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WATER-

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Recharging of groundwater from rain water harvesting can meet more than half of the city s supply demands. SITE ANALYSIS CATCH THE RAIN WHERE IT FALLS THE CONCEPT ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WATER-


1
WATER-
safe, sustainable and for all
Water The Drop of Life
DEFINITION OF THE PROJECT
WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DELHI
-GIVING A NEW LIFE TO RIVER YAMUNA, THUS TO DELHI
BY THE AUGMENTATION OF GROUND WATER BY RAIN
HARVESTING UNIT.
2
TRADITIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
  • The traditional water harvesting strategies had
    effected an integration of storm and floodwater
    regulation, wastewater collection, drinking water
    supply and micro-irrigation. These were
  • Location specific,
  • Slope efficient,
  • Gravitation based,
  • Inexpensive and non extractive methods of
    harvesting the extremely limited fresh water
    supply, accessible to human use.
  • Indian communities had perfected management of
    the natural watersheds of forests, hills and
    dales, using knowledge of the hydrological
    regimes and rhythms, water veins and aquifers,
    slope and lie of land, history and movement of
    rivers.

Kunda with a well, Roti
Pushkarni at Loni Bhapkar
CONTINUING TRADITIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES
Aside from archaeological examples, water
harvesting structures continue to be maintained
by endogenous communities all over the country.
Groundwater continues to be drawn from aquifers
or palaeo channels in Rajasthan through bardi
(shallow wells in depressions), tankas, khadin
and johad (underground storage pits), kunds
(cisterns in catchments), beris (wells on river
beds).
CASE STUDIES
3
WATER SYSTEMS AT UDAIGIRI
View of udaigiri caves showing a tank
Udayagiri consists of two hills joined together
with a low ridge or a saddle. The hills are
aligned northeast-southwest, forming a
crescent-shaped pocket in the west with ancient
The western end of the passage leads to a high
embankment of a tank, two sides of which are
formed by two sides of the northern hill divided
by a valley. There are three other tanks and two
major channels apart from minor drains forming
four independent water systems at Udayagiri
CASE STUDIES
4
CONTEMPORARY WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Rain water harvesting system advantages
  •    In areas where there is inadequate
    groundwater supply or surface resources are
    either lacking or insufficient, rainwater
    harvesting   offers an ideal solution             
    . Helps in utilizing the primary source of
    water and prevent the runoff from going into
    sewer or storm drains, thereby reducing the load
    on treatment plants.
  • Reduces urban flooding. Recharging water into
    the aquifers help in improving the quality of
    existing groundwater through dilution

Urban centers in India are facing an ironical
situation today. On one hand there is the acute
water scarcity and on the other, the streets are
often flooded during the monsoons.
  • This system is practiced on a large scale in
    cities like Chennai, and Bangalore where
    rainwater harvesting is a part of the state
    policy. Elsewhere, countries like Germany, Japan,
    United States, and Singapore are also adopting
    rainwater harvesting.

CASE STUDIES
5
  • The system consists of a collection tank, slow
    sand filtration, and a living systems
    componentwhich uses aquatic plants and fish to
    purify the water. The rainwater collection basin
    is located on the roof of the Farm Centre and
    integrated with the existing roof structure and
    drainage systems.
  • An example of a Rainwater Harvesting System.
     This one is integrated into the design of a
    home and yard in Portland

Parapet wall has been given corrugated profile
to facilitate more quantity of rain flow to the
gutter
CASE STUDIES
6
Delhi
INDIA
RIVER YAMUNA
HATHI SHALA, ADJACENT TO VIKAS MARG, NEAR ITO,
DELHI
TOWARDS ITO
VIKAS MARG
  • CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING SITE
  • Proximity to river
  • Better geology conditions

SITE DETAILS LOCATION Hathi Shala, adjacent
to Vikas Marg, near ITO, Delhi AREA 1.2 sq
km LANDUSE Agricultural
SITE ANALYSIS
7
  • 22 Km STRETCH OF YAMUNA ALONG DELHI

THE RIVER
8
YAMUNA DELHI- the relationship
STATE Segment catered by Yamuna Area covered
Delhi Wazirabad Barrage to Okhla Barrage (22 kms)
NAME OF STATE TOTAL CATCHMENT AREA IN YAMUNA (IN SQ. KM.) AGE CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUPPLY
Delhi 1485 0.4
The river bed area in Delhi is 97 sq km. The
whole of it is coarse sand up to a depth of 40m.
This feature is the key to the riverbed recharge
capability!!
9
Sources of Water in Delhi
  • Delhi receives its water from 3 sourcesA.
    Surface Water 86 of Delhi's total water supply
    comes from surface water, namely the Yamuna
    River, which equals 4.6 of this resource through
    interstate agreements.B. Sub-surface water
    Rainey wells and tube wells. This source, which
    is met through rainfall (approx. 611.8 mm in 27
    rainy days), and unutilized rainwater runoff, is
    193 MCM (million cubic meters).C. Graduated
    Resources It is estimated at 292 MCM, however
    current withdrawal equals 312 MCM. Salinity and
    over exploitation has contributed to depletion
    and drastically effected the availability of
    water in different parts of the city. However,
    according to a report released by the Central
    Ground Water Board (GCWB), Delhi's ground-water
    level has gone down by about eight meters in the
    last 20 years at the rate of about a foot a year.



PRESET SITUATION Source Delhi Jal Board
SITE ANALYSIS
10
Water Requirement OF Delhi
The requirement of water conservation
  • Delhi is experiencing increasing pressure to meet
    demand for its water resources.
  • Growing urbanization, improvements in living
    standards, exploding population are just some of
    the contributing factors.
  • Average water consumption in Delhi is estimated
    at being 274 liters per capita per day (lpcd),
    the highest in the country.
  • The large-scale extraction of groundwater is a
    result of this widening gap between the demand
    (830 mgd) and supply (650mgd) of water.
  • And still worse, serious doubts are also being
    raised about both the quality and quantity of
    groundwater.
  • The population of Delhi is expected to cross 220
    lakhs by the end of 2021.

SITE ANALYSIS
11
Hydro-geology of Delhi
BEDROCK LEVELS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF DELHI
GEOLOGY OF DELHI
GEOLOGY OF SITE ALLUVIAL
BED ROCK LEVEL OF SITE 35m
SITE ANALYSIS
NOTE INDICATES THE SITE
12
MONTHLY AVERAGES ACROSS CHOSEN YEARS FOR
PRECIPITATION PERIODFROM 2001 TO
2002,UNITSINTEGER,MM
Month
Average across years
Jan
12.4
Feb
11.95
Mar
2.85
Apr
13.8
May
30.7
Jun
60.35
Jul
75.05
Aug
176.5
Sep
93.5
Oct
1.95
Nov
0.0
Dec
4.85
AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL OF DELHI 611mm PRESENT
RUNOFF OF RAINFALL IN DELHI 50
GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF VARIOUS BLOCKS OF
DELHI. THE QUALITY IN THE AREA OF THE SITE IS
CONSIDERED ALL RIGHT.
SITE ANALYSIS
13
WATER TABLE FLUCTUATION IN DELHI
  • As can be compared from the data given above, the
    water fluctuation levels of Delhi is highly
    alarming.
  • The situation is worsening due to exploitation of
    groundwater at a rate higher than the rate of its
    replenishment.
  • Rain water harvesting is a boon for us in the
    given scenario.
  • Recharging of groundwater from rain water
    harvesting can meet more than half of the citys
    supply demands.

SITE ANALYSIS
14
CATCH THE RAIN WHERE IT FALLS
THE CONCEPT
15
The atharvaveda invokes mother earth to yield
the life giving water to those of pure conduct
and right means , and to punish water polluters
in these words
?????? ? ????????? ???????, ?? ?? ??????????? ??
?? ????? I ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? I I
  • The system is devised to work on a pressure
    knob,.i.e. When the level of water increases the
    defined limit, the discharge of water into river
    stops
  • Usage of natural materials for rainwater filter
    chamber therefore cost of materials reduced
  • Using natural cleansers of water like fine sand,
    microbiotic culture.
  • Increase in ground water level.
  • The level of river Yamuna increases.

WHY RAINWATER ??
  • An ideal solution to water problems in areas
    having inadequate water resources.
  • The ground water level will rise.
  • Mitigates the effects of drought achieves
    drought proofing.
  • Will reduces the runoff which chokes the storm
    water drains.
  • Flooding of roads and low land areas will reduce
  • Quality of water will improve.
  • Soil erosion will be reduced.

THE CONCEPT
16
SETTLEMENT
RAIN WATER COLLECTING PIPE
RAIN WATER PIPES COLLECTING RAIN WATER FROM
RESIDENTIAL AREA
MAIN RAIN WATER PIPES
GROUND LEVEL
PRESENT SITUATION
PRIMARY INLET
  • The pressure knobs get activated when the levels
    of water rises the defined limit and closes the
    valves of the rain water filter chamber for
    further flow of water.

RIVER
PRESSURE KNOB SYSTEM
River
RAIN WATER FILTER CHAMBER
WATER RISING THROUGH CAPILLARY ACTION
MAIN INLET
After saturation of ground
  • The water saturates the soil and thus recharges
    the river by capillary action

SITUATION AFTER IMPOSITION OF PLANT
CLEAN WATER GETTING DISCHARGED INTO THE GROUND
THE CONCEPT
CONCEPTUAL SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED UNIT
17
  • ANALYSING THE NUMBER OF CISTERNS
  • A suitable size of cistern was taken as 6 m
    diameter and 25 m depth.
  • The size is considered suitable keeping in mind
    the bedrock levels of the area, i.e., 50 m deep.
  • The number of cisterns has been calculated
    keeping the projected population in 2021 in mind.
  • Estimated population of Delhi in 2021 220 lakhs
  • Present per capita per day water demand 274 lcpd
  • Total demand in 2021 220,0,000 X 274 6.02 X 109
    litres.
  • Volume of 1 cistern 2826 X 103 litres
  • Ideal no. of cisterns required 6.02 X 109 /
    2826 X 103 2130
  • No. of cisterns in our site 97

THE CONCEPT
18
GROUND LVL
5 m
MICROBIOTIC CULTURE is added to naturally clean
the water and the tank , thereby reducing the
cost of maintenance
MAIN INLET Dia 1m
WATER
GRAVEL (5m thick layer)
25 m
Dia 6m
FINE SAND ( 8 m thick layer)
MATERIAL GI
WATER PERCOLATING
OUTLET PORES
RAIN WATER FILTER CISTERN
THE DESIGN
19
  • THE DESIGN
  • THE DESIGN HAS TRIED TO INCORPORATE BOTH THE
    PRINCIPLES OF RAINWATER HARVESTING AND WASTE
    WATER MANAGEMENT.
  • THE CISTERNS ARE CONNECTED TO THE RAINWATER
    HARVESTING UNITS OF THE BUILT UP AREAS IN
    VICINITY THROUGH A NETWORK OF PIPES. THE WATER
    PERCOLATED BY THE CISTERN (EQUAL TO THE VOLUME OF
    THE CISTERN) ADDS TO THE GROUNDWATER. TYHIS
    SATURATES THE SOIL AND THUS RECHARGES THE RIVER
    THROUGH UPWARD CAPILLARY ACTION.
  • THE PARKING AREA IS SLOPED TOWARD THE RIVER.
    TREES WITH CRESCENT SHAPED LANDSCAPE HOLDING
    AREA.

THE DESIGN
20
  • A LANDSCAPED AREA HAS BEEN DEVELOPED IN THE AREA
    WHICH UTILIZES THE WASTE WATER FROM THE BUILT UP
    AREA. THE WASTE WATER IS FILTERED THROUGH A
    FILTER TANK ABOVE GROUND.
  • THE WATER CHANNEL THUS FLOWS AND ADDS TO THE
    LANDSCAPE
    AESTHETICS, ULTIMATELY FLOWING INTO THE RIVER.

THE PLAN OF THE SITE IS ENCLOSED IN A DRAWING
THE DESIGN
21
THE CENTRAL O.A.T.
THE DESIGN
22
EFFICIENCY OF THE DESIGN
  • WITH RESPECT TO WATER SUPPLY
  • quality of the water supply will improve
  • there is scope of equal distribution and also
    bulk supply is a boon
  • it will add to the existing water transmission
    system
  • there are reduced health risks due to better
    quality monitoring.
  • it is cost efficient as traditional methods of
    purification have been inculcated. this would
    ensure that the system is pocket- friendly for
    the poor.
  • WITH RESPECT TO ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  • REDUCED POLLUTION AND CONTAMINATION OF RIVER
    YAMUNA
  • BETTER CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
    ISSUES DUE TO EFFECTIVE MONITORING

THE DESIGN
23
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • 1. CASE STUDIES
  • Traditional Water Management Systems of India
  • Edited by
  • Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty
  • Gyani Lal Badam
  • Vijay Paranjpye
  • b. www.rainharvesting.org
  • 2. DELHI JAL BOARD
  • 3. INTERNET BASED SEARCH
  • www.indiawaterportal.org
  • www.rainharvesting.org
  • Google search

24
THANK YOU
-BY SAKSHI JAIN , SURUCHI SHAH
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