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Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Movement A. Gains During Truman s Administration Morgan v. Virginia (1946) Supreme Court decision Made state laws requiring segregation on busses ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil Rights Movement


1
Civil Rights Movement
2
A. Gains During Trumans Administration
3
Morgan v. Virginia (1946)
  • Supreme Court decision
  • Made state laws requiring segregation on busses
    illegal for interstate travel

4
CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
  • Founded in 1942
  • Sponsored Freedom Rides on busses through the
    South in 1947
  • Testing the enforcement of Morgan
  • Realized courts willing to help, but there is no
    enforcement

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7
Desegregating the Armed Forces
  • Executive Order 9981 signed July 1948

8
The Dixiecrats
  • States Right Democratic Party
  • Formed in 1948 as an offshoot of the Democratic
    Party
  • Opposed to Trumans Civil Rights policies
  • Wanted to uphold segregation and Jim Crow
  • Started split of the South from the Democratic
    Party

9
B. Brown v. Board of Education
10
The Case
  • 1951, NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall begins to
    fight segregation in schools
  • Linda Brown wanted to attend an all white school
  • Marshall argued that their 14th amendment rights
    were violated
  • Equal protection equal educational
    opportunities

11
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14
The Decision (1954)
  • Unanimous decision led by Earl Warren
  • Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
  • "Separate educational facilities are inherently
    unequal. It has no place in public education.
  • Brown II (1955) schools must be integrated
    with all deliberate speed

15
The Response
  • 80 of Southerners were against Brown decision
  • Southern Manifesto 101 Congressmen signed that
    the decision was a contradiction to the
    Constitution

16
Crisis in Little Rock, AK
  • 9 African-American student enroll at Central High
    in 1957
  • Gov. Faubus orders the National Guard to keep
    them out

17
Elizabeth Eckford tries to integrate Central High
18
  • Finally Eisenhower sends 1,000 troops to Little
    Rock to protect the students and integrate
    Central High
  • The next year all Little Rock schools closed

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20
C. The Emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr.
21
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56)
  • Dec. 1, 1955 Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing
    to give up her seat

22
  • 80 of Montgomerys bus riders were
    African-American
  • Called for an immediate boycott of the bus system

23
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as the leader of
    the movement
  • Outlined a Civil Disobedience campaign
  • Boycott lasted 381 days
  • It took a Supreme Court decision to integrate
    the busses of Montgomery

24
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • Founded in 1957 by MLK
  • Civil Rights organization led by ministers
  • Proposed a non-violent campaign to fight for
    Civil Rights
  • Realized that government was not going to help

25
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  • Offshoot of SCLC that led civil disobedience
    campaigns for students
  • Founded in 1960

26
Sit-Ins
  • Effective new strategy for integration
  • SNCC targeted lunch counters across the South

27
  • Feb. 1, 1960 1st sit-in began in Greensboro, NC
    at Woolworths
  • Led to 70,000 students for 18 months
    participating in sit-ins and boycotts

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29
D. Kennedy and Civil Rights
30
Freedom Rides
  • May 1961 CORE retests bus interstate travel
  • Goal was to be arrested to make federal
    government enforce the law

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32
  • Met with severe resistance once they entered
    Alabama
  • Many were beaten while the police watched
  • Then they were arrested

33
  • Kennedy forced to act
  • Sends federal marshals to protect the riders, but
    does not stop them from being arrested or force
    integration
  • Trying not to anger the Southern Democrats
  • Robert Kennedy (the AG) petitions the ICC to
    issue an order for integration in November 1961

34
Showdown in Birmingham, AL (1963)
  • Most racially divided city in the South
  • 1963 Birmingham closed parks, playgrounds, pools,
    and golf courses to avoid desegregation
  • MLK decided to begin a campaign there to bring
    segregation to the national attention

35
  • April 1963, MLK SCLC begin to march, sit-ins,
    and boycott stores in the city
  • 50 were arrested on Good Friday
  • MLK wrote his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail

"We know through painful experience that freedom
is never voluntarily given by the oppressor it
must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I
have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign
that was well-timed in the view of those who
have not suffered unduly from the disease of
segregation. For years now I have heard the word
"Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with
piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost
always meant "Never." We must come to see, with
one of our distinguished jurists, that justice
too long delayed is justice denied." -- Martin
Luther King, Letter from a Birmingham Jail
36
  • SCLC began using children in a Childrens
    Crusade
  • Public Safety Commissioner Bull Connor attacked
    the children

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39
  • Images shown on national television
  • Public is outraged
  • Non-violence ends riots begin in Birmingham
  • Justice Dept intervenes and negotiations begin

40
  • Several bombings
  • 3,000 federal troops sent to end violence
  • Two sides agree to end campaign and begin
    integration of business/stores

41
JFK Announces a Civil Rights Bill
  • June 11 JFK announces that he will send a Civil
    Rights Bill to Congress

42
March on Washington (1963)
  • August 28 250,000 protestors
  • Meet to show support for JFKs Civil Rights bill
  • MLK gives his I Have a Dream speech

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44
E. Triumphs for Civil Rights
45
24th Amendment
  • Ratified Jan 1964
  • Abolished poll tax in national elections

46
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Provisions
  • Forbid segregation in any public facilities,
    government, education, and invalidated Jim Crow
    laws
  • Created the Equal Employment Opportunity
    Commission to enforce the law
  • Government could deny money to states who were
    not following the law
  • Result Most businesses desegregated

47
Mississippi Freedom Summer Project
  • June of 1964, SNCC wants to register black voters
  • Less than 5 of the African-American community
    was registered
  • Over 900 volunteers (mainly white college
    students) went to the South to try to register
    voters

48
  • Violence
  • 6 brutally murdered
  • 80 beatings
  • 35 shootings
  • 30 bombings
  • Over 1,000 arrests
  • Registered over 60,000 African-Americans

49
March from Selma to Montgomery
  • Poor black voter turnout in 1964 election
  • SCLC tried to register voters

50
  • March 7, 1965 protest march from Selma to
    Montgomery
  • Were violently attacked by the police

51
  • March 9, 1965 2nd march attempted led by MLK
  • Ordered by the courts to not march

52
  • LBJ announces a plan to pass legislation
    protecting African-American voters
  • March 21 3rd march will make it to Montgomery

53
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Authorized federal supervision of voter
    registration
  • Outlawed all literacy other discriminatory
    tests for voter registration

54
Affirmative Action (1965)
  • Executive Order 11375
  • Policies that take race, ethnicity, or gender
    into consideration in an attempt to promote equal
    opportunity or increase ethnic diversity
  • Results more minorities enroll in college

55
End of Affirmative Action
  • Began a reverse discrimination
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
    (1978)
  • Ruled against affirmative action programs that
    set a rigid quota for minority admissions
  • California Prop 209 (1996) ended affirmative
    action in CA

56
Thurgood Marshall
  • June 1967 LBJ appoints Marshall to the Supreme
    Court

57
F. Rise of Black Power
58
Nation of Islam
  • Religious organization that was in favor of black
    separatism
  • Malcolm X became a leader in the early 1960s

59
  • Encouraged armed resistance by any means
    necessary to break white domination

"The white people should thank Dr. King for
holding black people in check."
60
Stokely Carmichael
  • Was the leader of SNCC in the late 1960s
  • Became disillusioned with the slow progress being
    made
  • Believed in Black Power
  • Self-reliance
  • Self-sufficiency
  • Transformed SNCC into
  • an all black organization

61
Black Panthers (1966)
  • Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
  • Huey Newton Bobby Seale
  • Believed in armed defense against police and
    white brutality

62
  • Became a paramilitary group
  • Monitored the local police to protect from
    brutality
  • Continuously raided by police FBI
  • Jail time was their downfall

63
Assassination of MLK
  • April 4, 1968 MLK is shot and killed by James
    Earl Ray

64
The Long Hot Summers
  • Summers 1964-68, Racial riots in many major
    cities
  • Watts Riot (L.A.) August 1965 6 days

65
End of the Movement
  • Vietnam and increasing turmoil at home in 1968
    brought about an end to the momentum
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