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Geography 101

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GEOPOLITICS of EASTERN EUROPE Geopolitics The ability of a state (or nation) to control territory and affect the foreign policy of states, nations, and international ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geography 101


1
GEOPOLITICS of EASTERN EUROPE
2
Geopolitics
  • The ability of a state (or nation) to control
    territory and affect the foreign policy of
    states, nations, and international relations
  • Examples of Geopolitics in action
  • Colonialism / Imperialism / (threat of) Military
    Intervention / USSR
  • Neocolonialism
  • Dependency and International Aid
  • Treaties, Organizations, Alliances, Agreements
    (EU, NAFTA, NATO, World Bank, UN, etc.)

3
Geopolitical Theories for the 20th Century
  • Lebensraum (Friedrich Ratzel)
  • Heartland Theory (Halford Mackinder)
  • East / West Theory
  • Domino Theory
  • Red Scare
  • European Union as a
  • theory

4
Lebensraum
  • Friedrich Ratzel Germany, 1897
  • Lebensraum (Living Space) land and resources
  • The State Living Organism
  • Social Darwinism if you successfully adapt to
    / occupy a new location, you will naturally and
    necessarily move on to fill another location as
    an essential part of survival

And where would the Germansfind thisliving
space?
5
  • In the East

6
Generalplan Ost (GPO)
  • Hitler reinterpreted Ratzel to justify mass
    Ethnic Cleansing and / or displacement
  • Any non-Germans not welcome
  • 50m Slavs to be removed or killed
  • Poland to have only 4m residents
  • 1939 Had 35m residents
  • Drang Nach Osten Drive to the East
  • Reichskommissariats (tactical regions)
  • Ostland (Baltic States, Belarus, East Poland)
  • Ukraine (Ukraine and adjacent territories)
  • Kaukasus (Transcaucasia)
  • Moskau (Moscow metro area, adjacent European
    Russia)

7
Alford Mackinders Heartland Theory (Taken from
Ratzels geographic view of the state as an
organism)
Eurasian Land Mass
8
Mackinders Heartland Theory 1904
  • If you control the Heartland (Pivot Area
    Eurasian land mass) you control the world
  • The Great Game between Britain, Russia
    1800s-1900s
  • Maritime powers need to control Rimland (Inner
    Crescent), i.e. Middle East
  • Need to prevent Russo-German alliance or Russian
    control of Germany
  • Stalin, Hitler, Genghis Khan?

Alford Mackinder, Great Britain
9
East vs. West (post WWII)
10
East / West Theory Cold War
  • 2 Options
  • Ally with the West free, good
  • Ally with the East Communist, Fascist evil
  • But from whos point of view?

Yugoslavia?
11
xxxxx
12
Not Just USSR vs. NATO
  • Ideological battle
  • Reds vs. Whites
  • Socialists vs. Capitalists
  • Economic system
  • Communism vs. Democracy
  • Political system
  • Soviet aggression vs. American imperialism
  • Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks on a larger scale
  • Either A or B every country needs to decide
    which team to join

13
Message to entire world Whose team are you on?
14
Domino Theory
  • If one country turns to communism, then the next
    one will, and the next one, and the next one,
    etc. (i.e. China, Cuba, Korea, Vietnam, etc.)

1945
1980
15
View of Communist Red Bloc during Cold War
Theory failed to recognize differences among
Communists, or other causes of conflict
16
But from whose point of view?
17
The Red Scare
  • Spread of Communism
  • (post WWI and post-WWII)
  • Yugoslavia (1946)
  • Berlin Airlift (1948)
  • Chinese Revolution (1949)
  • Vietnam / Civil War (1950-75)
  • Korean War (1950)
  • Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • Soviet interventions
  • East Germany, 1953
  • Hungary, 1956
  • Cuba, 1962
  • Prague Spring, 1968
  • Afghanistan, 1979
  • Others

Joe McCarthy
18
U.S. Interventions
  • Q Did the U.S. have its own interventions during
    the Red Scare(s)?
  • 10?
  • 20?
  • 40?
  • 50?

67
At least 67 U.S. interventions in just Latin
America since Stalin came into power (1922)
19
  • 1959 Cuba
  • Cuba wants independence without U.S. influence
    (i.e. Puerto Rico)
  • Since no longer part of West and free of U.S.
    influence, U.S. had fears of Cuba going
    Communistonly 90 miles away!
  • 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion organized by
    CIAfailed
  • Castro seeks help fearing future invasions
    into Cuba

20
  • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Cuba allies with USSR (defense and trade) and
    agrees to allow USSR to put missiles in Cuba (90
    mi. from U.S.)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis U.S. reacts blockades
    Cuba orders removal of missiles
  • USSR tells Cuba if U.S. fires or invades, launch
    missiles
  • 2 weeks go by. Khrushchev blinks Russia
    removes missiles
  • Biggest red scare in U.S. history Communism at
    U.S. Doorstep nearly WWIII

21
WWIII possible flashpoints
West Germany / West Berlin 1948, 1961 Yugo
1946, 1980s Cuba 1961, 1962 Korea 1950
until? Vietnam 1959-1975 Iran 1946, 1980 Q
Were these actually real fears of a Soviet
invasion?
22
3rd World
  • US-USSR indirect Hot Wars
  • Struggles mainly nationalist, not Communist
  • Third World competed for aid until Cold War ended
  • East - West competition in culture

Cuba
Guatemala
Vietnam
23
3rd World
  • Soviets pro-liberation in Cuba, Vietnam,
    Angola, South Africa, Chile, Nicaragua,
    Palestine, etc.

Question Could a country be free of
neocolonialism without becoming Communist?
24
NATO today North Atlantic Treaty Organization
25
Q If the West justified their actions through
this map,
then can Russia similarly justify
its actions (e.g. Georgia) with this one?
26
Pull of the European Union
27
European Union
2004 10 new members 2007 Bulgaria,
Romania 2010 Croatia? 2015 Turkey?
Democratic Peace Proposition No two democracies
have ever gone to war with one another. Therefore
, by meeting the criteria to join the EU, if
Russia and others are allowed into the EU, will
this mean the end of any intra-European
geopolitical issues forever?
28
Or a Blue Curtain?
Per Capita Income
  • East-Central Europe as a Mexico for Western?
  • Less developed economy reserved for labor?

Per Capita Income
Renault factory in Romania
29
To be continued
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