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Instructional Design Model ADDIE: Analysis and Design

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Instructional Design Model ADDIE: Analysis and Design C. Candace Chou, Ph.D. University of St. Thomas ccchou_at_stthomas.edu Analysis (Front-end Analysis) Overview of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Instructional Design Model ADDIE: Analysis and Design


1
Instructional Design Model ADDIE Analysis and
Design
  • C. Candace Chou, Ph.D. University of St. Thomas
  • ccchou_at_stthomas.edu

2
Analysis (Front-end Analysis)
  • Overview of system or process to gain
    understanding
  • Compile task Inventory (if needed)
  • Job List (if needed)
  • Job Description (if Needed)
  • Task Inventory (if Needed)
  • Analyze tasks for performance problems (task
    analysis) or perform needs analysis
  • Select tasks for training
  • Build performance measures
  • Select instructional setting
  • Estimate cost

3
Task Analysis
  • A task is an action designed to contribute a
    specified end result to the accomplishment of an
    objective. It has an identifiable beginning and
    end that is measurable component of the duties
    and responsibilities of a specific job.
  • Task example adjust gears on a 10 speed bike.

4
Characteristics of Tasks
  • A task has a definite beginning and end.
  • Tasks are performed in relatively short periods
    of time. They are usually measured in minutes or
    hours.
  • Tasks are observable. By observing the
    performance of a jobholder, a definite
    determination can be made that the task has been
    performed.

5
Characteristics of Tasks
  • Each task is independent of other actions. Tasks
    are not dependent on components of a procedure. A
    task is performed by an individual for its own
    sake.
  • A task statement is a statement of a highly
    specific action. It always has a verb and an
    object. It may have qualifiers, such as measure
    distances with a tape measure. A task statement
    should not be confused with an objective which
    has conditions and standards.

6
Task Statements
  • A task statement is composed of an action and a
    result (product).
  • Examples
  • Determines manual ladder type and size needed at
    incident scene.
  • Determine is the action while identifying the
    correct ladder is the result of the product.
  • Carries manual ladder from apparatus to incident
    scene.
  • Carries is the action and the ladder being
    place at the scene is the result of that action.
  • Sort the task actions into People, Data, and
    Things for clarity.

7
Task v.s. Objectives
  • Adjust gears on a 10 speed bicycle is a task
    statement
  • Given a broken 10 speed bicycle and a tool kit,
    adjust gears. Bicycle must be operable. is an
    objective.
  • Practice good safety habits is not a task, it
    cannot be measured.

8
Task Inventory
  • The task inventory consists of all the tasks that
    a jobholder requires to perform the job to
    standards. Each and every task performed by the
    job incumbent must be listed on the task
    inventory. It provides vital information about
    the skills, knowledge, and abilities required to
    perform a job.
  • (Clark, 2000)

9
Needs Analysis and Task Analysis
  • A needs analysis provides you with a complete
    understanding of the shortcomings of the system.
    While a task analysis looks strictly at the tasks
    performed on the job, a Needs Analysis looks not
    only at the tasks being performed, but also at
    other parts of the system that you might yield
    clues at what might be doe to improve it.
    Depending on your goals, you might perform one,
    both, or a hybrid of the two.
  • http//www.nwlink.com/donclark/hrd/sat2.htmltask
    inv

10
Phases of Needs Assessment
  • Describe goals of current system
  • Evaluate goal achievement
  • Describe gaps
  • Prioritize gaps
  • Determine what needs are appropriate for
    instructional design
  • (Smith and Ragan, 2005)

11
Context Analysis
  • Managerial or supervisor support
  • Physical aspects of the site
  • Social aspect of the site
  • Relevance of skills to workplace

12
Context Analysis of Learning Environment
  • Compatibility of site with instructional
    requirements
  • Adaptability of site to simulate workplace
  • Adaptability of delivery approaches
  • Learning-site constraints affecting design and
    delivery

13
Learner and Context Analysis
  • Entry behavior
  • Prior knowledge of topic area
  • Attitudes toward content and potential delivery
    system
  • Academic motivation (ARCS) Attention, relevance,
    confidence, and satisfaction (Keller, 1987)

14
The Design Phase
  • Entry behaviors
  • Learning Objectives
  • Learning steps (performance steps)
  • Performance test
  • Structure and sequence program outline

15
Goal Analysis
  • Step One classify the goal statement according
    to the kind of learning that will occur. (The
    different categories of learning are referred to
    as domains of learning.)
  • Step Two to identify and sequence the major
    steps required to perform the goal.
  • (Dick Carey, 2001, p. 38)

16
Goal Statement Examples
  • Given a list of cities, name the state of which
    each is the capital (verbal information)
  • Given a bank statement and a checkbook, balance
    the checkbook. (Intellectual skills)
  • Set up and operate a videocamera. (psychomotor
    skills)
  • Choose to make lifestyle decisions that reflect
    positive lifelong health concerns. (attitudes)

17
  • There are many ways to teach and to learn verbal
    information skill. Verbal information usually has
    only one answer for each question and one basic
    way to ask each question.
  • Intellectual skills involves problem-solving,
    including well-structured and ill-structured
    problems. Most instructional design projects are
    in the domain of intellectual skills.

18
  • Psychomoter skills involve the coordination of
    mental and physical activity.
  • Attitudinal goal is set to have learners choose
    to do something. Attitudes are usually described
    as the tendency to make particular choices or
    decisions.

19
Sample Instructional Goals and Learning Domain
Domain Goals Learning Domain ____ 1. Determine
the distance between A. Verbal Information
two specified places on a state map. _____ 2.
Putt a golf ball B. Intellectual skills _____
3. Choose to maximize personal C. Psychomotor
skills safety while staying in a
hotel. _____ 4. Describe the five parts of a D.
Attitudes materials safety data sheet
(MSDS) that are most important for job-site
safety
20
Sample Instructional Goals and Learning Domain
Domain Goals Learning Domain B 1. Determine
the distance between A. Verbal Information
two specified places on a state map. C 2. Putt a
golf ball B. Intellectual skills D 3. Choose
to maximize personal C. Psychomotor skills
safety while staying in a hotel. A 4. Describe
the five parts of a D. Attitudes materials
safety data sheet (MSDS) that are most
important for job-site safety
21
Definition of Objectives
  • A learning objective is a statement of what the
    learners will be expected to do once they have
    completed a specified course of instruction. It
    prescribes the conditions, behavior (action), and
    standard of task performance for the training
    setting. (Clark, 2000)

22
Goals and Objectives
  • Goals describe a learning outcome in general.
  • Example, the learner will successfully complete
    the supervisor course, before moving on to the
    leadership course.
  • An objective is a specific statement of
    instructional intent which attempts to change
    knowledge, skills, or attitudes as a result of
    learning experience.
  • Example the learner will use Maslows Hierarchy
    of Needs when deciding upon motivators. (Clark,
    2000)

23
Performance Objectives
  • A performance objective is a detailed description
    of what students will be able to do when they
    complete a unit of instruction.
  • Behavioral objective, performance objective and
    instructional objectives are used synonymously.
    The latter two are more popular terms.
  • It describes the kinds of knowledge, skills, or
    attitudes that the instructor will be attempting
    to produce in learners.

24
Three Main Parts of A Learning Objective
Tasks or observable action
Conditions or Environment
Standard
25
Components of an Objective I
  • The first component describes the task, skill or
    behavior identified in the instructional
    analysis. This component contains both the
    observable action and the content or concept.
  • Example 1, identify the location of a point on
    the scale in decimal form by estimating between
    two-tenth divisions to the nearest hundredth.
  • Example 2, type a letter or lift a load

26
Components of an Objective II
  • The second component of an objective describes
    the conditions that will prevail while a learner
    carries out the task.
  • Example, given a scale marked off in tenth.

27
Components of an Objective III
  • The third component describes the criteria or
    standard that will be used to evaluate learner
    performance.
  • Example, report the reading to within .01
    units.
  • Complete example Given a scale marked off in
    tenths, identify the location of a point on the
    scale in decimal form by estimating between
    two-tenth divisions to the nearest hundredth, and
    report the reading to within .01 units.

28
Learning Objectives Example 2
  • Write a customer reply letter with no spelling
    mistakes by using a word processor.
  • Observable action
  • Measurable criteria
  • Conditions of performance

29
Learning Objectives Example 2
  • Write a customer reply letter with no spelling
    mistakes by using a word processor.
  • Observable action Write a customer reply letter
  • Measurable criteria with no spelling mistakes
  • Conditions of performance using a word
    processor.
  • Variation Given a personal computer, Word for
    Windows, and printer, create a printed customer
    reply letter with no spelling mistakes.

30
Learning Objective Example 3
  • Copy a table from a spreadsheet into a word
    processor document within 3 minutes without
    reference to the manual.
  • Observable action
  • Measurable criteria
  • Conditions of performance

31
Learning Objective Example 3
  • Copy a table from a spreadsheet into a word
    processor document within 3 minutes without
    reference to the manual.
  • Observable action Copy a table from a
    spreadsheet into a word processor document
  • Measurable criteria within 3 minutes
  • Conditions of performance without referencing
    the manual

32
Learning Objective Example 4
  • After training, the worker will be able to load a
    dumptruck within 3 loads with a scooploader, in
    the hours of darkness, unless the work area is
    muddy.
  • Observable action
  • Measurable criteria
  • Conditions

33
Learning Objective Example 4
  • After training, the worker will be able to load a
    dumptruck within 3 loads with a scooploader, in
    the hours of darkness, unless the work area is
    muddy.
  • Observable action load a dumptruck
  • Measurable criteria within 3 loads
  • Conditions with a scooploader in the hours of
    darkness
  • Variable unless the work area is muddy

34
Designing the Instruction Sequencing
  • Sequencing is the efficient ordering of content
    in such a way as to help the learner achieve the
    objectives.
  • Questions to ponder
  • Can sequencing the content improve the learners
    understanding?
  • What strategies are available to help me sequence
    a unit?
  • When do I determine the sequencing of the
    content?
  • What are the benefits of using a sequencing
    scheme?

35
Sequencing Techniques
  • Job Performance Order The learning sequence is
    the same as the job sequence.
  • From Simple to Complex Objectives may be
    sequenced in terms of increasing complexity.
  • Critical Sequence Objects are ordered in terms
    of their relative importance.
  • Known to Unknown Familiar topics are considered
    before unfamiliar ones.
  • Dependent Relationship Mastery of one objective
    requires prior mastery of another.
  • Supportive relationship Transfer of learning
    takes place from one objective to another,
    usually because common elements are included in
    each objective. These should be placed as close
    together as possible so that the maximum transfer
    of learning can take place.
  • Cause to Effect Objectives are sequenced from
    cause to effect

36
Tasks, Objectives and Learning Steps
  • A task analysis itemizes each discrete skill
    found in a job.
  • Each goal provides the basis for the terminal
    objective
  • The designer must then determine the prerequisite
    skills required for the task and make them into
    the enabling objectives.
  • Example
  • Task Be familiar with personal computers and
    know how to use Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
  • Course Goal The learner will be able to operate
    a personal computer and use the three main
    software package.
  • (Clark, 2000, http//www.nwlink.com/donclark/hrd/
    objectives.htmexample1 )

37
Learning Steps
  • Objective Given a cash register and at lest ten
    products, calculate the exact total for the
    purchase transaction
  • Steps
  • Enter the sales price and the department key for
    each product
  • Repeat step one until all products have been
    entered.
  • After all items have been entered, press the
    subtotal key.
  • Press the Tax key.
  • Press the Total key.

38
Types of Tests
  • Criterion Referenced Test Evaluate the cognitive
    domain which include recall or recognition of
    specific facts, procedural patterns and concepts.
  • Performance Test Evaluate the psychomotor domain
    that involves physical movement, coordination,
    and use of other motor-skills.
  • Attitude Survey Address the affective domain
    such as feeling, values, appreciation,
    enthusiasms, motivation, and attitudes.

39
Written Tests
  • Multiple choices
  • Open-ended question
  • Checklist
  • Two-way question yes/no, true/false
  • Multiple-choice question
  • Ranking Scales
  • Essay

40
ISD Development Model Design Phase recap
  • Analyze the task to determine the objective
  • Develop the learning objective fully and
    determine if it has any enabling objectives. If
    it does, then spell them out.
  • List the steps required to perform the objectives
    to standards.
  • Build a test instrument to determine if the
    learner can perform the steps that are required
    to reach the objective.
  • Construct courseware that will train the learners
    to perform the objective. You know the learners
    can perform the objective if they can mee the
    evaluation standards.

41
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