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Kenya:

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Kenya: Land, People and Politics Regional Map Ethnic Groups Map The Land Tourism Other Industries Social Issues Social Issues Politics Kenya is a democratic republic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kenya:


1
Kenya
  • Land, People and Politics

2
Regional Map
  • Capital Nairobi
  • Area 582,650 sq km about twice the size of
    Nevada
  • Population 36,913,721 (2007 estimate)
  • Main ethnic groupsKikuyu, Luhya, Luo, Kalenjin,
    Kamba, Kisii, Meru
  • GDP per capita purchasing power parity - 1,600
    (2007 estimate)
  • 40 of the labor force is unemployed. Of those
    working, 75 are employed in agriculture while
    25 are employed in service/industry
  • 50 of the population lives below the poverty
    line
  • AIDS and Malaria are leading causes of illness
    and death in the country.

3
Ethnic Groups Map
Kikuyu 22 The Kikuyu homeland is around Mount
Kenya. Land ownership is the most important
social, political, religious, and economic
factor. Kikuyu farmers produce most of the fresh
produce that is consumed in Nairobi as well as
coffee and tea for export. Luhya 14 The
Luyha's traditional homeland is around Kakamega
in western Kenya. The Luyha suffer from high
population density which effects their farming
economy as cultivation occurs on plots that get
smaller with each generation. They are important
producers of sugar-cane. Luo 13 The Luo live
for the most part on the shores of Lake Victoria.
They are fishermen and farmers. The Luo also
played an important role during the independence
struggle and many leading politicians have been
Luo including Oginga Odinga, Tom Mboya, and
Robert Ouko. Kalenjin 12 The Kalenjin have
become politically powerful. They live primarily
in the Rift Valley Although mainly pastoralists,
the Kalenjin have taken up some agriculture and
also produce honey. , Kamba 11 The Kamba
homeland, which is east of Nairobi towards Tsavo
national park Meru 6 The Meru live mainly on
the northeast side of Mount Kenya. They are
farmers and also produce tea, coffee, pyrethrum,
maize, potatoes and miraa, a stimulant popular
with Muslims.
4
The Land
Kenya has a range of features from large cities
to wide open plains. Some parts of the country
are very fertile and support agriculture. Other
regions are dry and warm with little rainfall.
The vast plains support a wide array of wildlife
and make Kenya one of the most desired
destinations for safaris. Top left Mt. Kenya,
the countrys highest peak. Top center Lake
Victoria, the worlds second largest lake and the
source of Kenyas fishing industry. To right
Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya. Bottom right
The grasslands that are home to many of the
countrys indigenous species.
5
Tourism
  • Tourism is the second largest industry in Kenya
  • Approximately 1 million tourists travel to Kenya
    for safaris each year
  • This is a 1 billion industry that impacts the
    daily lives of nearly 5 million Kenyans
  • Tourism accounts for much of Kenyas economic
    growth over the past several decades

6
Other Industries
  • Agriculture is the backbone of Kenyas economy,
    providing food for the citizens as well as for
    export
  • Approximately 75 of the countrys people are
    employed in agriculture
  • Primary crops that are exported include tea,
    flowers and sugar

7
Social Issues
  • 1,300,000 Estimated number of people living with
    HIV/AIDS by the end of 2005
  • 6.1Estimated percentage of adults (ages 15-49)
    living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2005
  • 62 Estimated percentage of HIV cases that
    occured among women (ages 15-49) by the end of
    2005
  • 150,000 Estimated number of children (ages 0-15)
    living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2005
  • 140,000 Estimated number of deaths due to AIDS
    during 2005
  • 1,100,000 Estimated number of children who have
    lost their mother or father or both parents to
    AIDS and who were alive and under the age of 17
    end of 2005
  • Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a
    parasite.
  • People with malaria often experience fever,
    chills, and flu-like illness.
  • This disease can be prevented and cured by using
    bednets, insecticides, and antimalarial drugs.
  • Lake Victoria, Kenya is the malaria capital of
    the world.
  • In this region, twenty-percent of children under
    the age of five die of malaria.

8
Social Issues
  • Poverty 50 of Kenyas population lives below
    the poverty line
  • Unemployment While most Kenyans (85) are
    literate, the unemployment rate is 40
  • Ethnic Clashes particularly since the Dec. 2007
    elections, Kenyans have become divided socially
    and politically by ethnic groups. This has
    caused many to become refugees, fleeing from
    their homes and businesses to government camps or
    back to the ancestral homeland of their
    particular ethnic group.

9
Politics
  • Kenya is a democratic republic
  • The country gained independence from the United
    Kingdom on Dec. 12, 1963, and was ruled by the
    Kenya African National Union until 2002.
  • Kenya was a de-facto one party state for many
    years, and an official one-party state from 1982
    to 1991, during which KANU made itself the only
    legal party in Kenya.
  • Independent Kenya's first multi-party democratic
    election was held in 1992, but the 2002 elections
    marked the first time the presidency and the
    parliamentary majority changed hands.
  • The executive branch is made up of an elected
    president and an appointed vice president and
    cabinet.
  • The president, who is the chief of state, head of
    government and the commander in chief of the
    armed forces, is elected to a five-year term by a
    direct popular vote and is eligible for two
    terms.
  • A presidential candidate needs to win the
    absolute majority of votes, as well as win 25
    percent or more of the vote in at least five of
    Kenya's provinces.
  • President Mwai Kibaki, of the Party of National
    Unity, was elected for his second term as
    president in highly contested elections on Dec.
    27, 2007.

10
Political Issues
  • Ethnic violence racked Kenya, once one of
    Africa's most stable and prosperous nations,
    killing nearly 1000 people and driving more than
    300,000 from their homes after a disputed
    presidential election on Dec. 27, 2007.
  • Political riots exploded in the streets on Dec.
    30, after the government announced that President
    Mwai Kibaki had been re-elected.
  • Kenya's top opposition candidate, Raila Odinga,
    accused him of rigging the vote. International
    observers also expressed suspicion that
    Kibaki-loyal election officials stuffed ballot
    boxes.
  • The violence quickly dissolved into an ethnic
    battle between mobs and militias. The Kalenjin
    ethnic group, who support Odinga, began burning
    houses and beating and murdering Kikuyus,
    Kibaki's ethnic group. Kikuyus have dominated
    politics and the Kenyan economy for many years.
    Odinga's ethnic group, Luos, and other supporting
    groups like Kalenjin had high hopes for him to
    win the presidency and increase the
    representation of different ethnic groups.
  • Under the power-sharing deal announced Feb. 28,
    2008, Kibaki would remain president, with cabinet
    posts split between rival parties, and Odinga
    would become executive prime minister, a newly
    created cabinet post.

11
Politics President
  • Mwai Kibaki was sworn in as Kenya's president
    after a controversial re-election on Dec. 27,
    2007. His disputed victory sparked violence in
    the East African nation of 36 million people.
    Backers of opposition leader Raila Odinga charged
    that the vote-counting was rigged.
  • Kibaki first came into power in December 2002,
    when he and his opposition alliance, the National
    Rainbow Coalition, won 63 percent of the vote and
    a parliamentary majority.
  • Born Nov. 15, 1931, Kibaki is a Kikuyu, Kenya's
    largest ethnic group.

12
Politics Executive Prime Minister
  • Born Jan. 2, 1945, Raila Odinga comes from the
    Luo tribe, one of Kenya's largest ethnic groups.
  • Odinga's father, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, was a
    nationalist hero and Kenya's first vice president
    in 1963.
  • Odinga helped Mwai Kibaki win power in 2002,
    joining the National Rainbow Coalition party
    which Kibaki led. Odinga served for three years
    in Kibaki's cabinet as minister for roads, public
    works and housing, but was fired for campaigning
    against Kibaki in a constitutional referendum in
    2005.
  • In 2007, Odinga ran against Kibaki as leader of
    the Orange Democratic Movement, but was defeated.
  • Under the power-sharing deal announced Feb. 28,
    2008, Odinga was given the newly created position
    of executive prime minister.
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