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Book of Nahum

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Book of Nahum Dr. Rick Griffith, Singapore Bible College ... The Sequel to Jonah 1. Title 2. Date 3. Authorship 5. Historical Background 6. Problem Issue 8. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Book of Nahum


1
Book of Nahum
The Minor Prophets
Book of Nahum
Dr. Rick Griffith, Singapore Bible
College www.biblestudydownloads.com
2
Sequels
3
Nahum The Sequel to Jonah
4
Contents
1. Title
2. Date
3. Authorship
4. Recipients
contents
nahum
5. Historical Background
6. Problem Issue
7. Literary Structure
8. Theology
5
Title Date
621
  • Title
  • Nahum means "consolation" or "consoler"
  • This symbolizes his message to comfort Judah's
    oppressed and afflicted people.
  • Date
  • Latest Nineveh's destruction (612 BC)
  • Earliest Captivity of No (No-amon or Thebes, the
    capital of Upper Egypt) in Nahum 38 in 663 BC

6
Placing the Prophets
342
Placing the Prophets
Key Dates
931
Obadiah
722
Jonah
Amos
Hosea
Isaiah
Nahum
Micah
586
7
100 Years Later
ASSYRIA
Tiglath-Pilesar Assyria Strong
Jonah 760
Nahum 660
Nineveh's Fall 612
Israel's Fall 722
1100
750
700
800
850
900
650
600
Nineveh's Relapse
8
Timeline of Nahum
560
660 650 640 630 620 610
600 590 580 570 560 550
540 530 520
Ashuretililani
Sinsharishkun
Ashuruballit ii
Kings of Assyria
Ashurbanipal
Fall of Nineveh
663 BC
Fall of Thebes
609 605 539
Persian
World powers
Assyrian
Neo-Babylonian
Jehoiakim
zedekiah
Judah
Captivity of Judah to Babylon (586)
Return from Exile
Kings of Judah
Josiah
Manasseh
Amon
Jehoahaz
Jehoiachin
Habakkuk
9
Contrasting Jonah Nahum
626
JONAH NAHUM
First Book (4 chapters) Sequel (3 chapters)
about 760 BC about 660 BC
Repentance from Sin Return to Sin
Nineveh Delivered Nineveh Destroyed
Israel Responsible Israel Protected
Chance to Repent No Chance to Repent
Narrative Declarative
626
10
Contrasting Jonah Nahum
JONAH NAHUM
Focus on the Messenger Focus on the Message
Prophet Disobeys Prophet Obeys
Nineveh Obeys Nineveh Disobeys
Deliverance from Water Destruction by Water
Repented then Relented No Repenting, No Relenting
Jonah's Wrath Refused Jonah's Wrath Revisited
God's Compassion God's Judgment
626
11
OT Prophets Kings
342
OT Kings Prophets
931
Obadiah
722
Jonah
Amos
Hosea
Isaiah
Nahum
Micah
Habakkuk
586
12
Israel Today (NASA)
Looks red and ripe for judgment!
13
Battle of Carchemish (609 BC)
Megiddo Josiah dies
Babylonian Empire
Egyptians
Arabia
14
Authorship
622
  • Nothing is known about Nahum except his being an
    Elkoshite (11).
  • No valid evidence has shown someone else as
    author.
  • Four principal suggestions on the location of
    Elkosh have been advanced
  1. A modern village Elkush, or Alkosh, not far from
    the left bank of the Tigris, two days' journey
    north of the site of ancient Nineveh
  2. A small village in Galilee, at a place identified
    by many with the modern El-Kauze, near Ramieh
  3. Capernaum, the name of which means "Village of
    Nahum"
  4. Elkosh in the territory south of Judah

15
Recipients
622
The message concerned Nineveh, but no record
exists of it reaching this empire. It was Judah
that needed to know how God would judge the
nation that persecuted them.
Historical Background
  • Contemporaries Jeremiah, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah
  • Assyria conquered Israel about 60 years before
    (722 BC).
  • Now God purposed to visit the former rod of His
    anger.
  • Despite repenting under Jonah, Nineveh was ready
    for judgment due to her cruelty in war and greed.
  • The power that had ruled western Asia for some
    three centuries was now to be broken by the
    combined might of the Babylonians and the Medes.

16
Problem The Unity
622
  • The only problem concerning the book is that of
    its unity.
  • The unity and integrity of Nahum was unchallenged
    until the 19th century.
  • Due to an alleged discovery by Gunkel of the
    remnants of an old alphabetic poem in chapter 1,
    many deny the originality of Nahum 1222 (23
    in Hebrew), with the exception of 21, which is
    considered the beginning of Nahum's utterances.

17
Nahum's Prophecies Happened
625
Nahum's Prophecies Historical Fulfillments
18 Nineveh would be destroyed by a flood (26, 8) Nineveh was weakened by an unusually heavy long flood of the Tigris. This carried away a great section of the huge rampart that surrounded the city and permitted the enemy to force their way in to capture the city.
19,14 Nineveh's destruction would be final It was fulfilled in Assyria's utter destruction her inability to afflict Israel a 2nd time.
110 In the final hours of the attack the Ninevites would be drunk (311) After the Assyrians had repulsed the enemy's attack, they got drunk and feasted, and as a result were surprised by the Medes and the city was taken.
111-12 "From you, O Nineveh, has one come forth who plots evil against the Lord and counsels wickedness" Sennacherib made arrogant threats in 701 BC against Judah and Jerusalem (cf. 2 Kings 1819).
113 "Now I will break their yoke from your neck and tear your shackles away." Judah's service to Assyria ended at Nineveh's demise (2 Kings 1814 2 Chron. 3311).
Hobart E. Freeman, An Introduction to the Old
Testament Prophets (Chicago Moody Press, 1977).
18
Book Chart
621
Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction Nahum Nineveh's Destruction
Certain Certain Certain Certain Detailed Detailed Justified Justified Justified
Nahum 1 Nahum 1 Nahum 1 Nahum 1 Nahum 2 Nahum 2 Nahum 3 Nahum 3 Nahum 3
Destruction Decreed Destruction Decreed Destruction Decreed Destruction Decreed Destruction Described Destruction Described Destruction Deserved Destruction Deserved Destruction Deserved
Verdict of Vengeance Verdict of Vengeance Verdict of Vengeance Verdict of Vengeance Vision of Vengeance Vision of Vengeance Vindication of Vengeance Vindication of Vengeance Vindication of Vengeance
What God Will Do What God Will Do What God Will Do What God Will Do How God Will Do It How God Will Do It Why God Will Do It Why God Will Do It Why God Will Do It
God's Anger God's Anger God's Anger God's Anger God's Actions God's Actions God's Accusations God's Accusations God's Accusations
God's Predictions for Judah God's Predictions for Judah God's Predictions for Judah God's Predictions for Judah God's Power for Judah God's Power for Judah God's Justice for Judah God's Justice for Judah God's Justice for Judah
Title 11 God's Attributes 12-8 Plotting Against God 19-11 Destruction is Judah's Deliverance 112-15 Battling vs. Judah's Splendor 21-2 Destruction Despoiling 23-13 Destruction for Cruelty 31-7 Drunk When Destroyed 33-11 Burned With Fire 312-19
In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh In Judah Against Assyria's Capital, Nineveh
c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC c. 660 BC
19
Chiastic Structure of Nahum
a Yahweh, like a terrible force of nature,
avenges his enemies (12-10) b Yahweh will
destroy Nineveh but restore Judah (111-15) c
Vivid description of the attack upon Nineveh
(21-10) d CENTER Lament over fall of
Nineveh (211-13) c' Vivid description of the
looting of Nineveh (31-7) b' Nineveh will be
destroyed it is vulnerable, like Thebes
(38-13) a' Nineveh, likened to a force of
nature, will be destroyed (314-19)
Adapted from David A. Dorsey, The Literary
Structure of the Old Testament A Commentary on
Genesis Malachi (Grand Rapids Baker, 1999)
Dorsey reveals that the placement of the eulogy
over the "lion's den" in the book's highlighted
central position reinforces the sense of
certainty of Nineveh's fall.
20
Theology of Nahum
God as Sovereign King Nahum pictured God as the
sovereign ruler of the universe who controls both
nature and nations, judging them and using them
as instruments of judgment in accordance with His
will. Not even mighty Assyria, the most powerful
nation on earth in Nahum's day, could withstand
the LORD's judgment. The LORD would also destroy
Nineveh's idols (114), showing His sovereignty
over the Assyrian gods.  
21
Theology of Nahum
God as Warrior
Nahum sees the Lord as divine Warrior par
excellence. The book begins with a terrifying
portrayal of the angry, avenging warrior in a
storm frightening all of nature with His battle
cry (12-6). In this opening theophany, Nahum
employed many of the same motifs used by Assyrian
kings to describe their prowess and exploits in
battle. This emphasized that the LORD, not
Assyria's king, was the most powerful warrior.
The "LORD Almighty," or "LORD of Armies,"
personally announced He would defeat Nineveh
(213 35). 
22
Theology Application
God as Judge Assyria's judgment was well
deserved. She had exploited and cruelly treated
other nations (cf. 31, 4), including God's own
people (115). Although the Lord had used the
Assyrians as an instrument to punish Judah
(112-13), they attributed it to their own power
(cf. Isa. 105-19 364-21). God saw this
arrogance as an evil plot against His sovereign
authority (19, 11), so he announced He would
destroy the rebellious Assyrians, avenging His
oppressed covenant people in the process.  
23
Theology Application
God as Israel's Protector God's judgment of
Nineveh would be an expression of His zealous
devotion to His covenant people (cf. 12). Though
God had used the Assyrians to chastise Judah, He
announced through Nahum that the Assyrian
oppression was about to end (113, 15). In
delivering Judah from the Assyrian yoke, He would
once again demonstrate His goodness to His people
and prove that He does indeed take notice of
those who are loyal to Him and trust Him for
protection (17).
Application Do not mistake the patience of God as
the impotence of God Huang Sabin
24
Micah Isaiah Alike
616
  • Exact parallels
  • Messiah prominent
  • Wrote from Jerusalem
  • Wrote about both Israel and Judah
  • Influenced Hezekiah
  • Stressed the kingdom
  • Contemporaneous

In like manner, Jonah Nahum are alike
25
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