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Phrase Structure

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Phrase Structure The formal means of representing constituency Constituents are hierarchically organized S NP VP D N V PP the man ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phrase Structure


1
Phrase Structure
  • The formal means of representing constituency

2
Constituents are hierarchically organized
  • S
  • NP VP
  • D N V PP
  • the man eats
  • P NP
  • at
  • Adj N
  • fancy restaurants

The man eats at fancy restaurants.
S NPDthe Nman VP Veats PP Pat NP
Adjfancy Nrestaurants
3
Phrase Structure Rules
  • Rules to represent hierarchical structure
  • eg. S ? NP VP
  • S
  • NP VP

constituent
(sub)constituents
4
Phrase Structure Rules
  • XP ? (YP) X (ZP)

X,Y,Z are variables representing any category (eg
N, V,A, P etc)
5
Phrase Structure Rules
  • NP ? (D) (AP) N (PP)

6
Phrase Structure Rules
  • NP ? (det) (AP) N (PP)

7
Noun Phrases (NP)
  • A noun phrase can be just a bare noun
  • NP John left (cf. NP the man left)
  • So all other material other than the Noun itself
    will be optional.
  • NP ? N

8
Noun Phrases (NP)
  • NPs can have an optional determiners and
    adjective (phrases).
  • You are allowed one determiner and as many APs as
    you like
  • slippers
  • the slippers
  • pink slippers
  • the pink slippers
  • pink fluffy slippers
  • the pink fluffy slippers
  • the a slippers

NP? (D) (AP) N
9
Noun Phrases (NP)
NP? (D) (AP) N
  • NP
  • D AP AP N
  • the slippers
  • A A
  • pink fluffy

10
Noun Phrases (NP)
  • NPs also allow as many optional PPs following the
    N as you like
  • The book of poems
  • The book of poems with the red cover
  • The book of poems with the red cover from New York

NP? (D) (AP) N (PP)
Is this rule the final one? Not even close! (For
example, it doesnt have a means of incorporating
relative clauses). However, well start with this
as a working hypothesis.
11
Adjective/Adverb Phrases (APs)
  • Adjectives Adverbs can stand on their own as
    phrases
  • John left quickly
  • the red lipstick
  • AP ? A
  • But they can also be modified by other APs
  • John left rather quickly
  • the very red lipstick
  • AP ? (AP) A

12
Adjective/Adverb Phrases (APs)
  • A situation easily confused
  • The big yellow balloon
  • The very yellow balloon
  • What does big modify? What does very modify?

13
The Principle of Modification The Golden Rule
  • If one constituent modifies another then those
    two constituents are sisters. (ie. They must be
    part of the same constituent)

14
Prepositional Phrases (PPs)
  • These generally consist of a Preposition and an
    NP
  • up the road
  • on the video screen
  • under the avocado
  • PP?P NP

15
Prepositional Phrases (PPs)
  • Is the NP in a PP optional?
  • I threw the garbage out
  • The construction workers blew the building up
  • I havent seen him before
  • PP?P (NP)
  • This is controversial not everyone agrees these
    are prepositions.

16
Verb Phrases (VP)
  • Verbs by themselves
  • Marko arrived
  • Susan sang
  • VP? V
  • Verbs can be modified by adverbs
  • Marko often sang
  • Susan sang beautifully
  • Luis often sang beautifully
  • VP ?(AP) V (AP)

17
Verb Phrases (VP)
  • Verbs modified by PPs
  • Marko sang though a microphone
  • Susan sang to her parents
  • VP? (AP) V (PP) (AP)
  • Verbs with an NP object
  • Marko sang a song
  • VP ?(AP) V (NP) (PP) (AP)
  • Verbs with a Sentence Object
  • Fred said Marko sang a song
  • VP ?(AP) V (NP/S) (PP) (AP)

18
Verb Phrases (VP)
  • VP ?(AP) V (NP/S) (PP) (AP)

VP AP
V NP PP
PP A got D N P
NP P NP frequently
his buckets from D N for D N
the
store a dollar
19
Clauses (Sentences)
  • Sentences consist of a subject (NP) and a
    predicate (VP). In English, neither is optional
    (although in other languages the subject may be
    omitted)
  • S ? NP VP

20
Clauses (Sentences)
  • Sentences may have an optional auxiliary or modal
    verb (of the Category T)
  • S ? NP (T) VP

21
Embedded Clauses
  • Sometimes clauses can function as the subject or
    object of other clauses.
  • I asked if Maria would eat the spaghetti
  • I think that Maria decked the Janitor
  • That Maria decked the Janitor is obvious
  • Words like that and if are called
    complementizers.
  • S'?(Comp) S

22
Embedded Clauses
  • VP?(AP) V (NP/S') (PP) (AP)
  • S ?NP/S' (T) VP

23
S
NP
VP
T
didnt
D N V
S
the syntactician think
Comp S
that
NP VP
D N V NP
the phonologist said
D N
the sentence
24
Recursion
  • Language is infinite you can say sentences that
    have never been said before.
  • NP ? N PP
  • PP ? P NP

This property is called Recursion
25
Summary
  • Constituency hierarchical structure is captured
    by phrase structure rules (PSRs)
  • These rules also capture the recursive (infinite)
    property of language.

26
PSRs of English
  • S' ?(Comp) S
  • S ?NP/S' (T) VP
  • VP?(AP) V (NP/S') (PP) (AP)
  • NP ?(D) (AP) N (PP)
  • PP ? P (NP)
  • AP ? (AP) A

to be significantly revised
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