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Chapter 23 Infection

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Chapter 23 Infection Common Infections Urinary tract infections Prostatitis Pneumonia Influenza Tuberculosis Vaginitis Common Infections (cont.) Herpes zoster Scabies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 23 Infection


1
Chapter 23 Infection
2
Common Infections
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Prostatitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Influenza
  • Tuberculosis
  • Vaginitis

3
Common Infections (cont.)
  • Herpes zoster
  • Scabies
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Antibiotic-resistant microorganisms

4
Causes of UTIs
  • Poor hygienic practices
  • Improper cleansing after bowel elimination
  • Predisposition created by low fluid intake and
    excessive fluid loss
  • Hormonal changes
  • Debilitated states

5
Gerontological Nursing Interventions for
Infections
  • Prevention
  • Early identification
  • Adequate treatment

6
Signs and Symptoms of UTIs
  • Early indicators include burning, urgency, and
    fever.
  • Some elders develop incontinence and delirium
    with UTIs.
  • Many UTIs in older adults seem asymptomatic.
  • Bacteriuria greater than 105 CFU/mL confirms the
    diagnosis of UTI.
  • As a UTI progresses, retention, incontinence, and
    hematuria may occur.

7
Treatment of UTIs
  • Establish adequate urinary drainage.
  • Control the infection through antibiotic therapy.
  • Note fluid intake and output.
  • Force fluids.
  • Observe for new symptoms.

8
Signs and Symptoms of Prostatitis
  • Acute systemic symptoms of fever, chills, and
    malaise.
  • Chronic these symptoms are uncommon.
  • Both types
  • Urinary symptoms of frequency, nocturia, and
    dysuria
  • Varying degrees of bladder obstruction secondary
    to an edematous, enlarged prostate
  • Lower back and perineal pain

9
Treatment of Prostatitis
  • Identify pathogen with urinalysis.
  • Use antibiotic therapy.
  • Chronic prostatitis does not respond as well to
    antibiotics.

10
Pneumonia
  • Incidence
  • One of the leading causes of death in the
    elderly.
  • Contributing Factors
  • Age-related changes to respiratory system
  • High incidence of debilitating conditions
  • Hospitialization
  • Symptoms
  • Restlessness, confusion, and behavioral changes

11
Influenza Facts
  • Most deaths from influenza occur in the older
    population.
  • Influenza A is the most frequent cause of serious
    illness and death in elders.
  • Age-related changes cause older persons to be
    highly susceptible to influenza.
  • Symptoms include fever, myalgia, sore throat, and
    nonproductive cough.

12
Preventive Measures for Influenza
  • Annual influenza vaccinations
  • Daily vitamin and mineral supplements
  • Avoiding people with respiratory infections

13
Tuberculosis
  • Classic symptoms may not be demonstrated
  • Anorexia, weight loss, and weakness may be the
    primary symptoms.
  • Night sweats may not occur because of reduced
    diaphoresis with advanced age.
  • Fever may not be detected because of alterations
    in body temperature in late life.
  • Screening for tuberculosis should be performed
    for all patients entering institutions.

14
Treatment for Tuberculosis
  • Rest
  • Good nutrition
  • Medications

15
Symptoms and Treatments for Vaginitis
  • Symptoms
  • Soreness, pruritus, burning, and a reddened
    vagina
  • Clear, brown or white vaginal discharge
  • Can cause bleeding and adhesions
  • Treatment
  • Local estrogens in suppository or cream
  •  

16
Herpes Zoster
  • Symptoms
  • Pain and itching of the skin
  • In several days, the formation of vesicles
  • Treatment
  • Analgesics, corticosteroids, and topical
    preparations to dry the lesions.

17
Vaginitis Age Related Considerations
  • Vaginal epithelium thins.
  • Tissue elasticity lessens.
  • Secretions become alkaline and of lesser
    quantity.
  • The flora changes.

18
Symptoms of Scabies
  • Intense pruritus that worsens at night
  • Excoriation of the skin
  • Rash with a burrow
  • Diagnosis is made by scraping the lesions with a
    scalpel and examining the material.

19
Initial Symptoms of HIV
  • Low-grade fever
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Rash

20
Symptoms That Can Develop Years After HIV Invades
the Body
  • Persistent fever
  • Drenching night sweats
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Thrush
  • Persistent vaginitis

21
Symptoms That Can Develop Years After HIV Invades
the Body (cont.)
  • Herpes zoster
  • Lymph node swelling
  • Meningitis
  • Palsies
  • Pain
  • Dementia

22
MRSA
  • Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections.
  • Minor (e.g., boils pimples)
  • Serious (e.g., pneumonia septicemia)
  • Resistance of Staph to antibiotics progressed
    throughout the years.
  • Linezolid (Zyvox) and the combination of
    quinupristin with dalfopristin (Synercid) are
    treatment options.

23
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
  • VRE is a significant nosocomial infection.
  • VRE infections tend to be resistant to most
    previously used drugs.
  • At present, Zyvox and Synercid are the only drugs
    effective against VRE.

24
Persons Affected by VRE
  • Those who are severely ill
  • Debilitated persons
  • Immunosuppressed persons
  • Those having had major surgical procedures
  • Those having an indwelling urinary or central
    venous catheter
  • Those on antibiotic therapy

25
Source
  • Eliopoulos, C. (2005).  Gerontological Nursing,
    (6th ed.).  Philadelphia Lippincott, Williams
    Wilkins (ISBN 0-7817-4428-8).
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