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Post-Classical Review

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Title: Post-Classical Review


1
Post-Classical Review
  • 600 to 1450 CE
  • KLINECT

2
Common Themes
  • Post-classical political developments
  • Nomadic empires
  • Impact of interaction
  • Recovery and Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • American Civilizations

3
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Sui Dynasty (581-618 CE)
  • Used Buddhism Confucian civil service
    examination to establish legitimacy
  • Grand Canal
  • Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)
  • Political Development
  • Scholars over soldiers
  • China expanded to Tibet Korea
  • Supported Buddhism first Daoism, and
    Confucianism were less important
  • High taxation led to tension and peasant
    rebellions
  • Korea, Japan, Vietnam became tributary states

4
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Tang Dyansty (Cont.)
  • Economic Developments
  • Silk Road security
  • Equal-field system
  • Cultural Developments
  • Heavily influenced by spread of Buddhism
  • Empress Wu increased influence
  • Anti-Buddhist campaign
  • Rise of Neo-Confucianism
  • Poetry Li Bai, Du Fu
  • Kowtow practiced .. Superiority over foreigners

5
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)
  • Political Development
  • Re-established centralized rule
  • Civil service exam retained
  • Checked power of aristocracy while a powerful,
    moral elite rose alongside
  • De-emphasized military approach of Tang
  • Paid tribute to neighboring nomadic powers
  • Military economic weakness eventually led to
    their fall to the Mongols in 1279.

6
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Song (cont.)
  • Economic Development
  • Economic revolution rice from Vietnam, internal
    trade flourished from Grand Canal, population
    growth, cannons, moveable type, water-powered
    mills, high-quality porcelain, paper money,
    flying cash, magnetic compass
  • Cultural Developments
  • Women could keep their dowries and could access
    new jobs.
  • Also subject to footbinding

7
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Islamic Caliphates
  • Islam The Religion
  • Muhammad (570-632 CE)
  • Kaaba
  • Allah
  • Mecca Medina
  • Quran
  • Five Pillars
  • Universal religion

8
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Islamic Caliphates (cont.)
  • Political Developments
  • Shia-Sunni split
  • Umayyad Caliphate - Damascus (661 CE)
  • Abbasid Caliphate Baghdad
  • Golden Age of Islam
  • Dar-al-Islam

9
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Islamic Caliphates (cont.)
  • Economic Developments
  • Trade flourished
  • Improved irrigation
  • Increase in tax revenues
  • Artisans flourished pottery, fabrics, rugs
  • Paper mills set up (Chinese influence)

10
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Islamic Caliphates (cont.)
  • Cultural Developments
  • Mosques, hospitals, schools, orphanages
  • Algebra, latitude longitude, spread of Greek
    Hellenism
  • Universities Cordoba, Toledo, Granada
    (Al-Andalus, aka Spain)
  • Art Architecture images were forbidden use of
    geometric shapes calligraphy

11
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Political Developments
  • Eastern Roman Empire
  • Justinian
  • Greek language
  • Strong central government
  • Great laws, efficient military, land
    distribution, elaborate bureaucracy, theme system

12
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Byzantine Empire (cont.)
  • Economic Developments
  • Excellent location for controlling trade
  • Silk worms smuggled out of China gt strong silk
    industry developed
  • Glassware, linen, jewelry, gold, silversmithing

13
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Byzantine Empire (cont.)
  • Cultural Developments
  • Greek
  • Theoretically, social mobility was possible but
    was rare
  • Constantinople gt political, commercial, and
    intellectual center w/ great libraries
  • Split w/ western Church in 1054
  • Eastern Orthodox vs. Roman Catholic

14
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Western Europe (500-1000 CE)
  • Political Development
  • Frankish Kingdom
  • Charlemagne
  • Feudal system lack of strong central govt
  • Economic Developments
  • Serfdom
  • Manors
  • No surplus of food so Europe lagged behind

15
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Western Europe (500-1000 CE)
  • Cultural Developments
  • Birth status
  • Noblewomen had a lot more power than peasant
    women
  • Nunneries escape for women to be treated
    equally
  • Code of Chivalry
  • Christianity religious, moral, and cultural
    authority of this time w/ strong papacy
  • Role of monasteries

16
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Japan (600-1000 CE)
  • Political Developments
  • Impact of geography
  • Yamato Clan gt emperors of Japan
  • Failed to centralize Japanese state
  • Fujiwara Clan (710-785 CE)
  • Modeled Japan after China
  • Unsuccessful w/ Chinese-style bureaucracy
  • Strict hierarchy developed instead

17
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Japan (600-1000 CE)
  • Political Developments (cont.)
  • Kamakura Shogunate
  • Feudalism
  • Shogun
  • Daimyo
  • Samurai
  • Bushido
  • Role of emperor

18
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Japan (600-1000 CE)
  • Economic Developments
  • Predominantly an agrarian society
  • Artisans gt weavers, carpenters, ironworkers
  • Local trade regulated by clans
  • Kamakura period gt foreign trade w/ Korea and
    China
  • Peasants were very similar to serfs in Europe
  • Genin

19
Post-Classical Political Developments
  • Japan (600-1000 CE)
  • Cultural Developments
  • Buddhism popular but Shintoism maintained its
    respected traditions
  • Adopted Chinese technology, written language, and
    Buddhism (Zen Buddhism)
  • Heian Period (794-1185) Chinese contact cut off
    and focus on Japanese cultural values
  • Tale of Genji women were highly regarded
  • By the end of this period women began to lose
    power

20
Nomadic Empires
  • Vikings (800-1000 CE)
  • Scandinavia
  • Seasonal raids to supplement low farm production
  • Viking boats gt terrorized coastal communities in
    France, Scotland, Ireland, England
  • Greenland Iceland
  • Normans (aka Northmen) gt Normandy
  • 1066 gt William the Conqueror

21
Nomadic Empires
  • Turks (1000-1450)
  • Central Asian steppes
  • Often hired as mercenaries
  • Seljuk Turks (1055) gt captured Baghdad
  • 1071 defeated the Byzantines and took most of
    modern Turkey
  • Afghan Turks
  • Series of raids into India in the 10th century
  • Began Delhi Sultanate in India (1206-1526)

22
Nomadic Empires
  • Mongols (1200-1550)
  • Worlds largest empire gt mobility
  • Genghis Khan
  • Submit and live. Resist and die
  • Every male, 15-70, had to serve
  • Unique military strategies
  • Took Central Asia, Tibet, Northern China, and
    Persia
  • Died in 1227

23
Mongol kingdoms
  • Mongols (1200-1550)
  • China Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
  • Kublai Khan
  • Style of rule?
  • Middle East The Ilkhanates
  • 1258 Hulegu gt defeated Abbasids
  • Style of rule? many converted to Islam
  • Russia The Golden Horde
  • Batu heavy taxes Moscow collected Kiev
    resisted
  • Pax Mongolica
  • For nearly 100 years Eurasia was united
  • Mongol Exchange
  • Mongol decline Mamluks (Egypt), Japanese
    Kamikaze, overspending led to inflation

24
Impact of Interaction
  • West African Kingdoms
  • Ghana (500-1200 CE)
  • Trans-Saharan Trade
  • Gold, ivory, slaves, salt, horses, cloth
  • Arrival of Islam (10th century)
  • Mali (1235-1400s)
  • Islamic conversion encouraged
  • Mansa Musa
  • Timbuktu gt êntrepot

25
Impact of Interaction
  • Christianity in North East Africa (1st century
    CE)
  • Egypt Ethiopia (Coptic Christians)
  • Unique style of architecture
  • East African City-States (900-1500)
  • Indian Ocean Trade
  • Mogadishu, Kilwa, Sofala Swahili city-states
  • Zimbabwe

26
Impact of Interaction
  • Europe during the High Middle Ages (1000-1450)
  • 1100 CE pre-modern economy was evolving
  • Breakdown of feudalism growth of towns
    commercial cities emerged
  • Bruges, Hamburg, Florence
  • Service providers craftspeople set up in these
    towns
  • These cities began to plan their growth, regulate
    businesses, and collect taxes
  • Wealthy towns (Italy) invested in beautification

27
Impact of Interaction
  • Crusades (1095-1204)
  • Series of Christian holy wars conducted against
    infidels
  • Pope Urban II
  • 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Crusades
  • Christian Europe gains trade technology
  • Long Distance Trade
  • Silk Road
  • Trans-Saharan
  • Indian Ocean
  • Mediterranean

28
Impact of Interaction
  • Missionary Campaigns
  • Buddhism
  • Theravada Mahayana Buddhism
  • Central Asia Tibet
  • Personal salvation
  • Korea Japan
  • Zen Buddhism syncretism Buddhism Shintoism
  • Christianity
  • Both east west spread Christianity
  • Christian syncretism?
  • Nestorian Christians

29
Impact of Interaction
  • Missionary Campaigns
  • Islam
  • Spread military conquest OR trade missionary
    activity
  • Tolerance
  • Sufi missionaries (after 900 CE)
  • Islam in Africa . Syncretism
  • Travelers
  • Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Rabban Sauma
  • SEE HANDOUT THAT I DISTRIBUTE

30
Impact of Interaction
  • The Spread of Diseases
  • Black Plague
  • Trade routes impact
  • Population decrease labor shortage decrease
    in serfdom
  • Anti-Semitism grew

31
Recovery Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • Chinese Political Development
  • Ming
  • comeback kids (1368-1644) Hongwu
  • Eliminated all evidence that the Mongols ever
    ruled
  • Civil service examination
  • Mandarins class of powerful officials
  • Temporarily supported Chinese exploration (Zheng
    He)
  • Rebuilt irrigation systems agrarian production
    improved
  • Porcelain, silk, and cotton actively traded

32
Recovery Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • European Political Development
  • By the 1400s, regional kingdoms replaced by
    strong, powerful monarchies (France, England,
    Spain)
  • Key professional, standing armies paid with
    taxes
  • Competition among these states led to a
    refinement and improvement in weapons, ships, and
    technology
  • These states now positioned to dominate the world

33
Recovery Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • Chinese Intellectual Developments
  • Neo-Confucian schools
  • Self-discipline, filial piety, and obedience to
    rulers stressed
  • Yongle Encyclopedia
  • Printing, novels, poetry
  • Jesuit missionaries in China (Matteo Ricci)
    Chinese interested in European technology, not
    Christianity

34
Recovery Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • European Intellectual Developments
  • Renaissance rebirth
  • Contact w/ Islamic world Greek Roman texts
  • Painters, sculptors, and writers drew inspiration
    from the Greco-Roman world
  • Humanists
  • Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles??
  • Medici family (Florence)

35
Recovery Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • Chinese Exploration
  • 1405-1433
  • Seven massive naval expeditions to re-establish
    Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean network
  • Spy mission?
  • Zheng He
  • Why did Ming order explorations to stop?

36
Recovery Renaissance in Asia and Europe
  • European Exploration
  • Impact of Renaissance?
  • Gold, God, Glory
  • Eastern spices in high demand Ottoman Empires
    impact?
  • Portuguese were FIRST, Spanish SECOND
  • Henry the Navigator
  • Vasco da Gama
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Naval race??

37
American Civilizations
  • Maya (300-900 CE)
  • Borrowed Olmec traditions
  • Agricultural economy
  • Distinctive temple complexes and massive pyramids
  • Ritualistic polytheism
  • Urban areas with thousands of people
  • Independent city-states, linked by trade
  • Staple diet of maize (corn) and beans

38
American Civilizations
  • Aztec ( 1400-1521)
  • Aka. Mexica
  • Militant warrior tradition
  • Rule by severe despots
  • Priestly class to oversee rituals, including
    human sacrifice
  • Large urban capital (Tenochtitlan) 150,000
    people
  • Agricultural economy with cacao beans sometimes
    used as currency
  • Decentralized network of city-states that paid
    tribute

39
American Civilizations
  • Inca ( 1400-1540)
  • Centralized empire with its capital at Cuzco
  • Extensive, irrigated agricultural economy adapted
    to the rugged terrain of the Andes
  • Large urban centers
  • Polytheistic religion centered on worship of the
    sun
  • Patriarchal society with few rights for women
  • Privileged noble class, headed by a king (Inca)
    in which royal ancestors revered and worshipped
    (mummification)
  • No written language
  • Impressive achievements in building with cut stone
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