Chapter 1: Introduction Optical Fiber Communication: Technology and Systems Overview lecturer: Dr. Ali Fotowat Ahmady - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 1: Introduction Optical Fiber Communication: Technology and Systems Overview lecturer: Dr. Ali Fotowat Ahmady

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Title: Chapter 1: Introduction Optical Fiber Communication: Technology and Systems Overview lecturer: Dr. Ali Fotowat Ahmady


1
Chapter 1 IntroductionOptical Fiber
Communication Technology and Systems
Overviewlecturer Dr. Ali Fotowat Ahmady
Optical Communications Circuits, Systems and
Devices
September, 2012
2
High Speed Electrical Links Necessary to
equalize the growing disparity between on-chip
computation and chip-to-chip communication
bandwidth Components - High-bandwidth
transceiver (TX, RX) - Terminated channel -
Precise clock generation and recovery
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
3
Limitations of Electrical Links (1 of 2)
Maximum on-chip clock frequency that can be
propagated without swing attenuation Clock
period limit ? 6 8 FO4 inverter delays - 0.25?
CMOS ? 750 1000ps ? 1 1.3GHz
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
4
Limitations of Electrical Links (2 of 2)
Limited bandwidth distance product of
wires Bits/s (LC lines) Proportional noise
sources - Reflections - Cross-talk Power
Consumption 30mW/Gb/s
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
5
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
6
Benefits of Optical Links (1 of 2) Enormous
capacity 1.3 mm-1.55 mm allocates bandwidth of
37 THz!! Cables and equipment have small size
and weight - A large number of fibers fit
easily into an optical cable - Applications in
special environments as in aircrafts, satellites,
ships Longer Distances (SMF) - Less
attenuation per distance Optical fiber loss can
be as low as 0.2dB/km Compared to loss of
coaxial cables 10-300dB/km) - Almost zero
frequency dependant loss - Dispersion Limited
(Chromatic 5ps/nm/km) Lower Power - Less
attenuation
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
7
Benefits of Optical Links (2 of 2) Less
Noise - No crosstalk between fibers - No
reflections Immunity to interference - Nuclear
power plants, hospitals, EMP resistive systems
(installations for defense) Electrical
isolation - Electrical hazardous
environments - Negligible crosstalk Signal
security - Banking, computer networks, military
systems Silica fibers have abundant raw material
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
8
Market Transition from Electrical to Optical
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
9
History of Optical Telecommunications (1 of 3)
Roman times-glass drawn into fibers Venice
Decorative Flowers made of glass fibers 1841-
Daniel Colladon-Light guiding demonstrated in
water jet 1870- Tyndall observes light guiding
in a thin water jet 1880- Bell invents
Photophone 1888- Hertz Confirms EM waves and
relation to light 1880-1920 Glass rods used for
illumination 1930- Lamb experiments with silica
fiber 1931- Owens-Fiberglass 1951- Heel,
Hopkins, Kapany image transmission using fiber
bundles 1958- Goubau et. al. Experiments with
the lens guide 1958-59 Kapany creates optical
fiber with cladding
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
10
History of Optical Telecommunications (2 of 3)
1960- Ted Maiman demonstrates first laser in
Ruby 1960- Javan et. al. invents HeNe laser
1962- 4 Groups simultaneously make first
semiconductor lasers 1961-66 Kao, Snitzer et al
conceive of low loss single mode fiber
communications and develop theory 1970- First
room temp. CW semiconductor laser-Hayashi
Panish 1975- Coax, 274 Mb/s at 1km repeater
spacing April 1977- First fiber link with live
telephone traffic-GTE Long Beach 6 Mb/s May
1977- First Bell system 45Mb/s links GaAs lasers
850nm Multimode -2dB/km loss Early 1980s-
InGaAsP 1.3 µm Lasers 0.5 dB/km, lower
dispersion-Single mode
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
11
History of Optical Telecommunications (3 of 3)
Late 1980s-Single mode transmission at 1.55
µm - 0.2 dB/km 1987- 1.3 um InGaAsP lasers,
SMF, 1.7 Gb/s at 50km 1989- Erbium doped fiber
amplifier 1990s- 1.55 um InGaAsP DFB lasers,
SMF, 2.5-10 Gb/s at 40km 1990s- WDM, 1.55 um
InGaAsP DFB lasers, EDFA, SMF, 2.5-10Gb/s at
300-10,000km repeater spacing 1 Q 1996- 8
Channel WDM 4th Q 1996- 16 Channel WDM 1Q
1998- 40 Channel WDM 2002- 64 WDM chx 10Gbps
over 250,000 km span
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
12
Increase in Bitrate-Distance product
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
13
Per-Fiber Capacity Trends
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
14
Optical Fiber vs. Twisted-Pair Cable Coaxial
Cable
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
15
Benchmark between Optical Fibers and Twisted-Pair
Cable
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
16
Optical Signal Processing (1 of 2) With the
development of network communication, the
transmitted signals need further processed such
as switching, add-drop multiplexing, -
Processing in electronic domain
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
17
Optical Signal Processing (2 of 2) -
Processing in optical domain (discrete component)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
18
Progress in Lightwave Communication Technology (1
of 5) First Generation Fiber Optic Systems -
Purpose Eliminate repeaters in T-1 systems used
in inter-office trunk lines - Technology 0.8
µm GaAs semiconductor lasers, Multimode silica
fibers - Limitations Fiber attenuation,
Intermodal dispersion - Deployed since 1974
Second Generation Fiber Optic Systems -
Opportunity Development of low-attenuation fiber
(removal of H2O and other impurities), Eliminate
repeaters in long-distance lines
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
19
Progress in Lightwave Communication Technology (2
of 5) - Technology 1.3 µm multi-mode
semiconductor lasers, Single- mode,
low-attenuation silica fibers, DS-3 signal 28
multiplexed DS-1 signals carried at
44.736Mbits/s - Limitation Fiber attenuation
(repeater spacing 6km) - Deployed since
1978 Third Generation Fiber Optic Systems -
Opportunity Development of erbium-doped fiber
amplifiers - Technology 1.55 µm single-mode
semiconductor lasers, Single- mode,
low-attenuation silica fibers, OC-48 signal 810
multiplexed 64-kb/s voice channels carried at
2.488 Gbits/s
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
20
Progress in Lightwave Communication Technology (3
of 5) - Limitations Fiber attenuation
(repeater spacing 40 km), Fiber dispersion -
Deployed since 1982
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
21
Progress in Lightwave Communication Technology (4
of 5) Fourth Generation Fiber Optic
Systems - Opportunity Deregulation of
long-distance market - Technology 1.55 µm
single-mode, narrow-band semiconductor lasers,
Single-mode, low-attenuation, dipersion-shifted
silica fibers, Wavelength-division multiplexing
of 2.488Gb/s or 9.953Gb/s signals -
Limitations Nonlinear effects limit the
following system parameters (Signal launch
power, Propagation distance without
regeneration/reclocking, WDM channel separation,
Maximum number of WDM channels per fiber),
Polarization-mode dispersion limits the
following parameters (Propagation distance
without regeneration/reclocking) - Deployment
began in 1994
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
22
Progress in Lightwave Communication Technology (5
of 5)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
23
Generic Optical Fiber System (1 of 3)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
24
Generic Optical Fiber System (2 of 3)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
25
Generic Optical Fiber System (3 of 3)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
26
Important Communication Systems and Technologies
(1 of 3) Wide-area networks - Either
government-regulated or in the public network
environment ? WANS originated in telephony -
Main technologies SONET/SDH, ATM, WDM ? Voice
circuits vs. packets ? Non-optical technologies
(unless encapsulated in SONET or ATM)
T1/E1/J1, DS-3, Frame Relay ? Standards
bodies include ITU-T, IETF, ATM Forum, Frame
Relay Forum, IEEE
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
27
Important Communication Systems and Technologies
(2 of 3) Metropolitan-area/regional-area
networks - A MAN or RAN covers a North American
metropolitan area, or a small to medium-sized
country in Europe or Asia - Main technologies
SONET, ATM, Gigabit 10-Gigabit Ethernet,
DWDM ? Non-optical technologies T1, T3, Frame
Relay Local-area networks - Main
technologies Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit
Ethernet - Currently fiber for backbone, copper
for distribution - Excess capacity enhances
performance
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
28
Important Communication Systems and Technologies
(3 of 3) Access networks - The first (or
last) network segment between customer premises
and a WAN or MAN ? Owned by a Local Exchange
Carrier (LEC) - Broadband digital technologies
HFC, DSL ? Ethernet framing vs. ATM - Twisted
pair vs. coaxial cable vs. fiber vs. wireless vs.
free- space optics
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
29
Optical Food Chain
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
30
Optical Communication Protocol Stack
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
31
Optical Network Architecture (1 of 2)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
WDM provides enabling technology for Optical
Network Layer Data format transparency for
multi-service optical layer Optical channel
bandwidth management and high-capacity throughput
32
Optical Network Architecture (2 of 2)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
33
Traffic Growth and Composition
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
34
DWDM Technology (1 of 2)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
?? 25 100GHz (0.4 or 0.8 nm _at_ 1500 nm)
35
DWDM Technology (2 of 2)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
36
Evolution of WDM System Capacity Repeater
spacing for commercial systems - Long-haul
systems - 600 km repeater spacing - Ultra-long
haul systems - 2000 km repeater spacing (Raman
EDFA amplifiers, forward error correction
coding, fast external modulators) - Metro
systems - 100 km repeater spacing State of the
art in DWDM - channel spacing 50 GHz, 200
carriers, 10 Gb/s, repeater spacing few thousand
km
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
37
Global Undersea Fiber systems
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
38
Installed Fiber in US
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
39
Professional Societies and Corporations (1 of 2)
Optical Society of America (OSA) - Oldest
optics/photonics society in North America -
Covers all fields of optics, from human vision to
optical physics Peer-reviewed journals include
Journal of the Optical Society of America,
Applied Optics, Optics Letters, Journal of Light
wave Technology (co-sponsored with IEEE-LEOS),
Journal of Optical Networking, Optics
Express IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics
Society (IEEE-LEOS) - Journal of Quantum
Electronics, Photonics Technology Letters,
Journal of Special Topics in Quantum Electronics
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
40
Professional Societies and Corporations (2 of 2)
- Co-sponsors the Optical Fiber Communication
Conference (OFC) and the Conference on Lasers
and Electro-Optics (CLEO) with OSA SPIE -
Not-for-profit corporation - Organizes many
conferences and publishes proceedings
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
41
Three Giant Companies (1 of 3)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
LUCENT (www.lucent.com) adding more lanes
Symbol LU (SP 500)
Employees 47,000
HQ New Jersey, US
CEO Patricia Russo, 50 (salary 14.28mil/yr)
Revenue FY03 8.6billion
42
Three Giant Companies (2 of 3)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
NORTEL (www.nortelnetworks.com) providing
faster transport equipments
Symbol NT (NYSE)
Employees 39,690
HQ Ontario, CANADA
CEO Frank A. Dunn, 49 Salary 849,000/yr
Revenue FY03 9.6bil
43
Three Giant Companies (3 of 3)
Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
CISCO (www.cisco.com) raising the speed limit
Symbol CSSO (SP 500, Amex Internet, Nasdaq 100)
Employees 34,466
HQ San Jose, CA
CEO John Chambers, 53
Revenue FY03 20.40bil
44
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Chapter 1 Introduction Optical Fiber
Communications
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