  • http//lib.utexas.edu/maps/histus.html is good
    for maps, particularly of Texas, and for its
    links
  • http//www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/maps/
    specializes in the period before 1812.

26
Slaves as percentage of population, by state, 1790
27
1796 Election, Divided Government
  • This was the first question of confidence in the
    Constitution
  • Candidates John Adams (Federalist, dominated New
    England), Thomas Jefferson (Republican, South)
  • Adams won by three electoral college votes, but
    under the rules of the timeJefferson (as 2nd
    highest vote getter) was named the Vice-President!

28
Federalism, Take 2
  • French saw Jays Treaty as a pro-Britain,
    anti-France position
  • Began to seize/attack more than 300 American
    ships, threatened to hang all Americans found on
    British navel vessels
  • XYZ Affair
  • Adams sent a peace delegation to Paris
  • French foreign minister, Charles de Talleyrand,
    refused to meet with them unless he got bribed
    (250,000 for himself, 12,000,000 loan to
    France)
  • Adams called the three agents who went to Paris
    to try to meet with de Talleyrand X,Y,Z
  • Response America tripled its Army, and had a
    Quasi-War with Franceno war was ever declared,
    but armed ships protected American ships

29
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
  • Background Federalists won big in 1798 mid-term
    elections on anti-French beliefs
  • Key point These four acts basically made the
    government much stronger, and gave the government
    a large amount of power to attack civil liberties
  • Alien Enemies Act (allowed deportation of
    foreigners who were thought to be a threat)
  • Alien Friends Acts (allowed President to deport
    any foreign citizen for any reason)
  • Naturalization Act (changed residency requirement
    from 5 to 14 years)
  • Sedition Act (forbade any individual or group to
    speak, write, or publish ANYTHING of a false,
    scandalous and malicious nature that hurt
    Congress and/or the President

30
Sedition Act Analysis
  • This was a direct attack on the First Amendment
  • In late 1800, almost all major Republican
    newspapers charged under this act
  • Where does the line of control pass the line of
    censorship?
  • Was this just a way to hurt the enemies of the
    Federalist party?

31
Opposition to the Acts
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798) (written
    by Jefferson (VA) and Madison (KY)
  • They argued that state legislatures could claim
    that acts of Congress were unconstitutional
    (states over federal rights)
  • Federal government is just a compact of states,
    and should not overriding them
  • States must have final say
  • 1799 Kentucky passed a resolution saying they
    had the rights to nullify federal laws

32
What if a law breaks the Constitution?
  • The states argued that they had the right to not
    follow it.
  • The Supreme Court addressed this in Marbury v.
    Madison, 1803, saying that they had the right to
    declare a law unconstitutional and invalid (this
    has stood up ever since)

33
1800 Election
  • The easy part Republicans won easily, due to
    anger over the Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Those acts destroyed the Federalist party
  • Jefferson considered this the Revolution of 1800
  • The hard part Who is President, Jefferson or
    Burr?
  • Jefferson wanted Burr to be Vice-President, so
    all of the ballots had BOTH of them, so they were
    tied!
  • After 7 days and 36 ballots in the House,
    Jefferson won.
  • 12th amendment (1804) fixed this issue so that
    candidates must run for either President or
    Vice-President, and this also ended the problem
    in 1796 of opposite parties in power

34
Jeffersons Platform
  • Limited central government (in contract to
    Washington/Hamilton/Adams
  • More States rights and Personal Freedom
  • Wanted more farmers and fewer cities
  • Cut a lot of Federal spending/bureaucracy
  • Almost all taxes cut (country used land sales and
    customs to fund the country)
  • Much lower military spending

35
If you know your enemy is taking charge, what do
you do?
  • If youre John Adams, you try to appoint tons of
    Federalists to judgeships in the final few hours
    of your term (Midnight appointments)
  • Judges, as you remember, are appointed for life
  • Problem One was delivered lateWilliam Marbury
    as Justice of the Peace in the District of
    Columbia
  • He asked the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus
    to force James Madison (Sec of State) to appoint
    him
  • In February 1803, the court said no, and said
    that the court didnt have the power to do so (so
    the law was unconstitutional)

36
Louisiana Purchase
  • In 1800, France regained the territory due to
    their war with Spain
  • Jefferson was afraid that France would try to
    start an empire in America
  • He sent people to France to try to buy the
    territory
  • They found out that Napoleon had no interest in
    America anymore, due to a massive slave revolt in
    Haiti
  • Napoleon sold it in April 1803 for 15,000,000 to
    fund the war in Europe
  • This purchase doubled the size of the United
    States (the 15,000,000 in yuan 2.50 yuan

37
Legal Issues of the Purchase
  • Jefferson was afraid that buying it was
    unconstitutional, and in fact, drafted an
    amendment allowing it
  • Fellow Republicans convinced him it was
    unnecessary, and just give the purchase treaty to
    the Senate, and they quickly passed it
  • Irony While Jefferson wanted to limit Federal
    power, this purchase expanded it.

38
The United States, 1803
39
More Exploration of the West
  • Jefferson sent teams of Explorers to map out what
    they bought from France
  • A famous team was Captain Meriwether Lewis and
    Lieutenant William Clark (Lewis and Clark)
  • They left St. Louis in 1804 with 45 soldiers
  • They travelled 5,000km in 2 years to the Pacific
    Ocean and back, due to the help of Sacajawea
    (Indian guide)

40
Lewis and Clark Map
41
Burr-Hamilton Duel, 1804
  • Vice-President Aaron Burr and former Secretary of
    the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
  • The men had radically different visions of the US
  • They had personal tensions for many years
  • Burr found out that he would on the ballot for
    Vice President in 2004, so he ran for the
    governor of New York instead
  • Hamilton campaigned heavily against Burr, which
    caused Burr to lose the election
  • This wasnt the first duel for either
    oneHamilton had ten duels (but no shots)
  • July 11, 1804both men went to Weehawken, New
    Jersey (duels were recently made illegal in New
    York) to fight this out

42
Duel Part 2
  • Hamilton also was the reason that Burr was
    Vice-President and not President
  • A letter about the campaign made Burr so angry
    that he offered a dual, Hamilton accepted
  • July 11, 1804 was set as the date

43
The Art of the Duel
  • They choose sides and whose second (assistant)
    should start the duel.
  • Two shots were fired.
  • Usually, if both people shot into the ground,
    they showed courage, and the duel was over.
  • Hamilton shot first, into a tree above Burr. The
    throwing away his fire violated the do not
    waste fire pre-duel pledge. Burr, however,
    thought the bullet was an attempt to kill him.
  • Burr then hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen, and
    he died the next day.

44
More Art of the Duel
  • Hamilton was against the idea of dueling, in
    spite of his previous shot-less duels.
  • The eyewitnesses claim that Hamilton was trying
    to provoke Burr, including aiming his pistol.
  • Did Hamilton have manic depression? Was he
    delusional? Who knows?
  • Burr wasnt a good shooter, but he clearly wanted
    to kill Hamilton far more than Hamilton wanted to
    kill Burr.
  • Burr did regret it later, but not for many years.
  • Burr was charged with murder, but acquitted
    (found not guilty)
  • He went west for a while after his Vice-President
    position ended in 1805, and ultimately died in
    1836 in Staten Island, New York.
  • Never apologized for the shooting or to
    Hamiltons family.

45
France and England worse than brother and sister!
  • The U.S. tried to stay neutral in yet another war
    between the two
  • Both sides started seizing or blocking trade
  • Chesapeake-Leopard affair, 1807, when the British
    ship (HMS Leopard) opened fire on the USS
    Chesapeake, after they were refused the right to
    board
  • Jefferson made a penny-wise, pound-foolish
    decision by getting the Embargo Act of 1807
    passed, which basically cut off all trade
    anywhere (no ships could leave the US)
  • He wanted to damage the French and British
    economies, but the one he really damaged was the
    U.S. one.

46
USS Chesapeake
47
Madison and Declining Foreign Relations
  • Secretary of State for Jefferson, James Madison,
    won the election of 1808
  • Madison replaced the Embargo Act with the
    Non-Intercourse Act (only blocked off trade with
    England and France)
  • Since the two biggest traders in the world were
    England and France, this didnt help much
  • Macons Bill No. 2, 1810, was another attempt to
    open trade. This worked off of playing both
    sides against each other. At first, we will
    trade with everyone. If you repeal restrictions
    on neutral shipments, we will embargo the other
    one!
  • Napoleon did this, in order to hurt Britain.
  • However, these peaceful attempts arent working,
    so the War Hawks are starting to get angry.

48
War Hawks!
  • Leaders John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KY)
  • They wanted war, since the economic issues had
    hurt their region the most
  • Also, if we get into this war and win, we can get
    more western land and Canada!
  • They were afraid that Britain would use Native
    Americans in the North to fight the USthis in
    fact happened with Tecumseh, the prophet (his
    brother) and Ohio/Indiana
  • Battle of Tippecanoe (William Henry Harrison)
    crushed the Indians (although he lost a lot of
    people too)
  • Even after this, the remains of the Indians
    allied with Britain in the War of 1812

49
War of 1812
  • Remember that we arent concerned about the
    battles of the war just causes and effects
  • June 1812, Madison sent a message to Congress
    about the British issues
  • Problem The US had cut military spending so much
    that they werent prepared
  • Reality England really didnt care, as it had
    bigger wars
  • Ended with Treaty of Ghent, December 1814
  • Andrew Jackson, two weeks AFTER the treaty,
    killed 2,000 troops
  • In reality, the war ended with exactly the same,
    but the War of 1812 was good for national morale

50
And the worlds worst national anthem
  • Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light
    What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last
    gleaming Whose broad stripes and bright stars,
    through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we
    watched were so gallantly streaming? And the
    rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof through the night that our flag was
    still there Oh, say! does that star-spangled
    banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and
    the home of the brave?

51
In case you want to see
52
Jackson at New Orleans
53
The Hartford Convention (1814)
  • Just before the end of the war, Federalists met
    in Hartford to see if they can regain power for
    New England/economy
  • Drafted 7 amendments, including eliminating the
    3/5 clause, and maximum time limits for trade
    embargos
  • The goal give this to Madison in the middle of a
    deadlocked war when people hated war
  • Reality They got there just after the Treaty of
    Ghent and the New Orleans victory
  • The people who went to Hartford were viewed as
    traitors
  • The final straw of the death of the Federalist
    Party

54
Essays
  • It is up to you how many you do, but you need to
    at least do an outline on most of them.
  • This is not a graded course, however, you owe it
    to yourself to do as much as you can,
    particularly during February.
  • I will be glad to read/comment on all outlines
    and essays.

55
New Essay Questions
  • 1. 1977 Exam (DBQ) The debate over the Alien and
    Sedition Acts of 1798 revealed bitter
    controversies on a number of issues.
  • Discuss the issues involved and explain why these
    controversies developed (documents from this exam
    are not available)
  • .
  • 2. 1983 Exam (Question 3) "Early United States
    foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction
    to perceived or actual threats from Europe."
  • Assess the validity of this generalization with
    reference to United States foreign policy on TWO
    major issues during the period from 1789 to 1825.

56
Essays 2
  • 3. 1994 Exam (Question 3) Evaluate the relative
    importance of domestic and foreign affairs in
    shaping American politics in the 1790's.
  • 4. 2002 Exam (Question 3) Analyze the
    contributions of TWO of the following in helping
    establish a stable government after the adoption
    of the Constitution.
  • John Adams
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • George Washington

57
Essays 3
  • 5. 2003 Exam B (Question 3) Although the power
    of the national government increase during the
    early republic, this development often faced
    serious opposition. Compare the motives and
    effectiveness of those opposed to the growing
    power of the national government in TWO of the
    following
  • Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799)
  • Hartford Convention (1814-1815)
  • Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)
  • 6. 2004 Exam B (Question 2) To what extent was
    the election of 1800 aptly named the "Revolution
    of 1800"? Respond with references to TWO of the
    following areas
  • Economics
  • Foreign policy
  • Judiciary
  • Politics

58
Homework DBQ (for AP students)
  • 7. 2002 Exam B (DBQ) Historians have
    traditionally labeled the period after the War of
    1812 the "Era of Good Feelings." Evaluate the
    accuracy of this label, considering the emergence
    of nationalism and sectionalism.
  • Use the documents and your knowledge of the
    period 1815-1825 to construct your answer.
  • The documents are located at this website
  • http//apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repos
    itory/b_ushist_frq_02_10360.pdf
  • This pdf file will also be available on the
    wikispace under the name 2002b dbq. Also, please
    note that page 7 is the free-response section.
    This is what your real test will look like.

59
Coming next class
  • Politics post-War of 1812 and the Age of Jackson
  • Pre-Civil War Society
  • Slavery
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